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CHAPTER 1: PHYSICS FOR MEASUREMENT

Outline

- What is Physics?

- Theory & Experiment

- Matter & Model Building

- Density & Atomic Mass

- Measurements

- Basic Physical Quantities & SI Unit Used in Mechanics

- Reasonableness of Results

- Symbols

- Prefixes

- Dimension & Dimensional Analysis

- Units vs Dimensions

- Conversion of Units

- Estimated & Order-of-Magnitude Calculations

- Uncertainty in Measurements

- Significant Figures

- Precision & Accuracy

What is Physics?

= Fundamental Science which

concerned with the basic principles of the Universe which is dealing with MATTER & ENERGY

Energy can take the form of:

Energy

motion

light

electricity

gravity

and so on Physics deals with matter on scales ranging from sub- atomic particles (i.e: the particles that make up an atom) to the stars & even entire galaxies

How Physics Works? ➢ Utilizes the scientific method to formulate & test hypotheses that are

How Physics Works? Utilizes the scientific method to formulate & test hypotheses that are based on observation of the natural world

Main objective of Physics:

to find the limited number of fundamental laws that govern natural phenomena from experimental work

to use these laws to develop theories that can predict the results of

future experiments

- usually expressed in the language of mathematics, which can then be used to predict other phenomena

**So, Mathematics provides the bridge between theory & experiment

Role of Physics in Other Field of Science

In a broader sense, Physics can be seen as the most fundamental of the natural sciences

Examples:

a) Chemistry:

can be viewed as a complex application of Physics, as it focuses on the interaction of energy & matter in chemical systems

b) Biology:

an application of chemical properties in living things, which means that it is also, ultimately, ruled by the physical laws

Division of Physics:

Classical physics - classical mechanics, thermodynamics, optics & EM

Modern physics (phenomena that could not be explained by classical physics) - relativity & quantum mechanics

Theory and Experiments:

Should complement each other

When a discrepancy occurs, theory may be modified:

Theory may apply to limited conditions

E.g: Newtonian Mechanics is confined to objects traveling slowly with respect to the speed of light

Try to develop a more general theory

Matter & Model Building

Matter:

= everything around you composed of atoms & molecules anything that has mass and takes up space 5 states of matter:

that has mass and takes up space 5 states of matter: **BE – Bose Einstein Model:
that has mass and takes up space 5 states of matter: **BE – Bose Einstein Model:
that has mass and takes up space 5 states of matter: **BE – Bose Einstein Model:
that has mass and takes up space 5 states of matter: **BE – Bose Einstein Model:

**BE Bose Einstein

Model:

= a system of physical components useful when we cannot directly interact with a phenomenon can be changed can make problems easier to visualize can help to predict the behaviour of the system

– can help to predict the behaviour of the system E.g: ATOMIC MODEL (e - &
– can help to predict the behaviour of the system E.g: ATOMIC MODEL (e - &
– can help to predict the behaviour of the system E.g: ATOMIC MODEL (e - &

E.g: ATOMIC MODEL (e - & protons in an atom) -

can be used to predict the chemical and physical properties of matter based on interactions between electrons and with heat, temperature, light, etc.

properties of matter based on interactions between electrons and with heat, temperature, light, etc. Model of

Model of Matter

Modeling Technique:

Identify a system of physical components for the problem

Make predictions of the behavior of the system based on the interactions

among the components and/or the components and the environment

Density & Atomic Mass

Density (ρ):

= an example of a derived quantity Defined as: m

(ρ): = an example of a derived quantity Defined as: m   V Unit: kg/m

V

Unit: kg/m 3 3

Atomic Mass:

= total number of protons & neutrons in the element

measured in atomic mass units (u): atomic mass units (u):

1 u = 1.6605387 x 10 -27 kg

Measurements

Used to describe natural phenomena

Needs defined standards

to describe natural phenomena • Needs defined standards Basic Physical Quantities & SI Unit Used in
to describe natural phenomena • Needs defined standards Basic Physical Quantities & SI Unit Used in

Basic Physical Quantities & SI Unit Used in Mechanics

Physical quantities = a quantity that can be measured

Physical quantities = a quantity that can be measured

Basic physical quantities used:

Basic physical quantities used:

a) Length

- common instruments used to measure length:

used: a) Length - common instruments used to measure length: ➢ Metre rule – measure lengths
used: a) Length - common instruments used to measure length: ➢ Metre rule – measure lengths

Metre rule measure lengths up to 1 m

Tape measure measure lengths up to a few meters

Vernier calliper measure both internal & external diameters of objects (1 cm 10 cm)

Micrometer screw gauge measure diameters of wire @ ball bearings (<1 cm)

b) Mass - common instrument used to measure mass: mass balance

b) Mass - common instrument used to measure mass: mass balance

b) Mass - common instrument used to measure mass: mass balance

c) Time

- common instrument used to measure time:

Pendulum

Clock

Stopwatch

to measure time: ➢ Pendulum ➢ Clock ➢ Stopwatch Characteristics of standards for measurements ➢
Characteristics of standards for measurements

