Sei sulla pagina 1di 18

03/07/2015

03/07/2015 1896 1920 1987 2006 Professor Jian Yang ( 杨健) SJTU Sustainable Construction Sustainable Construction
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
Professor Jian Yang ( 杨健) SJTU

Professor Jian Yang (杨健)

SJTU
SJTU

Sustainable Construction

Sustainable Construction Materials Part 1

1896 1920 1987 2006 CO2 is reaching an alarming level • 280 PPM before industrial
1896
1920
1987
2006
CO2 is reaching an alarming level
• 280 PPM before industrial
revolution
• 315 PPM in the late 1950s
• 2PPM more each year
• Experts recommend to stay
below 450PPM
1896 1920 1987 2006 What are Sustainable Construction Materials •Environmentally friendly •Renewable l
1896
1920
1987
2006
What are Sustainable Construction Materials
•Environmentally friendly
•Renewable
l
•Resource efficiently
•Minimally processed
•Locally available
•Salvaged, refurbished, reclaimed or
remanufactured
•Durable
•R
y
bl
u
bl
Socially responsible
• Low or non-toxic
Economically affordable
• Minimal chemical emission
Cheap
• Moisture resistant
• Healthfully maintained
1896 1920 1987 2006 Earth 2300 ? or “ We need to start working on
1896
1920
1987
2006
Earth 2300 ?
or
“ We need to start working on changes on
the scale of the problems we face”
(Bill McKibben, environmentalist)
the problems we face” (Bill McKibben, environmentalist) 1896 1920 1987 2006 Why do we need sustainable
the problems we face” (Bill McKibben, environmentalist) 1896 1920 1987 2006 Why do we need sustainable
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

Why do we need sustainable construction materials?

Why do we need sustainable construction materials?
Why do we need sustainable construction materials?

Fight climate change

Combat the depletion of energy/resources

climate change • Combat the depletion of energy/resources 1896 1920 1987 2006 We are running out
climate change • Combat the depletion of energy/resources 1896 1920 1987 2006 We are running out
climate change • Combat the depletion of energy/resources 1896 1920 1987 2006 We are running out
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
We are running out of resources! • Energy: known reserves at the present rate of
We are running out of resources!
• Energy: known reserves at the present rate of
consumption
• Oil: 40 -80 years
• Coal: 200-250 years
• Natural gas: 70-100 years
• Uranium: 80 years
• It is a matter of few human generations

03/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006 World population growth • 200,000net additional people per day
1896
1920
1987
2006
World population growth
• 200,000net additional people per day
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
Consumptions of resources in China

Consumptions of resources in China

   
8% of oil consumption 40% of cement 48% of steel 34% of glass 31% of
8% of oil consumption 40% of cement 48% of steel 34% of glass 31% of

8% of oil consumption

40% of cement

48% of steel

34% of glass

31% of coal

25% of aluminium

 
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 
Use of energy/resources in EU Construction industry • Generates 1/3 of GDP in Europe •

Use of energy/resources in EU

Use of energy/resources in EU Construction industry • Generates 1/3 of GDP in Europe • In

Construction industry

Use of energy/resources in EU Construction industry • Generates 1/3 of GDP in Europe • In

Generates 1/3 of GDP in Europe

In EU, buildings use 40% of total energy consumption

50% of saving needed to meet the Kyoto target

consumption • 50% of saving needed to meet the Kyoto target • EU imports 50% of

EU imports 50% of its energy from unstable countries

1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 
Construction sector in China Construction industry • Building consumes 28% of the total energy •

Construction sector in China

Construction sector in China Construction industry • Building consumes 28% of the total energy • Building
Construction sector in China Construction industry • Building consumes 28% of the total energy • Building

Construction industry

Building consumes 28% of the total energy

Building material consumes another 16.7% of energy

2 billion m 2 new building in 2003, only 5% with energy saving performance

m 2 new building in 2003, only 5% with energy saving performance • 20 billion m

20 billion m 2 more in the coming 15 years.

    1896 1920 1987 2006
   
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 
 

Resources in China

 China is short of resources.  The per capita resource

China is short of resources.

The per capita resource

 
 Agricultural field: 1/3 of the world average  Water: ¼ of the world average

Agricultural field: 1/3 of the world average

Water: ¼ of the world average

Forest area: 1/5 of the world average

Oil: 1/10 of the world average

 Oil: 1/10 of the world average  Natural gas: 1/22 of the world average

Natural gas: 1/22 of the world average

1896 1920 1987 2006 Construction material lifecycle
1896
1920
1987
2006
Construction material lifecycle

03/07/2015

03/07/2015 1896 1920 1987 2006 Input, output and impact of construction materials Inputs: resources, energy and
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

Input, output and impact of construction materials

2006 Input, output and impact of construction materials Inputs: resources, energy and water Outputs: emissions,
2006 Input, output and impact of construction materials Inputs: resources, energy and water Outputs: emissions,

