Sei sulla pagina 1di 12

Applied Energy 93 (2012) 148159

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Applied Energy
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apenergy

Production of methane from anaerobic digestion of jatropha and pongamia oil cakes
R. Chandra a,, V.K. Vijay b, P.M.V. Subbarao c, T.K. Khura a
a
Department of Farm Power and Machinery, College of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology (Central Agricultural University), Ranipool, Gangtok,
Sikkim 737 135, India
b
Centre for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India
c
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The experimental study was carried out on anaerobic digestion of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and pong-
Received 14 November 2009 amia (Pongamia pinnata) oil seed cakes in a 20 m3/d capacity oating drum biogas plant under mesophilic
Received in revised form 30 July 2010 temperature condition. The average specic methane production potential of jatropha oil seed cake was
Accepted 12 October 2010
observed as 0.394 m3/kg TS and 0.422 m3/kg VS. The average content of methane and carbon dioxide in
Available online 7 January 2011
the produced biogas over 30 days of retention time period was found as 66.6% and 31.3%, respectively.
Cumulative methane yield over 30 days of retention time period was found as 131.258 m3 with a
Keywords:
259.2 kg of input volatile solids, with an average total volatile solids mass removal efciency of 59.6%.
Jatropha
Pongamia
However, in case of pongamia oil seed cake average specic methane production was observed as
Oil seed cake 0.427 m3/kg TS and 0.448 m3/kg VS. The average value of methane and carbon dioxide content in the pro-
Anaerobic digestion duced biogas over 30 days of retention was found as 62.5% and 33.5%, respectively. Cumulative methane
Biogas yield over 30 days of retention time period was found as 147.605 m3 with a 255.9 kg of input volatile sol-
Methane ids, with an average total volatile solids mass removal efciency of 74.9%.
2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction India is endowed with more than 100 species of tree born non-
edible oil seeds occurring in wild or cultivated sporadically to yield
One of the major thrust towards sustainable socio-economic oil in considerable quantities [2]. The country has a huge potential
development of the world in 21st century is cultivation of energy of tree born non-edible oil seeds. Therefore, the attempts are being
resources and technologies as the depletion of petroleum fuel is made for utilization of non-edible and under-exploited oils for bio-
at alarming level. The associated energy experts over the world diesel production. A National Mission on bio-diesel in India has
are searching for supplementing the fossil fuel energy resources been launched in the year 2003 under demonstration phase with
with cultivated bio-fuel energy resources. Development of sustain- the objective to produce enough bio-diesel to meet 20% blending
able and commercially viable technologies for production of alco- of total diesel requirement using various non-edible oils by the
hols, biogas, producer gas and bio-diesel are good examples on year 20112012 [3]. In this context, cultivation of jatropha and
this scenario. The commercial viability of any bio-resource energy pongamia (non-edible oil seed bearing plants) on 40 million hect-
technology strongly depends on level of utilization of the culti- are waste land has been started to meet the oil seed requirement.
vated resources and the amount of energy consumption for pro- However, there are critical issues, which need to be addressed
duction of useful fuel. to make the production of bio-diesel as a techno-economically via-
Bio-diesel has high potential as a new and renewable energy ble and ecologically acceptable renewable substitute or additive to
source in forthcoming future as a substitution fuel for petroleum diesel. Present method of utilization of only extracted vegetable oil
derived diesel. Presently, more than 95% of bio-diesel of the world from the bio-diesel resource results in generation of huge unuti-
is produced from edible oil, which is available at large scale from lized biomass. In general, 50% (dry weight basis) of the collected
the agricultural industry. However, continuous and large-scale fruits of bio-diesel resource are seeds (kernels). Out of these seeds,
production of bio-diesel from edible oil without proper planning at the most 35% is converted into vegetable oil and remaining 65%
may cause negative impact such as depletion of food supply lead material is rejected as toxic oil seed cake. In short, more than 85%
to economic imbalance. A possible solution to overcome this prob- of cultivated bio-resource (seeds pericoat and oil seed cake) is
lem is to use non-edible oil for production of bio-diesel [1]. remaining unutilized in bio-diesel production. This toxic oil seed
cake can neither be used as cattle feed nor as a bio-fertilizer for
growing plants, due to presence of phorbol ester (a toxic com-
Corresponding author. Tel./fax: +91 3592 251390. pound). The current annual production of toxic jatropha oil seed
E-mail address: ram.chandra6dec@gmail.com (R. Chandra). cake alone has been estimated to be about 60,000 tonnes [4]. The

0306-2619/$ - see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.10.049
R. Chandra et al. / Applied Energy 93 (2012) 148159 149