Characteristics of standards for measurements

Readily accessible

Possess some property that can be measured reliably

Must yield the same results when used by anyone anywhere

Cannot change with time

The need for a standard:

The need for a standard:

trade or commerce

general communications

International System of Units (SI) for the BASIC mechanic quantities :

International System of Units (SI) for the BASIC mechanic quantities:

Quantities

SI unit

Definition

Length

meter

defined in terms of distance traveled by light in a

(m)

vacuum during a given time

Mass

kilogram

defined based on a specific cylinder kept at the

(kg)

International Bureau of Standards

Time

second

defined in terms of the oscillation of radiation from a

(s)

cesium atom

All quantities other physical quantities can be derived from these basic Remember,  All measured

All

quantities

other physical

quantities can

be

derived

from

these basic

other physical quantities can be derived from these basic Remember,  All measured physical quantities have

Remember, All measured physical quantities have units. Units are VITAL in physics!!

Reasonableness of Results

***Always ask is a result is reasonable or believable??? Don't rely entirely on your calculation!

Example:

If you're working in the lab and calculate that an air track glider had a speed of 567.89 m/s, STOP! That's an ernormous speed. Something has gone wrong! Make an estimate before going through the detailed calculations.

Symbols

The symbol used in an equation is not necessarily the symbol used for its dimension Some quantities have one symbol used consistently Example: time is t virtually all the time Some quantities have many symbols used, depending upon the specific situation Example: lengths may be x, y, z, r, d, h, etc.

Prefixes

correspond to the powers of 10

Each prefix:

has a specific name

has a specific abbreviation (symbol)

can be used with any basic units

are multipliers of the base unit

E.g:

1 mm = 10 -3 m 1 mg = 10 -3 g

the base unit E.g: 1 mm = 10 - 3 m 1 mg = 10 -

Dimension & Dimensional Analysis

Dimension:

The way in which the derived quantity is related to the basic quantity can be shown by the dimensions of the quantity

In considering dimensions, we will restrict ourselves to those used in mechanics & properties of matter only

So, dimension denotes the physical nature of a quantity denoted with square brackets

Length [L]

Mass [M]

Time [T]

We can have a combination of these quantities Example:

Quantity

Dimensions

area

[L]

2

volume

[L]

3

velocity

[L][T] -1

acceleration

[L][T] -2

force

[M][L][T] -2

Quantity

Dimensions

energy

[M][L] 2 [T] -2

power

[M][L] 2 [T] -3

pressure

[M][L] -1 [T] -2

momentum

[M][L][T] -1

**Dimensions can be treated as algebraic quantities - add, subtract, multiply, divide

Dimensional analysis:

= Technique to check the correctness of an equation @ to assist in deriving an equation

Both sides of equation must have the same dimensions

Limitation: Cannot give numerical factors

Example:

Given the equation: x = ½ at 2 . Check dimensions on each side. []=(1/2)[][ 2 ]

[]=

=

[]

[ 2

] ∙[ 2 ]

dimensionally correct

Unit vs Dimensions

Dimensions: L, T, M, L/T …

Units: m, mm, cm, kg, g, s, hr, years …

When equation is all algebra: check dimensions

When numbers are inserted: check units

Units obey same rules as dimensions:

Never add terms with different units

Angles are dimensionless but have units (degrees @ radians)

In physics sin(L) @ cos(L) never occur unless L is dimensionless

Conversion of Units

are appropriate ones

**When

units

not

consistent,

you

may

need

to

convert

to

= Conversion of one unit of measure into another equivalent unit of measure

***Can be treated like algebraic quantities that can cancel each other out So, always include units for every quantity, you can carry the units through the entire calculation

Example:

350 kilometers = ? meters ?

Answer:

for every quantity, you can carry the units through the entire calculation Example: 350 kilometers =

Order-of-Magnitude & Estimation

Order of Magnitude:

= an estimate given as a power of ten

used to make very approximate comparisons and reflect very large differences

If two numbers have the same order of magnitude, they are about the same size

But if we compare the surface of an orange with that of the earth the surface of the earth is many orders of magnitude larger than that of the orange

Estimation:

of magnitude larger than that of the orange Estimation: • It is often sufficient for an

It is often sufficient for an estimation to be within an order of magnitude of the value in question

Example:

Earth is approximately 1 × 10 7 meters in diameter. Which of the following could be Earth’s diameter?