Inputs: resources, energy and water2006 Input, output and impact of construction materials Outputs: emissions, effluents and solid wastes Impact:

Outputs: emissions, effluents and solid wastes wastes

Impact: environmental and human healthand water Outputs: emissions, effluents and solid wastes 1896 1920 1987 2006 Human health impact 1896

and solid wastes Impact: environmental and human health 1896 1920 1987 2006 Human health impact 1896
1896 1920 1987 2006 Human health impact
1896
1920
1987
2006
Human health impact
1896 1920 1987 2006 Inputs and outputs
1896
1920
1987
2006
Inputs and outputs
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1987
2006
1920 1987 2006 Inputs and outputs 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 Environmental impact
1920 1987 2006 Inputs and outputs 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 Environmental impact
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
2006 Inputs and outputs 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 Environmental impact 1896 1920

Environmental impact

1896

1920

1987

2006

03/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 

Evaluating the environmental and human health impacts of materials

the environmental and human health impacts of materials • Eval uat i ng tec hniques: •

Evaluating techniques:

Life-cycle assessment (LCA)

• •
• LEED
LEED

Athena Environmental impact estimator by the Athena Sustainable Materials Institute of Canada;

The national Institute of Standards and Technology’s Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability(BEES);

Sustainability assessment (SA)

Embodied energy (EE) analysis

BEEs 1896 1920 1987 2006
BEEs
1896
1920
1987
2006
Embodied energy (EE) analysis BEEs 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA)
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA)

Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA)

A qualitative technique for the evaluation of environmental impacts of construction materials and products, services and process.

Comprehensive tool

Challenging

Time scope

• Comprehensive tool • Challenging • Time scope • Cradle to gate (manufacturer’s gate) • Cradle

Cradle to gate (manufacturer’s gate)

Cradle to grave (use then disposal or reuse)

Quantify all inputs (energy, water, material resources) and outputs (emissions, effluents and wastes)

resources) and outputs (emissions, effluents and wastes) • Four phases (ASTM 2005): • Goal and scope

Four phases (ASTM 2005):

Goal and scope definition

Inventory analysis

Impact assessment

Interpretation

BEEs 1896 1920 1987 2006
BEEs
1896
1920
1987
2006
assessment • Interpretation BEEs 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 International Standards for LCA
assessment • Interpretation BEEs 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 International Standards for LCA
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

International Standards for LCA

2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 International Standards for LCA 1896 1920 1987 2006 Standards, labels and
1896 1920 1987 2006 Standards, labels and Certification Systems - LEED
1896
1920
1987
2006
Standards, labels and Certification
Systems - LEED

03/07/2015

03/07/2015 1896 1920 1987 2006 Embodied Energy Analysis (EE) Embodied energy refers to the total energy
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

Embodied Energy Analysis (EE)

1896 1920 1987 2006 Embodied Energy Analysis (EE) Embodied energy refers to the total energy consumed

Embodied energy refers to the total energy consumed in raw material acquisition, manufacture, transport and disposal of refers to the total energy consumed in raw material acquisition, manufacture, transport and disposal of a building material/product.

transport and disposal of a building material/product. Cradle to gate or cradle to cradle 1896 1920

Cradle to gate or cradle to cradletransport and disposal of a building material/product. 1896 1920 1987 2006 Building wastes Wastage Rate

material/product. Cradle to gate or cradle to cradle 1896 1920 1987 2006 Building wastes Wastage Rate
1896 1920 1987 2006 Building wastes Wastage Rate Proportion Sent to Landfill Timber formwork to
1896
1920
1987
2006
Building wastes
Wastage Rate
Proportion Sent to Landfill
Timber formwork to concrete
13%
45%
Concrete
10%
50%
Cement-fibre roofing
10%
~100%
Insulation boards
10%
90%
Timber flooring
7.5
– 10%
45%
Mineral wool
8%
?
Plasterboards
7.5
– 10%
90%
Softwoods
10%
45%
Plaster
5 –10%
90%
Brick and blockwork
5%
50%
Tiles for roofing
5%
70%
Glass
5%
65%
Reinforcement
5%
5%
Light steel framework
2.5%
negligible
Average wastage of materials
10-13%
60% estimated
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 

Reuse recycling resources

Reuse recycling resources Construction and dem olition (C&D) wastes Waste materials produced during construction,

Construction and demolition (C&D) wastes

resources Construction and dem olition (C&D) wastes Waste materials produced during construction, renovation or

Waste materials produced during construction, renovation or demolition of the built environment

renovation or demolition of the built environment Including roads and bri dges and other structures Typical

Including roads and bridges and other structures dges and other structures

Typical waste includes concrete, asphalt pavement, wood, metals, gypsum wall-board, floor tile and roofing materialsIncluding roads and bri dges and other structures Classified in four categories: building-related waste,

