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Emerging communication technologies

enabling the Internet of Things (IoT)

AK EMARIEVBE
PRODUCT MANAGER
Mobile Radio Communication Testers

Smart Testing
for a smart world
IoT the Trillion Dollar Opportunity for the industry
M2M Communication Modules are just an enabler of the IoT
Number of shipped Internet of Things connected Devices Revenue Opportunities

Transport (Mobility)
$1.0T Hardware

Body (Health) $0.8T Network


Services
+ 25% CAGR $0.6T
Cities (Industry)
$0.4T
Managed
Buildings (Infrastr.) Services
$0.2T

Home (Consumer) $0.0T


2020

Source Habor Research IoT market forecast https://s3.amazonaws.com/postscapes/IoT-Harbor-Postscapes-Infographic.pdf

Emerging Technologies for IoT 2


Machines are different!
Diverse communication requirements

Ultra Low Large # Reliable


Power of devices & Secure ..
Global Spontan Delay
Coverage Communication Sensitive 3GPPMTC: CN Overload Control
& Mobility (<10 ms) 3GPPMTC: Signalling Reduction
GSMA: White SIMs

Time
Limited Periodic Delay ETSI: M2M Service Layer
Controlled
Mobility Communication Tolerant Weightless: ZeroG
(< 15 min)
Machine Small Data WiFi: 802.11p (Car2C)
Low cost Originated Transmission
Only WiFi: 802.11ah (<1GHz)
WiFi: 802.11ad (60 GHz)

Emerging Technologies for IoT 3


M2M Communication has become vital in several industries

Wearables Smart Homes Smart Cities Healthcare Automotive

Smart Buildings Asset Tracking Retail Agriculture ..

Emerging Technologies for IoT 4


A bunch of communication technologies connecting
Billions of Devices to the Internet of Things (IoT)
Wireless PAN/LAN
Bluetooth, Zigbee, Thread, WiFi

Wireless WAN (2G/3G/4G)


GSM, CDMA, UMTS, LTE

>20 Billion
Low Power WAN
Sigfox, Weighless, LoRa, NB-IoT

OTHER technologies
Satellite, DSL, Fiber, PLC

Emerging Technologies for IoT 5


The majority of devices building the Internet of Things
will use wireless technologies in un-licensed frequency bands
Sigfox
LoRa
Weightless Cellular
(2G/3G/4G/5G)
NB-IoT
Smart Cities Smart Homes
802.11 ah
WiFi
Range

ZigBee 802.11 a/b/g/n/ac


Thread
Z-Wave
ANT+
WI-SUN
Bluetooth
802.11ad
Wearables NFC Automotive

Data Rate

Emerging Technologies for IoT 6


Bluetooth will dominate the IoT market for Wearables with BLE
and will enter the smart home market with Smart Mesh in 2016
Forecast of Bluetooth shipments
While the power-efficiency of
Bluetooth Smart makes it perfect for
4.0 Bn devices needing to run off a tiny
battery for long periods, the magic of
Bluetooth Smart is its ability to work
3.0 Bn with an application on the smartphone
e.g. phones
or tablet.
2.0 Bn With introducing Bluetooth Smart
Mesh the smart home/building market
e.g. beacons should be addressed as well. Smart
1.0 Bn Mesh enables smart locks, lights,
HVAC systems, and even appliances
CLASSIC
e.g. wearables work together to deliver a seamless
0.0 Bn smart home
2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Source: ABI Research

Emerging Technologies for IoT 7


For 2016 the Bluetooth SIG focuses on enhancements
for the Internet of Things (IoT)

Mesh Speed Gateway


building meshed network 100% improvement for Connecting devices
using relay nodes low latency applications directly to the cloud

Range Direction
4x range to cover a Extended capabilities of
smart home or office beacons for positioning

Emerging Technologies for IoT 8


Bluetooth Classic and Bluetooth Smart

2.4 GHz ISM band


1 Msymbol/s using GFSK modulation
EDR: Data modultation /4-DQPSK / 8DPSK
voice
79 Channels on 1 MHz spacing
Frequency Hopping (1600 hops/s)
Bluetooth Classic (BR+EDR) Voice support
FEC

2.4 GHz ISM band


1 Msymbol/s using GFSK modulation
40 Channels on 2 MHz spacing
3 advertising channel
Frequency Hopping (37 channel) text
Bluetooth Smart (BLE) CRC

