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Maintenance Engineering


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What is Maintenance?
Maintenance is work that is carried out to preserve an asset (such as a roof or a heating boiler), in order to enable its
continued use and function, above a minimum acceptable level of performance, over its design service life, without
unforeseen renewal or major repair activities

What is Maintenance Engineering?

Maintenance Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying engineering concepts to the optimization of equipment,
procedures, and departmental budgets to achieve better maintainability, reliability, and availability of equipment.
Maintenance, and hence maintenance engineering, is increasing in importance due to rising amounts of equipment,
systems, machineries and infrastructure. Since the Industrial Revolution, devices, equipment, machinery and structures
have grown increasingly complex, requiring a host of personnel, vocations and related systems needed to maintain them.

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It was until 1950 that a group of Japanese engineers began a maintenance practice, was simply following the
recommendations of equipment manufacturers about the care that should be taken into the operation and maintenance of
machines and devices.
This trend was called "Preventive Maintenance". As a result, plant managers were interested in having their supervisors,
mechanics, electricians and other technicians, develop programs to lubricate and making key observations to prevent
equipment damage.
Although this helped reduce losses of time, the Preventive Maintenance was an expensive alternative. The reason: Many
parts were replaced based on time of operation, while they could have lasted longer and consumed unnecessarily long
hours of work.
The times and needs changed in 1960 when the concept, "Productive Maintenance" came into picture. Highest
responsibilities were assigned to people related to the maintenance and considerations were made about the reliability and
the design of equipment and plant. It was a profound change and generated the term "Plant Engineering" instead of
"Maintenance", the tasks included a higher level of knowledge of the reliability of each component of machines and facilities
in general.

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Types Of Maintenance
Breakdown Maintenance (Or Corrective Maintenance)
Preventive Maintenance
Total Productive Maintenance
Predictive Maintenance
Periodic Maintenance
Condition Based Maintenance

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Maintenance is carried out following detection of an anomaly and aimed at restoring normal operating conditions. This
approach is based on the firm belief that the costs sustained for downtime and repair in case of fault are lower than the
investment required for a maintenance program. This strategy may be cost-effective until catastrophic faults occur.

Such a thing could be used only when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or
generate any significant loss other than repair cost.

Maintenance carried out at predetermined intervals or according to prescribed criteria, aimed at reducing the failure risk
or performance degradation of the equipment.
The maintenance cycles are planned according to the need to take the device out of service. The incidence of operating
faults is reduced.
It is further divided into periodic maintenance and predictive maintenance. Just like human life is extended by preventive
medicine, the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance.

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Total productive maintenance (TPM) is a maintenance philosophy that

requires the total participation of the workforce. TPM incorporates the skills
of all employees and focuses on improving the overall effectiveness of the
facility by eliminating the waste of time and resources. Typically, total
productive maintenance is a concept that is most easily applied to a
manufacturing facility.

TPM emphasizes all aspects of production, as it seeks to

incorporate maintenance into the everyday performance
of a facility. To do this the maintenance performance is one factor that is considered when evaluating the performance of the facility. One of
the most important measurements of total productive maintenance is overall equipment effectiveness (OEE). It is a measure of availability,
performance efficiency and quality rate. As such, equipment stopping, equipment working at less than peak capacity, and equipment
producing poor quality products are all penalized when the OEE is determined.

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Significant activities carried out regularly (according to predetermined schedule) to maintain the condition or operational
status of a building, equipment, machine, plant, or system. Also called time based maintenance.

Maintenance carried out by integrating analysis, measurement and periodic test activities to standard preventive
The gathered information is viewed in the context of the environmental, operation and process condition of the equipment in
the system. The aim is to perform the asset condition and risk assessment and define the appropriate maintenance
All equipment displaying abnormal values is refurbished or replaced. In this way it is possible to extend the useful life and
guarantee over time high levels of reliability, safety and efficiency of the plant.

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Maintenance based on the equipment performance monitoring and the control of the corrective actions taken as a result.
The real actual equipment condition is continuously assessed by the on-line detection of significant working device
parameters and their automatic comparison with average values and performance. Maintenance is carried out when certain
indicators give the signaling that the equipment is deteriorating and the failure probability is increasing.
This strategy, in the long term, allows reducing drastically the costs associated with maintenance, thereby minimizing the
occurrence of serious faults and optimizing the available economic resources management.

The key to a successful condition monitoring programme includes:

1. Knowing what to listen for
2. How to interpret it
3. When to put this knowledge to use

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Lower start up cost Unpredictability

Limited personnel requirement Equipment not maximised

Reduced maintenance costs Indirect costs

Potentially increased margins

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Preventive Maintenance

all verystart
cost Catastrophic failure still a risk
Flexibility can allow for adjustment of schedule
to accommodate
Limited personnelother work
requirement Labour Intensive
Increased equipment life
Saved energy costmaintenance
resulting fromcosts
equipment Performance of maintenance based on
running from pick efficiency schedule not required
Potentially increased margins
Reduced equipment or process failure Risk of damage when conducting
unneeded maintenance
Over all saving between 12% to 18%

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Total Productive Maintenance

Productivity Improvement
Lower start up cost Breakdown losses
Quality Improvement Setup and adjustment losses
personnel requirement
Reduction Idling and minor stoppage losses
Employee Ownership
Reduced maintenance costs Speed losses
Improved working environment
Increased increased
Potentially Plant Reliability
margins Strat-up/ yield losses