Classified in four categories: building-related waste, construction, demolition and renovation debris; roadway related waste; bridge-related waste; land-clearing and inner debris waste , demolition and renovation debris; roadway related waste; bridge-related waste; land-clearing and inner debris waste (stumps, rocks and soils)

debris; roadway related waste; bridge-related waste; land-clearing and inner debris waste (stumps, rocks and soils)
and inner debris waste (stumps, rocks and soils) 1896 1920 1987 2006 Designing for deconstruction (Dfd)
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

Designing for deconstruction (Dfd)

1896 1920 1987 2006 Designing for deconstruction (Dfd) Deconstruction invo lves the dismantling of a building
1896 1920 1987 2006 Designing for deconstruction (Dfd) Deconstruction invo lves the dismantling of a building

Deconstruction involves the dismantling of a building or site with the intention of

the dismantling of a building or site with the intention of reusing or recycling the components.

reusing or recycling the components.

with the intention of reusing or recycling the components. 1896 1920 1987 2006 Building-related C&D wastes
with the intention of reusing or recycling the components. 1896 1920 1987 2006 Building-related C&D wastes
with the intention of reusing or recycling the components. 1896 1920 1987 2006 Building-related C&D wastes
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

Building-related C&D wastes

reusing or recycling the components. 1896 1920 1987 2006 Building-related C&D wastes 1896 1920 1987 2006
reusing or recycling the components. 1896 1920 1987 2006 Building-related C&D wastes 1896 1920 1987 2006

1896

1920

1987

2006

03/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006
C&DW – wood

C&DW – wood

1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 
• Burned in either coal power plants or cement kilns • P rocesse d to

Burned in either coal power plants or cement kilns

Processed to paper and cardboard

power plants or cement kilns • P rocesse d to paper and cardboard • Processed to
power plants or cement kilns • P rocesse d to paper and cardboard • Processed to

Processed to board products such as chipboard

1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1987
2006
to board products such as chipboard 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 C &
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

C & DW – Asphalt rubble

2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 C & DW – Asphalt rubble • Road construction locally •

Road construction locally

C & DW – Asphalt rubble • Road construction locally • Substituting sand/cement subase with recycled

Substituting sand/cement subase with recycled asphalt bonded with cement

sand/cement subase with recycled asphalt bonded with cement 1896 1920 1987 2006 • Construction and demolish
sand/cement subase with recycled asphalt bonded with cement 1896 1920 1987 2006 • Construction and demolish
sand/cement subase with recycled asphalt bonded with cement 1896 1920 1987 2006 • Construction and demolish
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

Construction and demolish wastes (C&DW)-

concrete rubble
concrete rubble

Concrete rubble

without any processing, can be used for

• Hard standing

• Bank protection

• Fill and raising areas

• Road construction

• Noise barriers and embankments

With processing such as removing wood, plaster, porous insulating bricks or aerated concrete, soil, aluminium, tar, glass, plastics and other contaminations -> crushing/ grading -> washing

other contaminations -> crushing/ grading -> washing • Aggregate • Road sub-bases • Structural members •

• Aggregate

• Road sub-bases

• Structural members

• Aggregate • Road sub-bases • Structural members • • 1896 1920 1987 2006 C &
• Aggregate • Road sub-bases • Structural members • • 1896 1920 1987 2006 C &

1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

C & DW – Metals

Structural members • • 1896 1920 1987 2006 C & DW – Metals Reused directly Melted
Structural members • • 1896 1920 1987 2006 C & DW – Metals Reused directly Melted
Structural members • • 1896 1920 1987 2006 C & DW – Metals Reused directly Melted

Reused directly

Melted to produce new steel

03/07/2015

03/07/2015 • 1896 1920 1987 2006 C & DW – Glass Removing the clean glass and

1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
C & DW – Glass
C & DW – Glass

Removing the clean glass and recycled to new clear glass

Removing the clean glass and recycled to new clear glass 1896 1920 1987 2006   Recycled
Removing the clean glass and recycled to new clear glass 1896 1920 1987 2006   Recycled
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 

Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA)

• Approximately 109 million tone s of construction, demolition and excavation waste are produced in

Approximately 109 million tones of construction, demolition and excavation waste are produced in the UK each year

and excavation waste are produced in the UK each year • Approximate 40% of the demolition

Approximate 40% of the demolition waste in concrete that is capable of being crushed to produce RCA, i.e. 44 million tones per year

UK use 165 million tones of primary aggregate (RCA potentially 26%)

to produce RCA, i.e. 44 million tones per year • UK use 165 million tones of
million tones of primary aggr egate (RCA potentially 26%) 1896 1920 1987 2006 C & DW
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

C & DW – Masonry waste (including ceramics and stone)

C & DW – Masonry waste (including ceramics and stone)
C & DW – Masonry waste (including ceramics and stone)

Aggregate for low grade concrete

Aggregate for lightweight concrete with higher thermal insulation (with foams)