2 400 2 420 2 440 2 460 2 480 MHz

Emerging Technologies for IoT 9


Wi-Fi adoption beyond Local Area Networks
50-60 GHz; 1.08 GHz; Beams

60 GHz; 2.16 GHz; Beams aj


Room/Desk
ad
60 GHz; 8.64 GHz; Beams Area Network
ay
1.6 GHz; 160MHz; OFDMA, MU-MIMO

5 GHz; 80MHz; SU-MIMO 5 GHz; 160MHz; MU-MIMO ax


ac1 ac2 Local Area
Networks
TVWS; 6,7,8 MHz

af
<1GHz; 1,2, (4,8,16) MHz
M2M& IoT
ah
BAN/PAN/RAN
5.9 GHz; 10MHz

p Vehicle Networks

Emerging Technologies for IoT 10


Wi-Fi is used for several IoT applications, especially
in smart home and smart office environment today
802.11a 802.11b 802.11g 802.11n
Frequency 5 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.4/5GHz
Channel bandwidth 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz, 40 MHz
Spatial streams 1 1 1 1,2,3,4
Max. Data rate 54 Mbps 11 Mbps 54 Mbps 600 Mbps
MAC CSMA/CA CSMA/CA CSMA/CA CSMA/CA
System OFDM DSSS OFDM, DSSS OFDM, OFDMA
Duplex TDD TDD TDD TDD
Max. Power 1W 1W 1W 1W
(typ.) (100 mW) (100 mW) (100 mW) (100 mW)
Modulation BPSK, QPSK, CCK CCK, BPSK, QPSK, BPSK, QPSK,
16QAM, 64QAM 16QAM, 64QAM 16QAM, 64QAM

Emerging Technologies for IoT 11


Wi-Fi HaLow
New technology will extend Wi-Fi solutions for the Internet of Things Wi-Fi Alliance (Jan.2016)
Long range Low power Large number High throughput Greenfield
operation consumption of devices per compared to operation
access point e.g. ZigBee

Sensor Networks Home Security Wearables Range extension Smart Metering

Emerging Technologies for IoT 12


Operates in sub 1 GHz license-exempt bands
Support of 1 & 2 MHz channels is mandatory
11111111111111111111111111
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1111 1111111111 4MHz 4 MHz 4 MHz 4 MHz 4 MHz 4 MHz
2 2 2 2 8 MHz 8 MHz 8 MHz
4 MHz 4 MHz 16 MHz
US 8 MHz 902 928 MHz
11111
China 614 787 MHz
2 2 900 MHz
Europe 863 868 MHz 11111111111

916.5 927.5 MHz 2.4 GHz


Japan
917.5 923.5 MHz
Korea 5 Ghz

Singapore 866 869 920 925 MHz

800 MHz 900 MHz 1 GHz

Emerging Technologies for IoT 13


802.11ah in a nutshell - Wi-Fi HaLow
scalable - long range - low power network
802.11ah PHYLayer
802.11ah PHY Layer
Operates in sub 1 GHz license-exempt bands
Essentially 10-times down-clocked version of 802.11ac (max. data rate 340 Mbps)
Defines 2 MHz, 4 MHz, 8 MHz, and 16 MHz channels and a 1 MHz channel for extended coverage
For 2 MHz modes, the PHY layer is exactly designed based on 10 times down-clocking of 802.11acs
PHY layer: techniques like OFDM, MIMO, DL MU-MIMO, MCSs have been adopted
1 MHz channel supports additional scheme for extend transmission range by 2x symbol repetition (MCS10)

802.11ah MAC Layer


802.11ah MAC Layer
Support large number of stations ( 8191) by introducing an hierarchical AID structure
Power saving mode optimized for a large number of stations in power saving mode
Improved channel access mechanisms by introducing Target Wakeup Times (TWT) and restricted access
windows (RAW)
Throughput enhancements by reducing protocol overhead