Customer Satisfaction Quality defects and rework losses

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Predictive Maintenance

Increased component
Lower start up operational
cost Increased investment of diagnostic
life/availability equipment
Allows for pre-emptive
Limited personnelcorrective action
requirement Increased staff training for analysing
Decreased part and labour cost data
Improved maintenance
safety costs
and environment Saving not readily visible without a
Energy savings
Potentially increased margins
Over all saving between 8% to 12% over
preventive maintenance

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Condition Based Maintenance

CBM is performed while the asset is working, this Condition monitoring test equipment is expensive to
lowers disruptions to normal operations install, and databases cost money to analyze
Cost to train staff you need a knowledgeable
Reduces the cost of asset failures
professional to analyze the data and perform the work
Improves equipment reliability Fatigue or uniform wear failures are not easily detected
with CBM measurements
Minimizes unscheduled downtime due to
Condition sensors may not survive in the operating
catastrophic failure environment
May require asset modifications to retrofit the system
Minimizes time spent on maintenance
with sensors
Minimizes overtime costs by scheduling the
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What maintenance plans are adopted by
commercial aircraft operators and how are
these being accomplished in a cost effective manner?
Modern industries focus mainly on implementing lean methodologies and Just In - Tim e
( J I T ) systems by incorporating better reliability systems in their maintenance operations.
Same situation exists in aviation industries too, where it is found that components that dont
require frequent maintenance or removals are subject to Preventive maintenance the
components are subjected to maintenance/removal in a fixed time interval though it works
well. Considering financial aspects of such maintenance, the industry has taken to Reliability
Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodology.

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Aircraft Maintenance contributes more than 12% of the total operational cost in aircraft.

Reliability Centered Maintenance, or RCM, is a logical, structure framework for determining the optimum mix of applicable and
effective maintenance activities needed to sustain the desired level of operational reliability of systems and equipment while
ensuring their safe and economical operation and support.

RCM is a methodology to segregate the maintenance tasks based on their criticality and thereby revising its existing
maintenance program considering financial benefits as well as ensuring safety.

Four step standard procedures:

1. Record Part History Details (for failure data collection)

2. Fault Isolation
3. Reliability Analysis and
4. Reliability report showing revised maintenance program

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Aircraft Maintenance Checks

Aircraft maintenance checks are periodic inspections that have to be done on all commercial/civil aircraft after a certain
amount of time or usage.

Airlines and airworthiness authorities casually refer to the detailed inspections as "checks", commonly one of the

A Check
B Check
C Check
D Check

A and B checks are lighter checks, while C and D are considered heavier checks.

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This is performed approximately every 400-600 flight hours or 200300 cycles (takeoff and landing is considered an aircraft
"cycle"), depending on aircraft type.
It needs about 150-180 man-hours and is usually on the ground in a hangar for a minimum of 10 hours. The actual
occurrence of this check varies by aircraft type, the cycle count, or the number of hours flown since the last check. The
occurrence can be delayed by the airline if certain predetermined conditions are met.


This is performed approximately every 6-8 months. It needs about 160-180 man- hours, depending on the aircraft, and is
usually completed within 13 days at an airport hangar.
A similar occurrence schedule applies to the B check as to the A check. However, B checks may also be incorporated into
successive A checks, i.e.: Checks A-1 through A-10 complete all the B check items.

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This is performed approximately every 20 24 months or a specific amount of actual flight hours (FH) or as defined by the
manufacturer. This maintenance check is much more extensive than a B check, requiring a large majority of the aircraft's
components to be inspected.
This check puts the aircraft out of service and until it is completed, the aircraft must not leave the maintenance site. It also
requires more space than A and B checks. It is, therefore, usually carried out in a hangar at a maintenance base. The time
needed to complete such a check is generally 12 weeks and the effort involved can require up to 6,000 man- hours. The
schedule of occurrence has many factors and components as has been described, and thus varies by aircraft category and

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Because of the nature and the cost of such a check, most airlines especially those with a large fleet have to plan D checks for their
aircraft years in advance. Often, older aircraft being phased out of a particular airline's fleet are either stored or scrapped upon reaching
their next D check, due to the high costs involved in comparison to the aircraft's value.

On average, a commercial aircraft undergoes three D checks before being retired. Many maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) shops
claim that it is virtually impossible to perform a D check profitably at a shop located within the United States. As such, only a few of these
shops offer D checks.

Given the time requirements of this check, many airlines use the opportunity in order to also make major cabin modifications on the
aircraft, which would otherwise require an amount of time that would have to put the aircraft out of service without the need for an
inspection. This may include new seats, entertainment systems, carpeting, etc.

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Tasks Performed by Maintenance Personnel
The basics types of tasks that are performed by maintenance personnel are each applicable under a unique set of
The task types include:

Inspections of an item to find and correct any potential failures;

Rework/remanufacture/overhaul of an item at or before some specified time or age limit;
Discard of an item (or parts of it) at or before some specified life limit; and
Failure finding inspections of a hidden- function item to find and correct functional failures that have already occurred but were not
evident to the operating crew.

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Sample Checklists

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REFERENCES,_repair,_and_operations#Preventive_maintenance modificationsmaintenance/maintenance- you-can-do-it Reliability_Centered_Maintenance_White_Paper.pdf Short_RCMCondMonMxMangement.pdf commercial-aircraft-maintenance-repair-- overhaul-m Documents/engineering-maintenance.pdf
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Thank You!
Have A Nice Day

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