Replacement for clay in bricks

insulation (with foams) • Replacement for clay in bricks 1896 1920 1987 2006 Recycled concrete aggregate
1896 1920 1987 2006 Recycled concrete aggregate  Percentage of recycled concrete aggregate (Source: EUROSTAT
1896
1920
1987
2006
Recycled concrete aggregate
 Percentage of recycled concrete aggregate (Source: EUROSTAT i
ETC/RWM, 2008)
 Landfill tax is introduced to UK in 1996
 Aggregate tax is introduced to UK in Dec. 2010
in 1996  Aggregate tax is introduced to UK in Dec. 2010 1896 1920 1987 2006
in 1996  Aggregate tax is introduced to UK in Dec. 2010 1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

C & DW – others

UK in Dec. 2010 1896 1920 1987 2006 C & DW – others  Insulation materials
UK in Dec. 2010 1896 1920 1987 2006 C & DW – others  Insulation materials
UK in Dec. 2010 1896 1920 1987 2006 C & DW – others  Insulation materials

Insulation materials (mineral wool, glass wool, polystyrene, polyurethane) should be disposed of separately

Garden wastes – composted

Dangerous wastes

Mineral wool- reused, or used as soil conditioner

Glass wool – producing new glass wool

PUR foam – reused;

Expanded PS form – ground PS boards can be reused as a soil conditioner

Asbestos - removed

Waste oil – used as fuel or refined to produce new oil

Paint and solvent wastes – recovered by distillation or used in primer production

    1896 1920 1987 2006
   
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 

Properties and characteristics of RCA

Properties and characteristics of RCA • Acid-soluble sulphate content: 0.17-1.04% • Chloride content: up to 0.15%

Acid-soluble sulphate content: 0.17-1.04%

of RCA • Acid-soluble sulphate content: 0.17-1.04% • Chloride content: up to 0.15% by mass of
of RCA • Acid-soluble sulphate content: 0.17-1.04% • Chloride content: up to 0.15% by mass of

Chloride content: up to 0.15% by mass of RCA

Alkali content: up to 0.20 kg Na2O eq per 100kg of RCA

Organic substances: less than 0.5% by mass

Water absorption: 5-10%

Los Angles Coefficient: less than 40

Drying shrinkage: less than 0.075%

Density: lower than that of natural aggregates

Masonry: up to 5%

03/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 
RCA research
RCA research

Understand the performance of RCA for primary structural use for primary structural use

the performance of RCA for primary structural use Understand the impact of inclusion of recycled brick

Understand the impact of inclusion of recycled brick aggregate recycled brick aggregate

Understand the impact of inclusion of recycled tyre recycled tyre

recycled brick aggregate Understand the impact of inclusion of recycled tyre Understand the impact of inclusion

Understand the impact of inclusion of fibre fibre

1896 1920 1987 2006 Manually crushed RCA and CB
1896
1920
1987
2006
Manually
crushed RCA
and CB
1896 1920 1987 2006 Composition of recycled aggregate sample
1896
1920
1987
2006
Composition of recycled aggregate sample
1896 1920 1987 2006 Testing density and water absorption of aggregate
1896
1920
1987
2006
Testing density and water
absorption of aggregate
1896 1920 1987 2006 Composition of recycled aggregate sample Crushed bricks 14.5% Waste impurities 1
1896
1920
1987
2006
Composition of recycled aggregate
sample
Crushed
bricks
14.5%
Waste
impurities
1 4%
.
Recycled
concrete
aggregate
84.1%
1896 1920 1987 2006 Cement replacement Use cement substitutes – Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs)
1896
1920
1987
2006
Cement replacement
Use cement substitutes – Supplementary cementitious
materials (SCMs) replacing 60% Portland cement
Fly ash
Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS)
Silica fume
Other natural pozzolan materials such as calcined clay,
metakaolin
Replacingg 50% cement with GGBS in a typicaly
readyy mix is to
save 34% embodied energy and 46% embodied co2 emission
per cubic yard of concrete.
Also reduce air emissions of concrete mixes
Reuse of industrial waste products
Improve performance of concrete

03/07/2015

03/07/2015 1896 1920 1987 2006 SCMs Basic chemical components Silica, Alumina, Calcium and iron Hydraulic SCMs
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
03/07/2015 1896 1920 1987 2006 SCMs Basic chemical components Silica, Alumina, Calcium and iron Hydraulic SCMs

SCMs

Basic chemical components Silica, Alumina, Calcium and iron Hydraulic SCMs (e.g. GGBS) Pozzolanic SCMs (e.g. fly ash or silic fume)