Nomenclature

C carbon l litre
C/N carbonnitrogen ratio m3 cubic metre
CD cattle dung N nitrogen
d day OLR organic loading rate
db dry basis PC pongamia oil seed cake
DR dilution ratio STP standard temperature and pressure
g gram TS total solids
h hour TVSMRE total volatile solids mass removal efciency
H hydrogen VS volatile solids
JC jatropha oil seed cake
kg kilo gram

estimated amount of jatropha oil seed cake could be a signicant parameters and may vary from less than 10 to above 90. Since all
source of bio-energy production if it is utilized in a planned man- of the carbon and nitrogen present in the feedstock are not avail-
ner. Further, waste-to-energy provides a solution to waste man- able for digestion. Furthermore, it has been reported that at 37 C
agement and energy generation. An integrated anaerobic waste temperature the amount of biogas production is reaches at maxi-
valorization process is an interesting option for energy generation mum from each category of waste material under anaerobic diges-
from non-edible oil seed cakes [5]. tion process [13].
Anaerobic digestion is considered to be a sustainable bio-con- Most of the experimental studies have been performed to nd
version technology as it produces biogas a renewable gaseous fuel out the biogas generation potential of various feedstock mixture
and it also stabilizes and reduces the volume of waste. As a part of and its individual components of various categories of waste mate-
an integrated waste management system anaerobic digestion re- rials like animal dung, kitchen wastes, waste owers, etc. In the
duces the emission of green house gases into the atmosphere. anaerobic digestion, the pre-treated substrate produce higher
The degradation process or digestion of solids in an anaerobic di- amount of biogas as well as considerably reduce the total and vol-
gester takes place in three stages. The rst stage is the hydrolysis atile solids content in the digester. Furthermore, the chemical anal-
of particulate and colloidal wastes to solublise the waste in the ysis of substrates indicates an improvement in nitrogen content
form of organic acids and alcohols. The second stage is the conver- after anaerobic digestion [14]. The potential biogas production
sion of the organic acids and alcohols to acetate, carbon dioxide, from municipal garbage under batch anaerobic digestion at room
and hydrogen. The third stage is the production of gases mostly temperature conditions (26 4 C) for 240 days of retention time
methane and new bacterial cells or sludge from acetate and hydro- was reported 0.661 m3 kg1 of volatile solids. Total biogas yield
gen. In an anaerobic digester a great diversity of bacteria are re- from municipal garbage per kg dry matter was observed 0.50 m3
quired to perform phases of hydrolysis, acidogenesis and with an average methane content of the biogas of 70% by volume
methanogenesis of the input substrate feed that contains diversi- [15].
ed wastes in term of carbohydrates, fats and proteins [6]. Anaerobic digestion of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) mixed
The yield and constituents of biogas are greatly affected by car- with diluted poultry manure (DPM) in pilot plant reactor of 100 l,
bohydrates, fats and proteins contents of the feed material. Anaer- containing 40% volatile solids produces biogas at a rate of 1.53 l/
obic digestion of carbohydrates, fats and protein yields 886 l of d per unit volume of reactor with a methane content of 65% by vol-
biogas (with methane content of around 50%), 1535 l of biogas ume. Co-digestion of wastewater together with local agricultural
(with methane content of around 70%) and 587 l of biogas (with residues is a sustainable and environmentally attractive method
methane content of around 84%) per kg of VS destroyed, respec- to treat wastes and convert to useful resources. The biogas pro-
tively [7]. The oil seed cakes of jatropha and pongamia are rich in duced can be used for the generation of heat or electricity; apart
fat and protein and therefore, are considered to be good feed mate- from this energy co-digestion results in liquid and solid efuents
rial for biomethanation. that are also valuable as they retain all their nutrient constituents
The governing factors of anaerobic digestion process such as pH, (nitrogen, phosphorus, trace elements, etc.). Thus, it can be used as
retention time (RT), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS) and organ- bio-fertilizers and soil organic matter improvers [16].
ic loading rates (OLR) inuence the sensitivity of bacteria, the re- The review of the literature showed that no study has been re-
sponse to toxicity and acclimatization characteristics [8]. ported on anaerobic digestion of jatropha and pongamia oil seed
Methanogens are sensitive to both high and low pH and perform cakes. Although, the production of these two oil seed cakes is ex-
well within pH of 6.58.0 [9]. Long retention time increases the po- pected to be very high in India. These feed materials could be a po-
tential for acclimatization and also minimizes the severity of re- tential source of biogas production which would be used to
sponse to toxicity. The heavy metals at higher concentration supplement the petroleum demand in substantial amount.
have toxic effect on bacterial activity. Further, at higher OLR
non-toxic organic or inorganic substances become inhibitory to
bacterial growth. The threshold toxic levels of inorganic substances 2. Analysis of feed materials and experimental details of
depend on the conditions that whether these substances act alone anaerobic digestion process
or in combination. Certain combinations have a synergistic effect,
whereas other display an antagonistic effect [10,11]. The carbon/ 2.1. Proximate and ultimate analysis of feed material
nitrogen (C/N) ratio of the feedstock has been found to be a useful
parameter in providing optimal nitrogen level for bacterial growth. The proximate and ultimate analysis of jatropha and pongamia
The optimal C/N ratio is 30 [12]. The actual available C/N ratio is a oil seed cakes were carried out as per standard procedure de-
function of feedstock characteristics and digestion operational scribed below.
150 R. Chandra et al. / Applied Energy 93 (2012) 148159