Emerging Technologies for IoT 14


802.15.4 for smart home , smart buildings and more

ZigBee - Protocol Protocol (e.g. CoAP) ISA Protocol HART: Protocol

ZigBee - Transport UDP/TCP UDP HART: TCP like

ZigBee - Networking 6LoWPAN, DTLS,


Distance Vector Routing 6LoWPAN HART Addressing/Routing

802.15.4 MAC 802.15.4 MAC Upper data link ISA100 HART TDMA - hoping
802.15.4 MAC
IEEE 802.15.4 IEEE 802.15.4 IEEE 802.15.4 IEEE 802.15.4
2.4 GHz O-QPSK 2.4 GHz O-QPSK 2.4 GHz O-QPSK 2.4 GHz O-QPSK

Emerging Technologies for IoT 18


ZigBee Technology Facts
Reliable, Low Power, Cost Effective
Applications Meshed Network of thousands of devices

ZigBee Application Layer Coordinator

ZigBee Network Layer


Router

IEEE 802.15.4 MAC


End Device

IEEE 802.15.4 IEEE 802.15.4


868/915 MHz 2400 MHz

868 MHz/1Ch.; Europe 915 MHz/10 Ch.; Americas; 2.4 GHz/16 Ch.; World; OQPSK; 250 kbps
BPSK 20kbps BPSK 40kbps

868.3 MHz 906 MHz 924 MHz 2405 MHz 2480 MHz

Emerging Technologies for IoT 21


Low Power Wide Area Networks:
Low cost, battery powered devices and strong propagation
Forecast of Low Power WAN connected Devices
4 Bn
Industrial
Utilities
3 Bn
Smart Buildings

2 Bn
Smart Cities
Agriculture
1 Bn
Consumer
Logistics
0 Bn
2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
Source: Analysys Mason 2015

Emerging Technologies for IoT 22


The new kids on the block LP-WAN (unlicensed)

Sigfox LoRa Weightless-N RPMA


Frequency 868 MHz (ETSI) 868 MHz (ETSI) 868 MHz (ETSI)
Bands 915 MHz (FCC) 915 MHz (FCC) 915 MHz (FCC)
2 400 MHz 2 400 MHz
Ultra Narrow Band FM chirped Ultra Narrow Band Random Phase
Technology
DBPSK/2GSK spread spectrum DBPSK Multiple Access
Single channel 100 Hz/ 600 Hz 125/250/500 kHz 200 Hz 1 MHz
Driver Sigfox Semtech nWave Ingenu
Signal Range 621 miles 12.4 miles 2KM 300 square miles
Data Rates 624 kbit/s /
100bps 50Kpbs ~2.5kbps 16Mbps
(UL/DL) 156 kbits/s

Emerging Technologies for IoT 23


Move to LTE in order to ensure long-term availability
and to address more IoT applications with LTE-M & NB-IOT
Number of cellular M2M Connections I Cellular M2M connectivity still
dominated by 2/3G
3,5 Bn 3,2 Bn technologies
3,0 Bn I Increasing global 4G coverage
LPWA
2,5 Bn makes LTE to an attractive
alternative to 2G/3G especially
2,0 Bn
4G considering the long term
1,5 Bn perspective of 2G networks.
1,0 Bn 3G I Availability of M2M optimized
LTE only chipsets
0,5 Bn
2G I LTE-M and NB-IOT opens
0,0 Bn opportunities in new markets
2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Source Cisco VNI Mobile 2016

Emerging Technologies for IoT 30


3GPP IoT standardization on the way to 5G
Rel. 8 Rel. 9 Rel.10 Rel.11 Rel. 12 Rel. 13
LTE Cat-1
20 MHz/duplex

LC-LTE/MTCe
LTE-MTC NIMTC SIMTC CAT-0, PSM
20 MHz/half-duplex

eMTC
Cat-M1, eDRX, CE
1.4 MHz/half-duplex

NB-cIoT NB-IoT mMTC


LP-WAN
NB-LTE
+ Cat-M2, eDRX
200 kHz

GSM-MTC NIMTC SIMTC


EC-GSM-IoT
incl. eDRX

Emerging Technologies for IoT 31


Rel. 12: New Category 0 for low complexity UEs

Cat 1 (Rel-8) Cat-0 (Rel-12)*


Peak rate reduction to 1Mbps in DL and UL
Downlink Peak Rate 10 Mbps 1 Mbps
One Rx/Tx antenna only (single RF Chain)
Uplink Peak Rate 5 Mbps 1 Mbps
New half-duplex (HD) FDD operation
UE RF Chains 2 1 (type B**) with adapted guard period
Duplex Mode Full duplex Half duplex (opt)
1 oscillator
UE Receiver bandwidth 20 MHz 20 MHz
Reduced maximum TBS for PMCH
Max UE Transmit Power 23 dBm 23 dBm
Reduced number of soft buffer bits
# soft channel bits 250 368 25 344
No support of 64 QAM UL
max TBS for PMCH 10 296 4 584
MIMO Layer 1 1
Highest DL Modulation 64QAM 64QAM
Highest UL Modulation 16QAM 16QAM