(e.g. GGBS) Pozzolanic SCMs (e.g. fly ash or silic fume) 1896 1920 1987 2006 What is
(e.g. GGBS) Pozzolanic SCMs (e.g. fly ash or silic fume) 1896 1920 1987 2006 What is
(e.g. GGBS) Pozzolanic SCMs (e.g. fly ash or silic fume) 1896 1920 1987 2006 What is
1896 1920 1987 2006 What is SIP? • Two outer skins of high-density and strong
1896
1920
1987
2006
What is SIP?
• Two outer skins of high-density and strong face
layers;
• One inner core of a low-density insulation material.
Polyurethane (PUR)
Expanded Polystyrene (EPS)
Extruded Polystyrene (XPS)
Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
Plywood
Photograph courtesy of Kingspan TEK
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006
1896 1920 1987 2006 How does a SIP work? SIPs work like I-beams: • The
1896 1920 1987 2006 How does a SIP work? SIPs work like I-beams: • The
1896 1920 1987 2006 How does a SIP work? SIPs work like I-beams: • The
1896 1920 1987 2006 How does a SIP work? SIPs work like I-beams: • The
1896
1920
1987
2006
How does a SIP work?
SIPs work like I-beams:
• The outer skins act as flanges;
• The inner core acts as a web.
SIP
I-Beam
as flanges; • The inner core acts as a web. SIP I-Beam 1896 1920 1987 2006
as flanges; • The inner core acts as a web. SIP I-Beam 1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
inner core acts as a web. SIP I-Beam 1896 1920 1987 2006 Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)
inner core acts as a web. SIP I-Beam 1896 1920 1987 2006 Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)

Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)

1896 1920 1987 2006 Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs) 1896 1920 1987 2006 Development background
1896 1920 1987 2006 Development background Prefabricated light-weight building material Prototype was first used
1896
1920
1987
2006
Development background
Prefabricated light-weight building material
Prototype was first used by Frank Lloyds Wright in USA
in 1930s
Developed using plywood faced and foam cored by Alden
B. Dow in 1952
Introduced to UK since 1980s
Majority adapted in
European and UK markets
No specific standard for SIPs

03/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 

What benefits can SIPs offer?

What benefits can SIPs offer? • Hig h stren g th-to-wei g ht ratio • Excellent

High strength-to-weight ratio

can SIPs offer? • Hig h stren g th-to-wei g ht ratio • Excellent thermal performance
can SIPs offer? • Hig h stren g th-to-wei g ht ratio • Excellent thermal performance

Excellent thermal performance

Good acoustic performance

Environmentally friendly

Faster to erect

Off-site construction – minimal waste and defects

Park Inn Hotel in Leigh 1896 1920 1987 2006
Park Inn Hotel in Leigh
1896
1920
1987
2006
Kingspan lighthouse 1896 1920 1987 2006 Buildings made of SIPs Photograph Courtesy of Kingspan
Kingspan
lighthouse
1896
1920
1987
2006
Buildings made of SIPs
Photograph Courtesy of Kingspan
Y agen 1896 1920 1987 2006 Ergo Homes
Y agen
1896 1920
1987
2006
Ergo Homes
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006

1896

1920

1987

2006

03/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006
1896 1920 1987 2006 Ergo Homes
1896
1920
1987
2006
Ergo Homes
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1987
2006
1896 1920 1987 2006 Drivers for the Growth of SIPs Sustainability Agenda Higher Energy Costs
1896
1920
1987
2006
Drivers for the Growth of SIPs
Sustainability Agenda
Higher Energy Costs
Need for Quicker Construction
Need to Accommodate Reduced Skill Levels
Lower Construction Costs

1896

1920

1987

2006

Ergo Homes

1896 1920 1987 2006 SIPs market review 2003 – 2008 SIP Production Total Industry (SIPA
1896
1920
1987
2006
SIPs market review
2003 – 2008 SIP Production Total Industry
(SIPA 2008)
Million Sq. Ft. of SIP panel surface area.
75
65
60.1
58.6
57.3
53.3
55
51.1
47.1
45
35
25
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

03/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006 SIPs market review SIP Uses (SIPA 2008) Nonresidential Buildings* Other: Refrigeration,
1896
1920
1987
2006
SIPs market review
SIP Uses (SIPA 2008)
Nonresidential Buildings*
Other: Refrigeration,
patio enclosures, other.
32%
Million Square Feet
28%
Homebuilding:
21.5
Nonresidential:
17.2
Other:
14.6
Total:
53.3
New Homes
40%
Vision
SIPs will be the preferred timber material.
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1987
2006
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1987
2006
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006

03/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006
Density Modulus of Elasticity Bending strength Outer face (E) material 1896 1920 1987 2006 (kg/m
Density
Modulus of Elasticity
Bending strength
Outer face
(E)
material
1896
1920
1987
2006
(kg/m 3 )
(N/mm 2 )
(N/mm 2 )
Major Axis
3500
Major Axis
20
600 -
OSB
680
Minor Axis
1400
Minor Axis
10
-
500 - 14000
5 - 120
600
13000
-
Allowable
compressive stress
in parallel plys of
11.316
PW
plywood (F c )
-
13660
Allowable tensile
stress in parallel
plys of plywood
13.800
(F
t )
CBPB
1000
4000
9
-
2800
32
MDF
700
3000
-
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006
Density Shear Modulus Modulus of Elasticity Bending strength Shear Inner core (G c ) (E
Density
Shear Modulus
Modulus of Elasticity
Bending strength
Shear
Inner core
(G c )
(E c )
strength
material
1896
1920
1987
2006
(kg/m 3 )
(N/mm 2 )
(N/mm 2 )
(N/mm 2 )
(N/mm )
2
16.018
2.068
-
0.207
0.138
14
2.1
1.4
- 0.14
EPS
18
2.7
2.1
- 0.17
22
3.3
2.3
-
0.20
29
4.3
3.3
-
0.24
24.028
3.447
-
0.345
0.241
26
2.9
9.3
- 0.10
XPS
29
3.1
12
- 0.14
35
5.1
18
- 0.24
48
6.2
26
- 0.28
35.241
5.171
-
0.448
0.110
48
2.8
2.9
- 0.29
64
4.5
5.8
- 0.43
80
6.4
10
- 0.60
96
8.6
15
- 0.79
PUR
112
11
22
- 0.98
1896 1920 1987 2006 Material properties characterisation
1896
1920
1987
2006
Material properties characterisation

1896

1920

1987

2006

03/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006
03/07/2015 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 Low Carbon with SIPS in the U
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
03/07/2015 1896 1920 1987 2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 Low Carbon with SIPS in the U

Low Carbon with SIPS in the UK

2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 Low Carbon with SIPS in the U K 1896 1920 1987
2006 1896 1920 1987 2006 Low Carbon with SIPS in the U K 1896 1920 1987
1896 1920 1987 2006 Monitoring
1896
1920
1987
2006
Monitoring
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 

CO 2 Reduction Plan

• UK residential new dwellings • Energy efficiency is controlled through: UK Building Regulations. 2002
• UK residential new dwellings • Energy efficiency is controlled through: UK Building Regulations. 2002
• UK residential new dwellings • Energy efficiency is controlled through: UK Building Regulations. 2002

UK residential new dwellings Energy efficiency is controlled through:

UK Building Regulations.

2002

2006

2010

2013

2016

– EPBD

– 25% improvement on 2006

– 44% improvement on 2006

Zero Carbon (150%)

Source : Building Regulations – Approved Documents

www.planningportal.gov.uk

on 2006 – Zero Carbon (150%) Source : Building Regulations – Approved Documents www.planningportal.gov.uk
on 2006 – Zero Carbon (150%) Source : Building Regulations – Approved Documents www.planningportal.gov.uk
1896 1920 1987 2006 Monitoring
1896
1920
1987
2006
Monitoring
www.planningportal.gov.uk 1896 1920 1987 2006 Monitoring UK Definitions 1896 1920 1987 2006 Carbon Neutral •

UK Definitions

1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
1987 2006 Monitoring UK Definitions 1896 1920 1987 2006 Carbon Neutral • Target – CSH Level

Carbon Neutral1987 2006 Monitoring UK Definitions 1896 1920 1987 2006 • Target – CSH Level 5 •

Target – CSH Level 5

1920 1987 2006 Carbon Neutral • Target – CSH Level 5 • Includes regulated energy Zero
1920 1987 2006 Carbon Neutral • Target – CSH Level 5 • Includes regulated energy Zero

Includes regulated energy

Zero Carbon• Target – CSH Level 5 • Includes regulated energy • Target 2016 – CSH Level

Target 2016 – CSH Level 6

Improvement over Building Regulations 2006 ~

140-150%

Includes regulated and non-regulated energy

03/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006 UK Timelines
1896
1920
1987
2006
UK Timelines
1896 1920 1987 2006 The Code for Sustainable Homes A Certification scheme that has 6
1896
1920
1987
2006
The Code for Sustainable Homes
A Certification scheme that has 6 levels
• Code Level 3 – 25% - Building Regulations
2010
• Code Level 4 – 44% - Building Regulations
2013
• Code Level 5 – 100%
• Code Level 6 – 140-150% - Building
Regulations 2016
Two stage assessment
• Design Stage
• Completion Stage
Nine categories of design flexibility, totalling 104
credits
Credit based award scheme & individual Home
Certificate
1896 1920 1987 2006 UK Building RegulationsL1a – New dwell ngs Energy Calculation & Certification
1896
1920
1987
2006
UK Building RegulationsL1a – New
dwell ngs
Energy Calculation & Certification
• Via an approved software based on SAP (Standard Assessment Procedure)
Thermal envelope specification
Heating – space and hot water
Renewables
Air tightness testing
Thermal bridging
• Accredited details
Summer Overheating
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 

Mat 1 – Environmental Impact of Materials

Mat 1 – Environmental Impact of Materials M an d atory El ement Number of credits
Mat 1 – Environmental Impact of Materials M an d atory El ement Number of credits

Man d atory El ement andatory Element

Number of credits available 15 over 5 elementsEnvironmental Impact of Materials M an d atory El ement Three of the five elements to

Three of the five elements to achieve a rating of A+ to D achieve a rating of A+ to D

Assessment Criteria

Mat 1 worksheetelements to achieve a rating of A+ to D Assessment Criteria The Green Guide - Ratings