2.1.1. Proximate analysis ment works on the principle of thermal conductivity detector
2.1.1.1. Moisture content. The moisture content of the feed material (TCD).
was determined as follows: the initial weight of the samples of
50 g biomass with pre-weighed moisture boxes were taken by 2.2. Start up of anaerobic digester
using an electronic balance with least count of 0.001 g. The sam-
ples were rst heated at 60 C for 24 h and then at 103 C for 3 h The major challenge in anaerobic digestion of jatropha and
using a hot air oven. The nal weight or dried samples weight with pongamia oil seed cakes is lack of inherent bacteria like in cattle
pre-weighed moisture boxes were recorded. The percentage mois- dung. Apart from the existing bacteria in a digester, fresh cattle
ture content of the sample was then calculated by using: dung continuously adds more bacteria to the digestion system
  and stabilizes the anaerobic digestion process. However, lack of
Ww  Wd the inherent bacteria, demands a special attention for operation
MC  100 1
Ww of digester with non-edible oil seed cakes. Another major draw-
back of oil seed cake is the presence of long chain free fatty acids,
where MC is the moisture content, % (wet basis); Ww is the weight
which can destroy the population of bacteria in the digester. More-
of wet sample, g; and Wd is the weight of oven dried sample, g.
over, an appropriate amount of cattle dung with oil seed cake may
stabilize the bacterial population.
2.1.1.2. Oil content. The oil content of the mechanically expelled oil
The time between initial digester feed sludge and stable opera-
seed cakes of jatropha and pongamia were determined by Soxhlet
tion of digester should be as short as possible for smooth start-up
extraction method. The samples of 200 g of jatropha and pongamia
of the anaerobic digestion process. The steady-state condition for
oil seed cakes were crushed using mechanical blender. The crushed
efcient operation of the digester is normally achieved approxi-
samples of oil seed cake were packed in a thimble and the oil was
mately in one month. This condition is reected by the production
extracted with the solvent n-hexane. The solvent n-hexane was -
of burnable biogas and a stable volatile acid-to-alkalinity ratio [6].
nally removed by rotary evaporator (Laborta 4000-Heidolph
The start-up is generally considered the most critical step in the
Instruments, Germany) to recover the oil.
operation of anaerobic digesters. Once an anaerobic digester has
been started up successfully, it is expected to run without much
2.1.1.3. Total solids content. The total solids content of feed materi-
attention as long as operating conditions are not signicantly al-
als were determined as per the standard method [17]. The initial
tered. The source of micro-organisms, the size of the inoculum
weight of the samples of 50 g biomass with pre-weighed porcelain
and the initial mode of operation are important factors during
boxes were taken by using an electronic balance with least count of
start-up. Usually, the inoculum volume is at least 10% of the new
0.001 g. The samples were rst heated at 60 C for 24 h and then at
digester volume and consists of an undened mixed culture from
103 C for 3 h using a hot air oven. The nal weight or dried sam-
an equivalent system that is actively digesting a similar feedstock
ples weight with pre-weighed porcelain boxes were recorded. The
[18].
percentage total solids content of the sample was then calculated
by using: 2.3. Preparation of efcient inoculum

Wd
TS  100 2 In the present study, a running 20 m3/d capacity oating drum
Ww
type biogas plant with cattle dung substrate was selected as an
where TS is the total solids, %; Wd is the weight of oven dried sam- environment. The feeding of cattle dung was stopped for three
ple, g; and Ww is the weight of wet sample, g. months to make sure that there is no unprocessed cattle dung
present in the digester (no volatile matter) prior to feeding of
2.1.1.4. Volatile solids content and non-volatile solids content. The non-edible oil seed cakes. Thereafter, feeding of pongamia oil seed
volatile solids content and non-volatile solids content of feed cake with a dilution ratio of 3:1 (water:oil seed cake on weight ba-
materials were determined as per the standard method [17]. The sis) was carried as per following schedule.
oven dried samples used for determination total solids content
were further dried at 550 C 50 C temperature for 1 h in a mufe Schedule 1. 8 kg of oil seed cake substrate (2 kg pongamia oil seed
furnace and allowed to ignite completely. The dishes were then cake with 6 kg water) with a dilution ratio of 3:1 for 5 days.
transferred to a desiccator for nal cooling. The weight of the
cooled porcelain dishes with ash were taken by the electronic bal- The position of gas holder drum was remain unchanged for rst
ance. The volatile solids content and non-volatile solids content of 2 days of the experiment. However, addition of oil seed cake sub-
the sample were calculated using: strate was continued. On third day of the experiment a small rise
  (approximately 10 cm) of gas holder drum was recorded which is
W d  W a equivalent to 0.90 m3 volume of biogas. The same feeding pattern
VS  100 3
Wd was continued for two more days and a rapid rise in gas holder
 