A) 1,271,543 meters

C) 127,154,300 meters D) 1,271,543,000 meters

B) 12,715,430 meters

Answer: B

Uncertainty in Measurements

No measurement is exact

There is always some uncertainty due to limited instrument accuracy & difficulty reading results

Example:

accuracy & difficulty reading results • Example:  It would be difficult to measure the width

It would be difficult to measure the width of this piece of wood to better than a millimeter

There is uncertainty in every measurement This uncertainty carries over through the calculations So, need a technique to account for this uncertainty

We will use rules for significant figures to approximate the uncertainty in results of calculations

Significant Figures

= digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement result

tell you how precise a measured value

**When we carry out calculations, we often get the result as a number with many digits. We usually do not need them all.

(a)

1 significant figure

60,000

Zeroes sandwiched between non-zero digits are always significant i.e.: 205 3 s.f

(b)

2 significant figures

64,000

@ 6 × 10 4 @ 6.4 × 10 4 @ 6.45 × 10 4 @ 6.449 × 10 4 @ 6.4492 × 10 4

Zeroes that come before all non-zero digits are never significant i.e.: 0.0023 2 s.f

(c)

3 significant figures

64,500

(d)

4 significant figures

64,490

(e)

5 significant figures

64,492

 
 

Zeroes that come after non-zero digits:

a) 83,000 2 s.f

not significant

a) 1 significant figure

90

b) 83,000.5 s.f

significant

b) 3 significant figure

92.8

c) 83.000 5 s.f

significant

c) 5 significant figure

92.810

** 14 not has same s.f with 14.0

 

d) 6 significant figure

92.8106

d) 6 significant figure  92.8106 2 s.f 3 s.f

2 s.f

d) 6 significant figure  92.8106 2 s.f 3 s.f

3 s.f

Example:

1. Let's round off 64,492 to:

2. Let's round off 92.810576 to:

3. Let's round off 0.0046753 to:

a) significant figure

0.005

@

5 × 10 -3

b) 2 significant figure

0.0047

@

4.7 × 10 -3

c)

4 significant figure

0.004675

@

4.675 × 10 -3

Rounding Rules if there is number 5:

Examine the first figure that will be dropped:

If it is <5: drop it & all figures to the right of it

If it is >5: increase by 1 the figure before it; drop it & all figures to the right of it

If it is =5: round the figure before it to be nearest EVEN (0,2,4,6,8); drop it & all figures to the right of it

Example:

i. 62.53 4 7 rounded to 4 s.f: 62.53 ii. 3.78 7 21 rounded to
i.
62.53
4
7 rounded to 4 s.f:
62.53
ii.
3.78
7
21
rounded to 3 s.f:
3.79
iii.
726.83
5
rounded to 5 s.f:
726.84
iv.
24.8
5
14
rounded to 3 s.f:
24.8
v.
2.049
5
rounded to 4 s.f:
2.050
Operations with Significant Figures

Addition & subtraction:to 4 s.f: 2.050 Operations with Significant Figures Example 1: Example 2:  L t =

Example 1:

Example 2:

Figures Addition & subtraction: Example 1: Example 2:  L t = 1.85 m  look
Figures Addition & subtraction: Example 1: Example 2:  L t = 1.85 m  look

L t = 1.85 m

look at decimal places of the numbers d.p of final answer = d.p of the number with the LEAST d.p

Multiplication & division:of final answer = d.p of the number with the LEAST d.p Example 1: Example 2:

Example 1:

Example 2:

d.p Multiplication & division: Example 1: Example 2:  L t = 0.307  look at

L t = 0.307

& division: Example 1: Example 2:  L t = 0.307  look at significant figures

look at significant figures of the numbers s.f of final answer = s.f of the number with the LEAST s.f

Examples:

i. 2.42 + 1.1 = 3.52 3.5

ii. 3.233 3.2 = 0.033 0.0

iii. 2.5 × 3.42 = 8.55 8.6

iv. 62,881 ÷ 97 = 648.257732 650

***Only the final answer is rounded!!! No rounding numbers in the intermediate steps of the calculation

Precision & Accuracy

Precision = a measurement of how reproducible an answer is with some piece of equipment Will get same answer when repeating the measurement

Precision of an Instrument = the smallest unit that the instrument can measure - Example:

the smallest unit that the instrument can measure - Example: Accuracy = a measurement of how

Accuracy = a measurement of how correct a measured value is If something weighs 150 grams and you measure the weight as 130 grams, it’s not a very accurate measurement depend on the number of significant figures: higher s.f gives more accurate answer

*** Precise measurements don’t need to be accurate . *** Accurate measurements must be precise
*** Precise measurements don’t need to be accurate . *** Accurate measurements must be precise
*** Precise measurements don’t need to be accurate . *** Accurate measurements must be precise

*** Precise measurements don’t need to be accurate. *** Accurate measurements must be precise.

Extra Notes:

. *** Accurate measurements must be precise . Extra Notes: Guide to use Vernier calliper Propagation

Guide to use Vernier calliper

Propagation of Uncertainties

. *** Accurate measurements must be precise . Extra Notes: Guide to use Vernier calliper Propagation

Guide to use Micrometer Screw Gauge

Guide to use Micrometer Screw Gauge **Guide to check ZERO ERROR for: a) Vernier calliper

**Guide to check ZERO ERROR for:

a) Vernier calliper

Guide to use Micrometer Screw Gauge **Guide to check ZERO ERROR for: a) Vernier calliper

b) Micrometer screw gauge:

b) Micrometer screw gauge: