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Dynamics of Machinery

2. Inertia Forces

Crank Effort

The driving force acting on the piston is termed as piston effort. In a vertical cylinder IC engine, following three types of forces act:

a. Gas Force. The force due to variation of working fluid pressure is known as gas force, or Gas force

F g =

πD 2

4

Where

× p

 D = diameter of the piston and p = gas pressure

(1)

b. Inertia force. In an IC engine, during the first half of the stroke, the reciprocating mass accelerates and the inertia force tends to resist the motion. Thus the net force on the piston is decreased. However, during the second half of the stroke, the reciprocating mass decelerate and inertia force opposes this deceleration. Thus it increases the effective force on the piston. The inertia force of the piston is given as (2)

c. Weight of the reciprocating mass. The weight of reciprocating mass assists the

piston during its movement towards bottom dead centre (BDC). Therefore, piston effort is increased by an amount equal to the weight of the piston. However, when the

piston moves towards top dead centre (TDC), the piston effort is decreased by the same amount.

Net piston effort: P = Fg + Fi W

(3) Figure 1. Forces acting on a slider crank mechanism

Dynamics of Machinery

In IC engine mechanism, the gudgeon pin, which connects piston and connecting rod, is in equilibrium under the action of the following three forces:

 (i) Piston effort P. (ii) Axial force in the connecting rod F c .

(iii) Reaction thrust on cylinder surface F r Geometrically, the axial force in connecting rod and the thrust on cylinder surface can be

expressed in terms of piston effort P and obliquity angle as given below.

F c = P/cos , F r = P tan , where l x sin = r x sin or = sin 1 { sin }

Referring to Figure 1, a force F a = equal and opposite to axial force F c in connecting rod acts on crank pin B. This force can be resolved into two components:

i. A force acting along the crank, called radial force F cr .

F cr = F c cos (+ )

(4)

ii. A force acting perpendicular to the crank OB. This force constitutes a driving torque which is called crank effort.

F ct = F c sin (+ )

Therefore crank effort is given by: (5)

(6)

Dynamics of Machinery

Graphically, the crank effort or torque can be expressed as Figure 2

T = P x distance OY

Where OY is the distance measured between centre of crank and a point of intersection of Y axis and extension of connecting rod P 2 B (as shown in figure 2). The crank effort is a function of piston effort P and crank rotation angle. Further, the piston effort is also a function of crank angle . The diagram showing the crank effort or torque as a function of crank rotation angle for any reciprocating engine is called crank-effort diagram or turning moment diagram. The turning moment diagram of any engine can be plotted if the gas pressure p is known for all positions of the crank. The value of gas pressure can be found from a given pressure-volume (P-V) diagram (Figure 3). Using these pressure values, gas forces can be computed and plotted as shown in Figure 4. Further, the variation of inertia force due to mass of reciprocating parts can be plotted as shown in Figure 5 with dashed line. Referring to Figure 5 and Eq. (5), we can calculate crank effort or turning moment at different position of crank. Figure 3. P-V diagram of petrol engine

Dynamics of Machinery Figure 4. Variation of gas force and inertia force Figure 5. Variation of piston effort

T= piston effort x OY

Where OY is the crank effort arm length. The variation in crank effort arm length for different crank position is shown in figure 6. Finally the turning moment diagram is shown in figure 7.

A close look at the turning moment diagram (Figure 7) shows that torque T is entirely positive in expansion stroke of engine whereas in suction, compression and exhaust strokes, it is negative. This indicates that in these strokes, power is consumed. Thus there is large variation of torque which may cause fluctuation of speed. Figure 6. Variation of crank effort arm length

Dynamics of Machinery Figure 7. Turning moment diagram Figure 8. Turning moment diagram for a multicylinder engine.

In multi-cylinder engine, the turning moment diagram of each cylinder is obtained separately and they are superimposed over each other with starting point shifted to phase difference of angle between respective crank positions. A typical turning moment diagram of multi-cylinder engine is shown in figure 8.

Flywheel

A flywheel is an inertial energy storage device. It absorbs mechanical energy and serves as a reservoir, storing energy during the period when the supply of energy is more than the requirement and releases it during the period when the requirement of energy is more than the supply. The main function of a fly wheel is to smoothen out variations in the speed of a shaft caused by torque fluctuations. If the source of the driving torque or load torque is fluctuating in nature, then a flywheel is generally used. Many machines have load patterns that cause the torque time function to vary over the cycle. Internal combustion engines with one or two cylinders are a typical example. Piston compressors, punch presses, rock crushers etc. are the other systems that have flywheel. Flywheel absorbs mechanical energy by increasing its

Dynamics of Machinery

angular velocity and delivers the stored energy by decreasing its velocity.

Types of Flywheel

Generally, three types of flywheel disc type, web type and arm type are most commonly used (Figure 11).  Figure 11. Types of Flywheel When an engine supplies power to drive a machinery, the resisting torque offered by the driven member is normally constant, whereas the torque developed by the driving member fluctuates throughout the working cycle, due to i) the variations in crank position, ii) pressure inside the cylinder and iii) the inertia force on the piston.

A plot of torque vs. crank angle or turning moment diagram of a multi cylinder engine is shown in the figure 12. The product of T and is the work done and hence the area under the curve represents work done per cycle, while the horizontal line AE represents the mean engine torque which also represents constant resisting torque due to the driven member.