Wa drum was observed. This showed encouraging results in biogas
NVS  100 4
Wd production from pongamia oil seed cake.

where VS is the volatile solids in dry sample, %; NVS is the non-vol- Schedule 2. 20 kg of oil seed cake substrate (5 kg pongamia oil
atile solids in dry sample, %; Wd is the weight of oven dried sample, seed cake with 15 kg water) with a dilution ratio of 3:1 for next
g; Wa is the weight of dry ash left after igniting the sample in a muf- 10 days:
e furnace, g.
For the rst 2 days of increased loading, a drop in gas produc-
2.1.2. Ultimate analysis tion was observed as compared to fth day of the experiment.
Carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen contents in feed materials (cat- The feeding was continued for few more days and positive results
tle dung, jatropha oil seed cake and pongamia oil seed cake) were were observed on third day with rapid upward movement of gas
determined using fully automatic instrument Vario EL elemental holder drum. The gas holder drum reached at its highest position
analyzer (Perkin Elmer, USA Made) which enables speedy and (30 cm) on fth day and remained almost at the same level up to
accurate quantitative analysis of CHN in the sample. The instru- tenth day during the experiment.
R. Chandra et al. / Applied Energy 93 (2012) 148159 151

This pattern of biogas production from pongamia oil seed cake was calculated by adding daily biogas, methane and carbon dioxide
showed the adaptation of bacteria to the changed environment of- production, respectively. Specic biogas production (m3/kg TS &
fered by the new substrate possibly by developing a suitable strain. m3/kg VS), specic methane production (m3/kg TS & m3/kg VS)
This acclimatization is due to the fact that, when the concentra- and total volatile solids removal efciency (%) were determined
tions of inhibitory or toxic materials are slowly increased within by using standard formulae.
the environment many micro-organisms rearrange their metabolic
resources, and overcoming the metabolic block produced by the 2.4.1. Theoretical calculation
inhibitory or toxic materials. However, sufcient time must be Observed daily biogas production was corrected at standard
available to the bacteria for the rearrangement of metabolic re- temperature and pressure (STP) condition using Eq. (5). STP refers
sources under sudden change in environment [19]. to 0 C (273 K) temperature and one atmospheric pressure.
The slurry of the biogas plant fed with pongamia oil seed cake  
was used as inoculum for anaerobic digestion of jatropha and
273  BV
BVo 5
pongamia oil seed cakes substrates. The new micro-organisms 273 T
present in the inoculum could act comfortably with jatropha and where BVo is the volume of daily produced biogas at STP (at 0 C), l
pongamia oil seed cake substrates. The above study lead to a set or m3; BV is the volume of daily produced biogas at temperature T, l
of important developments namely, an effective inoculum as a pool or m3; T is the observed biogas temperature, C.
of new micro-organisms, an optimal size of the inoculum and a The daily production of methane and carbon dioxide in pro-
mode of operation of the anaerobic digester [18]. duced biogas were determined by:
CH4 Conc:
2.4. Experimental biogas plant and parameters of anaerobic digestion CH4Yield  BVo 6
100
process
where CH4Yield is the daily methane yield at STP, l or m3 CH4 Conc. is
Anaerobic digestion of jatropha and pongamia oil seed cake the methane concentration in biogas, %
substrates were carried out in a oating drum biogas plant of CO2 Conc:
20 m3/d capacity by continuous (daily) feeding of substrates for CO2Yield  BVo 7
100
30 days. Fig. 1a and b shows the schematic and pictorial view of
experimental biogas plant. Table 1 shows daily feeding level where CO2Yield is the carbon dioxide yield at STP, l or m3; CO2 Conc.
of jatropha and pongamia oil seed cake substrates. Measurement is the carbon dioxide concentration in biogas, %.
of ambient temperature and substrate temperature (C) was car- The specic biogas production (per unit TS and VS) were calcu-
ried by using K-type thermocouple. Substrate temperature was lated using:
 
measured by inserting a thermocouple into the digester of the bio- BVo
gas plant at a depth of 1.0 m. The daily biogas production (m3) at BVoSpecificTS 8
DMF  TS
standard temperature and pressure (STP) was measured. The
methane and carbon dioxide content in the produced biogas was  
BVo
measured by using a Biogas Analyzer (Model No. MG-609u) made BVoSpecificVS 9
DMF  VS
by Chemtron Science Limited, Mumbai, India. This biogas analyzer
was specially built for compositional analysis of biogas constitu- where BVoSpecicTS is the specic biogas production, m3/kg TS;
ents (CH4 and CO2). The infrared sensors for methane and carbon BVoSpecicVS is specic biogas production, m3/kg VS; DMF is the daily
dioxide have measurement range of 0100%. The cumulative bio- mass of feed, kg; TS is the total solids content, decimal; VS is the
gas, methane and carbon dioxide production over the study period volatile solids content, decimal.

