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ENGG1050 Problem Set 10: Rankine cycle and ideal vapour

compression refrigeration cycle

Solutions
1. We would reject this proposal because wturb = h1 - h2 - qout, and any heat loss from the steam will adversely
affect the turbine work output.
2. Yes, because the saturation temperature of steam at 10 kPa is 45.81C, which is much higher than the
temperature of the cooling water.
3. THIS IS THE BRITISH UNITS EQUIVALENT. CROSS CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
A steam power plant that operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle between the specified pressure limits is
considered. The minimum turbine inlet temperature, the rate of heat input in the boiler, and the thermal
efficiency of the cycle are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist.
2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are T
negligible.
Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4E,
3
A-5E, and A-6E), 1250 psia
h1 = h f @ 2 psia = 94.02 Btu/lbm Q

in
2
v1 = v f @ 2 psia = 0.01623 ft 3/lbm
2 psia
w p ,in = v1 (P2 P1 ) 1
Qout 4

( ) x4 = 0.9
= 0.01623 ft 3/lbm (1250 2 psia )
1 Btu

3 s
5.4039 psia ft
= 3.75 Btu/lbm
h2 = h1 + w p ,in = 94.02 + 3.75 = 97.77 Btu/lbm
h4 = h f + x 4 h fg = 94.02 + (0.9)(1021.7 ) = 1013.6 Btu/lbm
s 4 = s f + x 4 s fg = 0.17499 + (0.9)(1.74444 ) = 1.7450 Btu/lbm R

P3 = 1250 psia h3 = 1693.4 Btu/lbm



s3 = s 4 T3 = 1337F
(b) Q& in = m& (h3 h2 ) = (75 lbm/s)(1693.4 97.77 ) = 119,672 Btu/s
(c) Q& out = m& (h4 h1 ) = (75 lbm/s)(1013.6 94.02) = 68,967 Btu/s
Q& 68,967 Btu/s
th = 1 out = 1 = 42.4%
&
Qin 119,672 Btu/s

4. THIS IS THE BRITISH UNITS EQUIVALENT. CROSS CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.


A steam power plant operates on a simple nonideal Rankine cycle between the specified pressure limits.
The minimum turbine inlet temperature, the rate of heat input in the boiler, and the thermal efficiency of
the cycle are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic
and potential energy changes are negligible.
Analysis (a) From the steam tables (Tables A-4E, A-5E,
and A-6E),

ENGG1050 Problem Set 10: Solutions - Semester 1 2006 1


h1 = h f @ 2 psia = 94.02 Btu/lbm T

v 1 = v f @ 2 psia = 0.01623 ft 3 /lbm


3
w p ,in = v 1 (P2 P1 ) / P 1250 psia

( )
= 0.01623 ft 3 /lbm (1250 2 psia )
1 Btu / 0.85 2 Qin
5.4039 psia ft 3 2s
= 4.41 Btu/lbm
2 psia
h2 = h1 + w p ,in = 94.02 + 4.41 = 98.43 Btu/lbm 1 4s 4
Qout
h4 = h f + x 4 h fg = 94.02 + (0.9)(1021.7 ) = 1013.6 Btu/lbm x4 = 0.9
s
s 4 = s f + x 4 s fg = 0.17499 + (0.9)(1.74444 ) = 1.7450 Btu/lbm R
The turbine inlet temperature is determined by trial and error ,
P3 = 1250 psia h3 = 1439.0 Btu/lbm
Try 1:
T3 = 900F s 3 = 1.5826 Btu/lbm.R
s 4s s f s3 s f 1.5826 0.17499
x4s = = = = 0.8069
s fg s fg 1.74444
h4 s = h f + x 4 s h fg = 94.02 + (0.8069 )(1021.7 ) = 918.4 Btu/lbm
h3 h4 1439.0 1013.6
T = = = 0.8171
h3 h4 s 1439.0 918.4
P3 = 1250 psia h3 = 1498.6 Btu/lbm
Try 2:
T3 = 1000F s 3 = 1.6249 Btu/lbm.R
s4s s f s3 s f 1.6249 0.17499
x4s = = = = 0.8312
s fg s fg 1.74444
h4 s = h f + x 4 s h fg = 94.02 + (0.8312)(1021.7 ) = 943.3 Btu/lbm
h3 h4 1498.6 1013.6
T = = = 0.8734
h3 h4 s 1498.6 943.3
By linear interpolation, at T = 0.85 we obtain T3 = 958.4F. This is approximate. We can determine state 3
exactly using EES software with these results: T3 = 955.7F, h3 = 1472.5 Btu/lbm.
(b) Q& = m& (h h ) = (75 lbm/s )(1472.5 98.43) = 103,055 Btu/s
in 3 2

(c) Q& out = m& (h4 h1 ) = (75 lbm/s )(1013.6 94.02 ) = 68,969 Btu/s
Q& 68,969 Btu/s
th = 1 out = 1 = 33.1%
Q& in 103,055 Btu/s