Dynamics of Machinery

When the crank rotates from A to B, work done by the turning moment is represented by

the area A APBB while the work required to overcome the resisting moment is the area A ABB . Thus the engine has thus done more work than has been taken from it. The speed

of crankshaft increases when crank moves from A to B . Similarly when crankshaft moves

from B to C , engine torque is less than resisting torque and hence speeds of the crank shaft decreases. Figure 12. Turning moment diagram of a multi cylinder engine

Fluctuation of energy

A flywheel is used to control the variations in speed during each cycle of an engine. A

flywheel of suitable dimensions attached to the crankshaft, makes the moment of inertia of rotating parts quite large and thereby it acts as a reservoir of energy. During the periods when the supply of energy is more than required, it stores energy and during the period

when the supply is less than required, it releases the energy. The difference between maximum and minimum kinetic energies of flywheel is known as maximum fluctuation of energy, E f .

(E f ):

Coefficient of Fluctuation of energy (K e ):

Ratio of maximum fluctuation of energy and work done per cycle is known as coefficient of fluctuation of energy.

K e = Max. fluctuation of energy / work done per cycle.

Therefore K e = E f

E

Workdone / cycle = T mean x

where T mean = Mean torque and = angle turned by the crank in radians.

Also Workdone per cycle is given: = P x 60,000/N

where P = Power in KW and N is in rpm.

Dynamics of Machinery

Coefficient of Fluctuation of speed (Ks):

The difference between the greatest and the least angular speeds of the flywheel is called the maximum fluctuation of speed and the ratio of greater fluctuation of speed per cycle to the mean speed is called Coefficient of fluctuation of speed.    Dynamics of Machinery

Problem 1. A multi-cylinder engine runs at a speed of 1500 rpm. The turning moment diagram repeats itself for every revolution of the crankshaft. The scale of the turning moment is 1 cm = 6,000 N-m and the crank angle is plotted to a scale of 1cm = 60°. The areas below and above the mean turning moment line, taken in order are as follows:

- 0.3, + 4.1, - 2.8, + 3.2, - 3.3, + 2.5, - 2.6, + 2.8 and -3.6 cm 2 . Find out the fluctuation of energy. Also find out the coefficient of fluctuation of speed if the weight of the rotating parts is 5000 N, and the radius of gyration is 0.2 m.

Ans: (E f = 28,274 N/m

and K s = 0.056 or 5.6 )

Problem 2. The turning moment diagrams for a 4 stroke cycle gas engine may be assumed to be represented by four rectangles, the areas of which are measured from the line of zero pressure are as follows. Expansion stroke = 8.5 cm 2 , Exhaust = 0.8 cm 2 , suction = 0.7 cm 2 , Compression = 2.2 cm 2 . Assuming the resisting torque to be uniform, find the weight of the rim of the wheel required to keep the speed between 116 & 124 rpm. Assume that mean radius of the rim = 1m & each cm 2 of area of the diagram represents 150 N-m of energy.

Ans: (Net work done per cycle = 720 N-m; Ef = 1095 Nm; W = 1020 N)

Problem 3. A single cylinder, single acting 4 stroke cycle gas engine has a piston diameter of 33 cm & a stroke of 60 cm. Mean speed = 200 rpm. Mean pressures in the cylinder above atmosphere are as follows:

Suction stroke = 0.7N/cm 2 below atmosphere, Compressions stroke = 20 N/cm 2 , Expansion stroke = 70 N/cm 2 , Exhaust stroke = 1.4 N/cm 2 . Assuming constant resistance and minimum and maximum speed to occur at the beginning and end of expansion stroke, determine the moment of inertia of flywheel if total fluctuation of speed is not to exceed 1% of mean speed. Find also the drop in speed which will then occur during a cycle in which there is no admission.

Ans: ( Work done during power stroke = 35,922 Nm; Work expended during suction, compression & exhaust strokes = 11,314 Nm; Net work done = 24,581Nm; E f = 29,776 Nm; I= 6798 Nms 2 ; Drop in speed is 2 rpm)

Flywheel of a Punching Press:

Formulas Used: Dynamics of Machinery  Problem 4. A machine is required to punch 4 holes of 4 cm diameter in a plate of 3 cm thickness, per minute. The work required is 700 N-m/cm 2 of sheared area. The punch has a stroke of 10 cm. Maximum speed of flywheel at its radius of gyration is 30 m/s. Find the weight of flywheel if speed should not fall below 28 m/s at the radius of gyration. Also find the power of the motor.

Ans: (Work required /punching (W p ) = (   d t X ) Nm = 26,390 Nm (Where X = work required per cm 2 of sheared area; Power = 1.76 KW; E f = 22,431 Nm; Weight of the flywheel (W) = 3793 N)

Problem 5. Find weight of flywheel needed by a machine to punch 22 mm holes in 18 mm steel plates. The machine is to make 30 rev per minute and is to be capable of punching a hole every revolution. The hole is to be formed during 30° of rotation of crankshaft of the punch. The crank shaft is to be connected to the fly wheel shaft by a gear train of 12:1 ratio so that the maximum rpm of flywheel will be 12 times that of the machine. Assume mechanical efficiency to be 85%. Minimum speed of flywheel is to be 90% of the maximum.

Dynamics of Machinery

Mean diameter of flywheel rim is 1 m. Ultimate shear strength of the plate is 35,000 N/cm 2 .

Ans: (Work required / punching (W p ) = ½ P t; = ½    d t   u t =3918 Nm; Since mechanical efficiency is 85, therefore W max (Punching) = 4610 Nm; Power = 2.3 KW; E f = 4226 Nm; Maximum speed of flywheel = 360 rpm; V max = 18.84 m/s; V min = 16.9 m/s; Weight of flywheel, W = 1196 N)