Emerging Technologies for IoT 33


Rel. 12: Power saving mode
for UE that can accept long latency for terminating data
PSM Mode: UE remains registered with the network and there is no need to re-attach or re-establish PDN
connections saves power, but UE isnt reachable in PSM Node
RRC Connection Release
relative power consum.

T T Data
A DRX Cycle (1-2 sec) A
U U

Idle Power Saving Mode (PSM) Idle PSM Idle


T3324 T3324
T3412 (TA Update Timer) UE data
available

UE request an Active Time value (T3324) during every Attach / TAU Request.
Network confirms usage of PSM by allocating an Active Time value to the UE

Emerging Technologies for IoT 34


Rel.13: NB-IoT even more streamlined than cat-M1
Objectives
Improved indoor coverage: extended coverage of 20 dB
Support of massive number of low throughput devices
e.g. 40 MTC devices per household
Reduced complexity
Things that cost less than a 2G device
Improved power efficiency: more than 10 years battery life time
Relaxed Delay characteristics: ~10 sec.

Smart Parking Smart Bike Smart Suitcase Sensor Networks Agriculture Sensor

Emerging Technologies for IoT 38


Rel 13: Narrowband-IoT (standardization ongoing)
The Uplink and Downlink total transmission bandwidth is 180 kHz
Downlink: OFDM with 15 kHz sub-carrier spacing
Same subcarrier spacing, OFDM symbol duration, slot format, slot duration,
and subframe duration as LTE
Uplink: SC-FDMA with 3.75 kHz and 15 kHz for single-tone transmissions and
optional multi-tone transmissions with 15 kHz subcarrier spacing
Only FDD in half-duplex mode (analog to UE cat.0 half-duplex TypeB),
Only mobility in IDLE mode is supported
In-Band Operation Guard-band Operation Standalone operation
NB-IoT

NB-IoT

NB-IoT

NB-IoT
LTE Carrier LTE Carrier e.g. GSM Carriers
MTC features like Power Save Mode (PSM), extended DRX (eDRX) cycle are valid

Emerging Technologies for IoT 39


A handfull 3GPP offerings to adress the growing IoT market
LTE-Cat 1 LTE-Cat 0 LTE-Cat M 1 NB-IoT EC-GSM-IoT
Deployment In-Band LTE
In-band LTE In-Band LTE In-band LTE Guard-Band LTE In-band GSM
Standalone
Downlink OFDMA OFDMA OFDMA OFDMA
TDMA/FDMA
[15 kHz] [15 KHz] [15 kHz] [15kHz]

Uplink SC-FDMA SC-FDMA SC-FDMA Single Tone


TDMA/FDMA
[15 kHz] [15 kHz] [15 kHz] [15/3.75 kHz]

Peak Rate DL:10 Mbps DL: 1 Mbps DL: 1 Mbps UL: 250 kbps UL: 70/240 kbps
UL: 5 Mbps UL: 1 Mbps UL: 1 Mbps DL: 20 kbps DL: 70/240 kbps

UE receiver BW 20 MHz 20 MHz 1.4 MHz 200 kHz 200 kHz

Duplex Mode Full-Duplex Half-Duplex Half-Duplex Half-Duplex Half-Duplex

Max UE
23 dBm 23 dBm 23 or 20 dBm 23 dBm 33 dBm or 23 dBm
transmit power
Power saving PSM, eDRX PSM, eDRX PSM, eDRX PSM, eDRX PSM, eDRX

Emerging Technologies for IoT 40


5G Networks will enable the Internet the of Things of the future

Mobile broadband Dense crowd of users


Very high
data rate

Mobility Very high


capacity

Massive
number of Reliability,
mMTC devices resilience, URLCC
security

Long battery Very low


lifetime latency
IoT sensor network IoT control network

Emerging Technologies for IoT 41


Emerging Technologies for IoT 42