(a) Gas Holder Supporting Structure


(b)

Ground Level
Central Guide Frame

Flange Plates
Earth Filling

F
10 Diamter ASB/CEM Pipe

10 Diamter ASB/CEM Pipe

30
15 Thick Partion Wall
CC Foundation (1:3:6)

B1 B
C

D
D
30 30
15
A
7. 5 23 23 7.5
All dimensions in centimetres

Fig. 1. (a and b) A view of biogas plant (20 m3/d) fed with jatropha and pongamia oil seed cakes.
152 R. Chandra et al. / Applied Energy 93 (2012) 148159

Table 1
Total solids and volatile solids concentration in the substrates.

Treatment Substrate concentration of the daily feed material


Total solids Volatile solids
kg/d % kg/d %
Jatropha oil seed cake substrate 9.25 18.5 8.64 17.3
Pongamia oil seed cake substrate 8.95 19.9 8.53 19.0

The specic methane production (per unit TS and VS) was Thus, for estimation of total volatile solids mass removal ef-
determined using: ciency the Eq. (14) becomes:
 
CH4Yield 16CH4 Conc: 2 Conc:
44CO100
MVoSpecificTS 10 TVSMRE 100
 BVo  DBF  100 15
DMF  TS 22:413  TVSM
  where TVSMRE is the total volatile solids mass removal efciency,
CH4Yield
MVoSpecificVS 11 %; TVSM is the total volatile solids input mass, kg.
DMF  VS
where MVoSpecicTS is the specic methane production, m3/kg TS; 3. Results and discussion
MVoSpecicVS is the specic methane production, m3/kg VS.
The loss of volatile solids during anaerobic digestion process oc- 3.1. Properties of feed materials
curs due to conversion of the volatile solids primarily into biogas.
Thus, the total volatile solids mass removal efciency was esti- Tables 2 and 3 show the proximate and ultimate analysis of feed
mated based on biogas production rate. In this estimation method, materials. The proximate analysis of jatropha and pongamia oil
it was assumed that the organic mass converted into biogas is seed cakes showed the volatile solids content of these oil seed
equal to the mass of dry biogas produced. The methane and carbon cakes was more than six times higher than that of cattle dung. Ta-
dioxide content in the biogas was determined for every operating ble 2 shows that the non-volatile solids content of both oil seed
day during the entire period of operation. An assumption was cakes was very low in comparison to cattle dung. This is due to
made that biogas behaves as an ideal gas. non presence of lingo-cellulosic materials in oil seed cake. Table
The total volatile solids mass removed was then assumed to be 3 clearly shows that the carbon and hydrogen contents in the oil
equal to mass of methane and carbon dioxide produced as given in: seed cakes were also higher than that of cattle dung.
TVS mass removed Mass of CH4 Mass of CO2 12
3.2. Parameters of anaerobic digestion process
The requirement of above approach is that the biogas volume
and its contents should be accurately measured. The molecular
3.2.1. pH of input substrate
weight of methane and carbon dioxide as well as dry biogas volume
The average pH of input substrate for the jatropha oil seed cake
were then correlated to obtain total volatile solids mass removed.
substrate, JC (4.0 DR, 0% CD) was found as 6.8. Similarly, the aver-
The following relationship (Eq. (13)) was used to obtain the total
age pH of input substrate for pongamia oil seed cake substrate, PC
volatile solids mass removed in the anaerobic digestion process:
(3.5 DR, 0% CD) was found as 6.1. It has been reported that, most
16CH4 Conc: 2 Conc: anaerobic bacteria including methane-forming bacteria perform
100
44CO100
TVSMR  BVo  DBF 13 well within a pH ranges from 6.8 to 7.2. The pH in an anaerobic di-
22:413
gester initially decreases due to the production of volatile acids.
where TVSMR is the total volatile solids mass removed, kg; BVo is However, as methane-forming bacteria consume the volatile acids
the daily biogas volume at STP (at 0 C), m3; DBF is the dry biogas and alkalinity is produced, the pH of the digester increases and
factor. then stabilizes. At hydraulic retention time more than 5 days the
The constants 16 and 44 represent the molecular weight of methane-forming bacteria begin to rapidly consume the volatile
methane and carbon dioxide, respectively. The volume of one mole acids. In a properly operating anaerobic digester the pH is main-
of ideal gas at STP was taken as 22.413 l in the above equation.The tained between 6.8 and 7.2 as volatile acids are converted into
total volatile solids mass removal efciency of the anaerobic diges-
tion process is expressed as the % removal of initial total volatile
solids. The total volatile solids mass removal efciency (TVSMRE) Table 3
was calculated using the following relationship given in: Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen contents and carbonnitrogen ratio of the feed materials.