5. Moisture content remains the same, everything else decreases.


6. 10-7C Allowing a temperature difference of 10C for effective heat transfer, the condensation temperature
of the refrigerant should be 25C. The saturation pressure corresponding to 25C is 0.67 MPa. Therefore,
the recommended pressure would be 0.7MPa.
7. An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered.
The rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, the power input to the compressor, the rate of heat
rejection to the environment, and the COP are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.
Analysis (a) In an ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, the compression process is isentropic, the
refrigerant enters the compressor as a saturated vapor at the evaporator pressure, and leaves the condenser
as saturated liquid at the condenser pressure. From the refrigerant tables (Tables A-12 and A-13),

ENGG1050 Problem Set 10: Solutions - Semester 1 2006 2


P1 = 120 kPa h1 = h g @ 120 kPa = 236.97 kJ/kg
s = s T
sat. vapor 1 g @ 120 kPa = 0.94779 kJ/kg K

P2 = 0.9 MPa
h2 = 278.93 kJ/kg (T2 = 44.45C )
QH 2
s 2 = s1 3 0.9 MPa
Win
P3 = 0.9 MPa
h3 = h f @ 0.9 MPa = 101.61 kJ/kg
sat. liquid
0.12 MPa
h4 h3 = 101.61 kJ/kg (throttling ) 1
4s 4
Then the rate of heat removal from the QL
refrigerated space and the power input to the s
compressor are determined from
Q& = m& (h h ) = (0.05 kg/s )(236.97 101.61) kJ/kg = 6.77 kW
L 1 4
and
W& in = m& (h2 h1 ) = (0.05 kg/s )(278.93 236.97 ) kJ/kg = 2.10 kW
(b) The rate of heat rejection to the environment is determined from
Q& = Q& + W& = 6.77 + 2.10 = 8.87 kW
H L in
(c) The COP of the refrigerator is determined from its definition,
Q& 6.77 kW
COPR = L = = 3.23
&
Win 2.10 kW

8. An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered.
The throttling valve in the cycle is replaced by an isentropic turbine. The percentage increase in the COP
and in the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space due to this replacement are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.
Analysis If the throttling valve in the previous problem is replaced by an isentropic turbine, we would have
s4s = s3 = sf @ 0.7 MPa = 0.33230 kJ/kgK, and the enthalpy at the turbine exit would be
s3 s f 0.33230 0.09275
x4s = = = 0.2802
s fg 0.85503
@ 120 kPa T
(
h4 s = h f + x 4 s h fg )@ 120 kPa = 22.49 + (0.2802)(214.48) = 82.58 kJ/kg
QH 2
Then, Q& L = m& (h1 h4 s ) = (0.05 kg/s )(236.97 82.58) kJ/kg = 7.72 kW 3 0.7 MPa
Win
Q& 7.72 kW
and COPR = L = = 4.23
W& 1.83 kW
in
0.12 MPa
Then the percentage increase in Q& and COP becomes 1
4s 4
Q& L 7.72 7.41 QL
Increase in Q& L = = = 4.2%
Q& L 7.41 s

COPR 4.23 4.06


Increase in COPR = = = 4.2%
COPR 4.06

9. A refrigerator with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. The rate of heat removal from the
refrigerated space, the power input to the compressor, the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, and the
COP of the refrigerator are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Steady operating conditions exist. 2 Kinetic and potential energy changes are negligible.
Analysis (a) From the refrigerant tables (Tables A-12 and A-13),

ENGG1050 Problem Set 10: Solutions - Semester 1 2006 3


P1 = 0.14 MPa h1 = 246.36 kJ/kg
T1 = 10C s = 0.97236 kJ/kg K
1 T 2 0.7 MPa
0.65 MPa 2s 50C
P2 = 0.7 MPa 24C
T2 = 50C h2 = 288.53 kJ/kg QH
Win
P2 s = 0.7 MPa 3
h2 s = 281.16 kJ/kg
s 2 s = s1
P3 = 0.65 MPa 0.15 MPa 0.14 MPa
T3 = 24C h3 = h f @ 24C = 84.98 kJ/kg 1 -10C
4
QL
h4 h3 = 84.98 kJ/kg (throttling ) s
Then the rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and
the power input to the compressor are determined from
Q& L = m& (h1 h4 ) = (0.12 kg/s )(246.36 84.98) kJ/kg = 19.4 kW
and
W& in = m& (h2 h1 ) = (0.12 kg/s )(288.53 246.36) kJ/kg = 5.06 kW
(b) The adiabatic efficiency of the compressor is determined from
h h 281.16 246.36
C = 2 s 1 = = 82.5%
h2 h1 288.53 246.36
(c) The COP of the refrigerator is determined from its definition,
Q& 19.4 kW
COPR = L = = 3.83
W& in 5.06 kW

ENGG1050 Problem Set 10: Solutions - Semester 1 2006 4