The Green Guide - Ratings from A+ to Ea rating of A+ to D Assessment Criteria Mat 1 worksheet Each of the five elements

Each of the five elements are assessed against individual construction specification ratings and weighted by percentage of area.

are assessed against individual construction specification ratings and wei ghted by percentage of area. Assessment tool

Assessment tool

are assessed against individual construction specification ratings and wei ghted by percentage of area. Assessment tool
1896 1920 1987 2006 Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) Government procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings
1896
1920
1987
2006
Standard Assessment Procedure
(SAP)
Government procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings
Approved software producing energy ratings
Energy Performance Certificate issued for each new
dwelling
Energy Efficiency Rating A-G
Environmental Impact Rating A-G
New 2009 guidance document
Source: SAP 2009 Document
www.bre.co.uk/sap2009
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
 

Using SIPs to deliver the regulations

Using flexibility in design• Thermal Envelope • Air Tightness • Thermal Junctions • Heating – Space and hot

Using flexibility in design • Thermal Envelope • Air Tightness • Thermal Junctions • Heating –

Thermal Envelope

Air Tightness

in design • Thermal Envelope • Air Tightness • Thermal Junctions • Heating – Space and

Thermal Junctions

Heating – Space and hot water

Limit on improvements 40% via fabricAir Tightness • Thermal Junctions • Heating – Space and hot water SAP software tool Beyond

SAP software tool

Beyond 40%Junctions • Heating – Space and hot water Limit on improvements 40% via fabric SAP software

Renewables

• Other special features – Appendix Q

Other special features – Appendix Q

03/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006 Zero Carbon Homes Code 6 – Design Certified Code 6 –
1896
1920
1987
2006
Zero Carbon Homes
Code 6 – Design Certified
Code 6 – Completion Certified
ruralZED kit house
www.zedfactory.com
Completion Certified ruralZED kit house www.zedfactory.com 1896 1920 1987 2006 Green light steel buildings Wall
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

Green light steel buildings

1896 1920 1987 2006 Green light steel buildings Wall frames construction Modular buildings Hybrid buildings

Wall frames construction1896 1920 1987 2006 Green light steel buildings Modular buildings Hybrid buildings 1896 1920 1987 2006

2006 Green light steel buildings Wall frames construction Modular buildings Hybrid buildings 1896 1920 1987 2006
2006 Green light steel buildings Wall frames construction Modular buildings Hybrid buildings 1896 1920 1987 2006

Modular buildings2006 Green light steel buildings Wall frames construction Hybrid buildings 1896 1920 1987 2006 Cold-formed steel

Hybrid buildingssteel buildings Wall frames construction Modular buildings 1896 1920 1987 2006 Cold-formed steel 1896 1920 1987

Wall frames construction Modular buildings Hybrid buildings 1896 1920 1987 2006 Cold-formed steel 1896 1920 1987
1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006
Modular buildings Hybrid buildings 1896 1920 1987 2006 Cold-formed steel 1896 1920 1987 2006 Traditional Fully
Modular buildings Hybrid buildings 1896 1920 1987 2006 Cold-formed steel 1896 1920 1987 2006 Traditional Fully

Cold-formed steel

Hybrid buildings 1896 1920 1987 2006 Cold-formed steel 1896 1920 1987 2006 Traditional Fully Panel (2D)
1896 1920 1987 2006 Traditional Fully Panel (2D) Criteria brick/block modular construction construction Hybrid
1896
1920
1987
2006
Traditional
Fully
Panel (2D)
Criteria
brick/block
modular
construction
construction
Hybrid panel &
modular
construction
construction
Total construction period
100%
75%
70%
40%
Time to create weather-tight
envelope
100%
55%
50%
20%
On-site labour requirement
(as a proportion)
100%
80%
70%
25%
Proportion of total cost in
on-site materials
65%
55%
45%
15%
Proportion of total cost in
on-site labour
35%
25%
20%
10%
Proportion of total cost of
off-site manufacture
0%
20%
35%
75%
1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006