Sl. no. Feed material C (%) H (%) N (%) C/N ratio


TVSMRE Total VS mass removed=Initial total VS mass fed
s1 Cattle dung 35.20 4.60 1.55 22.7
 100 2 Jatropha oil seed cake 48.80 6.20 3.85 12.7
14 3 Pongamia oil seed cake 47.80 6.50 5.50 8.7

Table 2
Physiochemical properties of basic feed materials.

Feed material Physiochemical properties


Moisture content (%) Oil content (%) Total solids (%) Volatile solids (%) Non-volatile solids (%)
Cattle dung 81.6 (442.5 db) 18.4 14.4 (78.8 db) 21.2
Jatropha oil seed cake 7.5 (8.1 db) 8.3 92.5 86.4 (93.0 db) 7.0
Pongamia oil seed cake 10.5 (11.7 db) 7.2 89.5 85.3 (94.8 db) 5.2
R. Chandra et al. / Applied Energy 93 (2012) 148159 153

Fig. 2. Daily biogas production rate from jatropha oil seed cake substrate.

methane and carbon dioxide. The pH of an anaerobic system is sig- 30 days retention time period was observed as 6.541 m3/d. Simi-
nicantly affected by the carbon dioxide content of the biogas [6]. larly, daily biogas production yield at feeding rate of 8.95 kg TS/d
and substrate temperature with respect to retention time for pong-
3.2.2. Daily biogas production amia oil seed cake substrate (PC (3.5 DR, 0% CD)) is depicted in
Fig. 2 shows the relationship between the daily biogas produc- Fig. 3. Average daily biogas production over a period of 30 days
tion yield and substrate temperature with respect to retention was found as 7.791 m3/d. It was observed that biogas production
time for jatropha oil seed cake substrate, JC (4.0 DR, 0% CD) at feed- rate became stable after eighth day of digestion process. Figs. 2
ing rate of 9.25 kg TS/d. The average daily biogas production during and 3 depicted that the biogas production rate during initial days

Fig. 3. Daily biogas production rate from pongamia oil seed cake substrate.
154 R. Chandra et al. / Applied Energy 93 (2012) 148159

(17 days) was very low as compared to than later days of reten- mesophilic methanogens come into play in the temperature range
tion time. It has been reported that when the hydraulic retention of 2045 C and the biogas production reaches the maximum when
time is more than 5 days, the methane-forming bacteria begin to the process temperature is maintained around 35 C [20]. Further-
rapidly consume the volatile acids, and thereby more biogas pro- more, it has also been reported that most of the methane-forming
duction occurs [6]. bacteria are active in mesophilic range from 30 to 35 C [21].
The substrate temperature during anaerobic digestion of jatro-
pha oil seed cake and pongamia oil seed cake were observed in 3.2.3. Methane and carbon dioxide content of produced biogas
the range of 26.334.5 C and 33.735.2 C, respectively. The ob- Fig. 4 shows the variation of methane and carbon dioxide con-
served substrate temperature indicates that the digester was oper- tent in the produced biogas from jatropha oil seed cake substrate.
ating in mesophilic temperature range. It has been reported that The maximum and minimum values of methane and carbon

Fig. 4. Variation of methane and carbon dioxide content in produced biogas from jatropha oil seed cake substrate.

Fig. 5. Variation of methane and carbon dioxide content in produced biogas from pongamia oil seed cake substrate.
R. Chandra et al. / Applied Energy 93 (2012) 148159 155

dioxide were found to vary from 68.0% to 60.7% and 32.7% to 29.0%, respectively. The average value of methane and carbon dioxide
respectively starting from rst day to thirtieth day of retention content over 30 days of retention time period were found as
time. The average methane and carbon dioxide content over 62.5% and 33.5%, respectively.
30 days were found as 66.6% and 31.3%, respectively. Similarly, The observed values of methane concentration in the produced
the variation of methane and carbon dioxide content of biogas pro- biogas from jatropha and pongamia oil seed cake substrates have
duced from pongamia oil seed cake substrate is shown in Fig. 5. showed a signicantly higher methane percentage than the pro-
The maximum and minimum values of methane and carbon diox- duced biogas from cattle dung. This fact is due to degradation of
ide were found to vary from 65.3% to 56.0% and 38.3% to 31.7%, fats and proteins give more methane content (7084%) in the

Fig. 6. Cumulative biogas, methane and carbon dioxide yields from jatropha oil seed cake substrate.

Fig. 7. Cumulative biogas, methane and carbon dioxide yields from pongamia oil seed cake substrate.
156 R. Chandra et al. / Applied Energy 93 (2012) 148159

biogas than 50% from carbohydrates [6]. It was also observed that substrate. The cumulative biogas, methane and carbon dioxide pro-
the variation of the average methane content in the biogas pro- duction were found as 196.224, 131.258 and 61.271 m3, respec-
duced from jatropha oil seed cake substrate was marginally higher tively with total 259.2 kg of input volatile solids. Fig. 7 shows
in comparison to pongamia oil seed cake substrate. cumulative biogas, methane and carbon dioxide production over
30 days retention period for pongamia oil seed cake substrate.
3.2.4. Cumulative biogas, methane and carbon dioxide production The cumulative biogas, methane and carbon dioxide production
Fig. 6 shows cumulative biogas, methane and carbon dioxide were found as 233.725, 147.605 and 77.625 m3, respectively with
production over 30 days retention period for jatropha oil seed cake total 255.9 kg of input volatile solids.

Fig. 8. Variation of specic biogas yield on jatropha oil seed cake substrate.

Fig. 9. Variation of specic biogas yield on pongamia oil seed cake substrate.
R. Chandra et al. / Applied Energy 93 (2012) 148159 157

3.2.5. Specic biogas production rate larly, the average specic biogas production yield over 30 days
The variation in specic biogas production yield per unit TS and retention time period on pongamia oil seed cake substrate was
per unit VS in case of jatropha and pongamia oil seed cake sub- found in the range of 0.170.87 m3/kg TS and 0.180.91 m3/kg VS.
strates are depicted in Figs. 8 and 9, respectively. The observed The average specic biogas yield with jatropha oil seed cake
range of specic biogas production yield with jatropha oil seed substrate over the 30 days retention time period was recorded as
cake substrate with in 30 days retention time period was observed 0.598 m3/kg TS and 0.640 m3/kg VS. Similarly, the average value
in the range of 0.160.71 m3/kg TS and 0.170.76 m3/kg VS. Simi- of specic biogas production yield with pongamia oil seed cake

Fig. 10. Variation of specic methane yield on jatropha oil seed cake substrate.

Fig. 11. Variation of specic methane yield on pongamia oil seed cake substrate.
158 R. Chandra et al. / Applied Energy 93 (2012) 148159

over the 30 days retention time period was observed as 0.703 m3/ substrate over the 30 days retention time period was found
kg TS and 0.738 m3/kg VS. 0.0970.473 m3/kg TS and 0.1040.506 m3/kg VS. Similarly, the
specic methane production yield over the 30 days retention time
3.2.6. Specic methane production rate period with pongamia oil seed cake substrate was found in the
The variation in specic methane production yield per unit TS range of 0.0960.55 m3/kg TS and 0.1000.577 m3/kg VS.
and per unit VS in case of jatropha and pongamia oil seed cake sub- The average specic methane production yield with jatropha oil
strates are shown in Figs. 10 and 11, respectively. The range of spe- seed cake substrate over the 30 days retention time period was re-
cic methane production yield with jatropha oil seed cake corded as 0.394 m3/kg TS and 0.422 m3/kg VS. The average specic

Fig. 12. Variation of total volatile solids mass removal efciency of the anaerobic digestion process on jatropha oil seed cake substrate.

Fig. 13. Variation of total volatile solids mass removal efciency of the anaerobic digestion process on pongamia oil seed cake substrate.
R. Chandra et al. / Applied Energy 93 (2012) 148159 159