Wall frames

1896 1920
1896
1920
1987 2006
1987
2006

03/07/2015

1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006
1896 1920 1987 2006 Modular buildings Application Benefits Sustainability Benefits  Economy of scale in
1896
1920
1987
2006
Modular buildings
Application Benefits
Sustainability Benefits
 Economy of scale in production for hotels, key worker
High quality by factory production of modules
accommodation, student residences
Materials can be ordered for maximum efficiency in
 Rapid installation on site (6-8 units per day)
production
 Two units can be placed together to create larger
spaces
Minimal waste on-site and in the factory
Rapid construction process leads to less disruption to
 Robustness can be achieved by attaching the units
the locality
together at their corners
Excellent acoustic insulation and performance
 Stability of tall buildings can be provided by a braced
characteristics
steel core
Very safe construction technology, which is less
 Fire stopping between the units prevents fire spread
dependant on weather and site conditions
 Excellent acoustic insulation due to the double layer
Modules can be dismantled easily and re-used
floors and walls
elsewhere
Useful for roof-top extensions or difficult working
areas
‘Asset’ value of the module is maintained after re-use
1896 1920 1987 2006 Wall frame constructions Application Benefits Sustainability Benefits  Walls are
1896
1920
1987
2006
Wall frame constructions
Application Benefits
Sustainability Benefits
 Walls are load-bearing and support floors directly, and
can be used for 2 or 3 storey housing
Rapid ‘dry’ construction with high accuracy in
installation
 Wall panels and floor cassettes may be pre-fabricated
Lightweight for poor ground conditions
for rapid installation
High levels of thermal insulation (U values <
Lattice joists achieve longer spans and allow for
0.25 W/m 2 °C)
services in the floor zone
Reduced site storage of materials in comparison to
 Open habitable roofs can be created
brickwork, for example
 Plasterboard provides fire resistance and acoustic
insulation
Minimal waste on site and in the factory
Freedom of galvanized steel from deterioration, rot
 Useful for extensions and renovation of existing
shrinkage
buildings
Steel and plasterboard waste can be recycled
Hybrid buildings 1896 1920 1987 2006
Hybrid buildings
1896 1920
1987
2006
1896 1920 1987 2006 Modular buildings Hybrid buildings 1896 1920 1987 2006
1896
1920
1987
2006
Modular buildings
Hybrid buildings
1896
1920
1987
2006

03/07/2015

Hybrid buildings 1896 1920 1987 2006 Application Benefits Sustainability Benefits  Narrow beams and columns
Hybrid buildings
1896
1920
1987
2006
Application Benefits
Sustainability Benefits
 Narrow beams and columns can be located within
A primary steel frame provides for flexibility in layout
separating wall – no projection outside wall
of the space
 Integrated beams lead to minimum floor zone
Light steel infill walls are fast to install and can be
moved as space requirements change
 Slabs can span directly between separating walls
Beams and columns are rapidly erected and can be
 Long span construction is useful for ‘mixed’ residential
un-bolted and re-used if required
and retail projects
Connections and extensions can be made easily,
 Lower self weight than in reinforced concrete
leading to flexibility in future uses
 Stability can be provided through the frame (up to
Balconies and private or public open space can be
4 storeys) or by bracing or core (taller buildings)
created easily
 Intumescent fire resistant coatings can be applied
Composite floors provide excellent stiffness, acoustic
off-site
insulation and fire resistance
 Excellent acoustic insulation of the floors and
Services can be integrated within the structure
separating walls is achieved
Rapid construction system for multi-storey buildings,
 A variety of cladding materials may be used
particularly in urban locations
1896 1920 1987 2006 Energy consumption Mineral extraction & mater a i l manu acture
1896
1920
1987
2006
Energy consumption
Mineral extraction &
mater a
i
l
manu acture
f
5%
10%
Transport of products
& materials
Transport of
11%
manufactured
products
49%
Construction site
5%
activity
Transport related to
construction
20%
Transport of quarry
waste
1896 1920 1987 2006 Construction waste Wood 6% 12% Plastics & coatings 6% Metals of
1896
1920
1987
2006
Construction waste
Wood
6%
12%
Plastics & coatings
6%
Metals of all types
32%
8%
Glass & ceramics
Brickwork
11%
Concrete, cement &
plaster
Other materials
25%
1896 1920 1987 2006 Embodied energy Embodied Energy Recycled Component Materials weight/m 2 floor area
1896
1920
1987
2006
Embodied energy
Embodied Energy
Recycled
Component
Materials
weight/m 2 floor
area
Recyclability
Total
content
MJ/kg
MJ/m 2
Light steel walls
8
50%
100%
22-33
170-260
Light steel floor joists
10
50%
100%
22-33
170-260
Mineral wool
5
50%
70%
17-25
85-125
Plasterboard
35
20%
30%
5-7
175-245
Floor boards
20
0%
?
36
720
Brickwork
260
0%
30%
3-6
780-1560
Roof tiles
30
0%
60% salvaged
12
360
Concrete foundations
and ground floor
380 0%
20%
2
760
1896 1920 1987 2006 Construction wastes Wastage Rate Proportion Sent to Landfill Timber formwork to
1896
1920
1987
2006
Construction wastes
Wastage Rate
Proportion Sent to Landfill
Timber formwork to concrete
13%
45%
Concrete
10%
50%
Cement-fibre roofing
10%
~100%
Insulation boards
10%
90%
Timber flooring
7.5
– 10%
45%
Mineral wool
8%
?
Plasterboards
7.5
– 10%
90%
Softwoods
10%
45%
Plaster
5 –10%
90%
Brick and blockwork
5%
50%
Tiles for roofing
5%
70%
Glass
5%
65%
Reinforcement
5%
5%
Light steel framework
2.5%
negligible
Average wastage of materials
10-13%
60% estimated