methane production yield over the 30 days retention time period Acknowledgements
with pongamia oil seed cake substrate was observed as 0.427 m3/
kg TS and 0.448 m3/kg VS. Authors are highly thankful to Centre for Rural Development
and Technology and Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian
Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India for providing neces-
3.2.7. Total volatile solids mass removal efciency of the anaerobic sary facilities, support and nancial funding to conduct this re-
digestion process search work. Authors are also highly thankful to Prof. S.K.
Fig. 12 shows the variation in total volatile solids mass removal Rautaray, Head Department of Farm Power and Machinery, College
efciency of the anaerobic digestion process of jatropha oil seed of Agricultural Engineering and Post Harvest Technology (Central
cake, JC (4.0 DR, 0% CD). The total volatile solids mass removal ef- Agricultural University), Ranipool, Gangtok, Sikkim, India for his
ciency of jatropha oil seed cake substrate over the 30 days reten- kind help in revision of the manuscript.
tion time period was found in the range of 15.771.8%. Similarly,
Fig. 13 shows the variation in total volatile solids mass removal
efciency of the anaerobic digestion process of pongamia oil seed References
cake, PC (3.5 DR, 0% CD). The total volatile solid mass removal ef- [1] Gui MM, Lee KT, Bhatia S. Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste
ciency on pongamia oil seed cake substrate over the 30 days of edible oil as bio-diesel feedstock. Energy 2008;33:164653.
retention time period was found in the range of 16.097.2%. [2] Radhakrishna P. Tree borne oil seeds as a source of energy for decentralized
planning. New Delhi, India: Government of India, Ministry of New and
The average total volatile solids mass removal efciency of
Renewable Energy; 2003.
jatropha oil seed cake substrate over the 30 days retention time [3] Tewari DN. Report of the committee on development of biofuel. Government of
period was recorded as 59.6%. Further, the average total volatile India, New Delhi: Planning Commission; 2003.
[4] Gouri AA. Jatropha not ready to go commercial. Economic Times, Delhi Edition.
solids mass removal efciency over the 30 day retention time of
Section: Economy, vol. 25; September 25, 2007.
pongamia oil seed cake substrate was observed as 74.9%. [5] Morin P, Marcos B, Moresoli C, Laamme CB. Economic and environmental
The study revealed that the biogas yield per unit TS and VS was assessment on the energetic valorization of organic material for a municipality
found higher in case of pongamia oil seed cake substrate than that in Quebec, Canada. Appl Energy 2010;87:27583.
[6] Geraradi MH. The microbiology of anaerobic digesters. Hoboken New
of jatropha oil seed cake substrate. This is due to lower content of Jersey: John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2003.
non-volatile solids in pongamia oil seed cake (5.2%) than in jatro- [7] Mittal KM. Biogas systems: principles and applications. New Delhi: New Age
pha oil seed cake (7.0%). Furthermore, it was observed that the International (P) Ltd; 1996.
[8] Hashimoto AG, Chen YR. In: Proc 4th international symposium on livestock
pongamia oil seed cake has higher biodegradability than jatropha wastes. American Society of Agricultural Engineering; 1981. p. 12932.
oil seed cake, may be due to higher concentrations of long-chain [9] Martin AD. Understanding anaerobic digestion. Presentation to the
fatty acid oleates and stearates in jatropha oil seed cake. Environmental Services Association. <www.esauk.org> (16.10.07).
[10] Kungelman IJ, McCarty PLJ. Water Pollut Control Fed 1965;37:97115.
[11] Kungelman IJ, Chin KK. Adv Chem Ser 1971;105(23):5589.
[12] Fry LJ. Practical building of methane power plants for rural energy
4. Conclusions independence. D.A. Knox, Andover, Hamsphire, USA; 1975.
[13] Tanusri M, Mandal NK. Comparative study of biogas production from different
waste materials. J Energy Conserv Manage 1997;38(7):67983.
The proximate and ultimate analysis of jatropha and pongamia [14] Patrabansh S. Biogas from organic waste-a potential source of energy for
oil seed cakes conrmed that they have rich proportionate of vol- Nepal. In: Proceedings of the international conference on renewable energy for
rural development, Dhaka, Bangladesh; 1921 January, 2002. p. 16973.
atile solids content. These oil seed cakes have low non-volatile sol- [15] Rao MS, Singh SP, Singh AK, Sodha MS. Bioenergy conversion studies of the
ids content, higher content of hydrogen and carbon as compared to organic fraction of MSW: assessment of ultimate bioenergy production
the cattle dung. Results show that the jatropha and pongamia oil potential of municipal garbage. Appl Energy 2000;66:7587.
[16] Gelegenis J, Georgakakis D, Angelidaki I, Christopoulou N, Goumenaki M.
seed cakes contain more than six times higher volatile solids con- Optimization of biogas production from olive-oil mill wastewater by
tent in comparison to that of cattle dung. Further, the anaerobic codigesting with diluted poultry-manure. Appl Energy 2007;84:64663.
digestion of jatropha oil seed cake, JC (4.0 DR, 0% CD) is resulted [17] Anonymous. Standard methods for examination of water and waste water,
17th ed. APHA, AWWA, WPCF; 1989.
into an average specic biogas and specic methane production [18] Grifn ME, McMahon KD, Mackie RI, Raskin L. Methanogenic population
potential of 0.640 m3/kg VS and 0.422 m3/kg VS, respectively with dynamics during start-up of anaerobic digesters treating municipal solid
an average total volatile solids mass removal efciency of 59.6%. waste and biosolids. Biotechnol Bioeng 1998;57(3):34255.
[19] Nicholas Mignone A. Biological inhibition/toxicity control in municipal
Whereas, the anaerobic digestion of pongamia oil seed cake, PC
anaerobic digestion facilities; 2005. <http://www.awpca.net/
(3.5 DR, 0% CD) yields an average specic biogas and specic meth- Biological%20Inhibition.pdf>.
ane production of 0.738 m3/kg VS and 0.448 m3/kg VS, respectively [20] Zeeman G, Koster-Treffers ME, Halm HD. Anaerobic digestion of dairy cow
with an average total volatile solids mass removal efciency of slurry. In: European symposium on anaerobic waste water treatment. TNO
Corporate Communication Department; 1983. p. 492510.
74.9% over a retention time period of 30 days. The biogas produced [21] Deublein D, Steinhauser A. Biogas from waste and renewable sources: an
from jatropha and pongamia oil seed cakes contains 1520% more introduction. Weinheim: WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2008.
methane than the biogas produced from the cattle dung.