Math 113 Homework 2 Solutions
due July 5, 2011
1. Prove that the additive group R ^{+} of real numbers is isomorphic to the multiplicative group P of positive reals.
Solution: Consider the function φ : R ^{+} → P given by φ(x) = e ^{x} . φ is
a bijection, as it has an inverse φ ^{−}^{1} : P → R ^{+} given by φ ^{−}^{1} (x) = ln(x).
Further, for all a, b ∈ R we have φ(a + b) = e ^{a}^{+}^{b} = e ^{a} e ^{b} = φ(a)φ(b), so φ
is
a homomorphism. Hence φ is an isomorphism and R ^{+} ^{∼} P.
=
2. Prove that the matrices A := _{} 1
and
B :=
^{1}
1
1 1 _{}
1
are conjugate elements in the group GL _{2} (R), but that they are not con jugate when regarded as elements of SL _{2} (R).
Solution: Consider the permutation matrix P =
P AP ^{−}^{1} = B. Further, det(P ) = −1, so P ∈ GL _{2} (R); this shows that A and B are conjugate as elements of GL _{2} (R).
1 . Observe that
1
Now suppose they were conjugate by some element Q ∈ SL _{2} (R), say
QAQ ^{−}^{1} = B, where Q =
_{d} ^{b} . Then
^{a}
c
_{Q}_{A} _{=} ^{}
a
c
a + b
_{d}
c +
= BQ =
a a + c
b b + d
Therefore a
SL _{2} (R). So A and B are not conjugate as elements of SL _{2} (R).
=
0 and
b
=
c,
so det(Q) = −b ^{2}
< 0, contradicting Q ∈
3. Prove that the set Aut(G) of automorphisms of a group G forms a group, the law of composition being composition of functions.
Solution: The automorphisms form a subset of the permutations of the underlying set of G. Function composition is always associative, bijections are invertible (with inverse map also a bijection), and a composition of bijections is a bijection, so the permutations of the underlying set of G form a group. We must show that Aut(G) is a subgroup.
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The identity map is clearly an automorphism.
If φ ∈ Aut(G), then for all a, b ∈ G we have
φ(φ ^{−}^{1} (ab)) = ab = φ(φ ^{−}^{1} (a))φ(φ ^{−}^{1} (b)) = φ(φ ^{−}^{1} (a)φ ^{−}^{1} (b))
as φ is a homomorphism; applying φ ^{−}^{1} to both sides we see that φ ^{−}^{1} is likewise a homomorphism, hence an automorphism.
Finally if φ, ψ ∈ Aut(G), then for all a, b ∈ G, we have
φ(ψ(ab)) = φ (ψ(a)ψ(b)) = φ(ψ(a))φ(ψ(b))
so a composition of automorphisms is an automorphism, and we are done.
4. Determine the group of automorphisms of the following groups.
(a) Z ^{+}
(b)
(c)
Solution: Homomorphisms φ with cyclic domain are determined by the image of a generator x, since then φ(x ^{n} ) = φ(x) ^{n} ; if the domain is Z ^{+} , 1 may go to any element of the codomain, so the set of homo morphisms φ : Z ^{+} → Z ^{+} (called the endomorphisms of Z ^{+} ) is just the collection of maps given by multiplication by an element of Z. Of these, only 1 and −1 (i.e. the maps φ(x) = x, φ(x) = −x) are bijections. Hence the group of automorphisms is {1, −1} ^{×} ^{∼} Z/2Z.
More simply, a map of cyclic groups is a surjection iﬀ the image of a generator is a generator; Z has two generators {1, −1}, which may be transposed or not.
a cyclic group of order 10 Solution: Again, representing the group operation as addition mod ulo 10, endomorphisms of this group are given by multiplication by some integer modulo 10. The only ones that are bijections are those
taking 1 to a generator, corresponding to multiplication by an integer relatively prime to 10, namely 1, 3, 7, or 9. Thus Aut(Z/10Z) = 4. Let φ ∈ Aut(Z/10Z) be the map given by ’multiplication by 3 modulo
10’. As 3 ^{2} = 9
to 4, in Aut(Z/10Z), showing that Aut(Z/10Z) ^{∼} Z/4Z is generated
by φ.
S _{3} Solution: Given any group G, there is a homomorphism ψ _{G} : G → Aut(G) taking an element a ∈ G to the automorphism of G given by conjugation by a. Observe that an element a ∈ G is in the kernel of this homomorphism iﬀ conjugation by a is the identity map, that is, aga ^{−}^{1} = g for every g ∈ G, that is, a ∈ Z(G). Since Z(S _{3} ) is trivial, ψ _{S} _{3} : S _{3} → Aut(S _{3} ) is injective. This shows that Aut(S _{3} ) ≥ 6. On the other hand, S _{3} can be generated by the transpositions. Since an automorphism preserves orders of elements, every automorphism of S _{3} must permute the 3 transpositions of S _{3} . Since a homomorphism is determined by its restriction to any set generating the domain, this implies there are at most 3! = 6 automorphisms of S _{3} . Hence there are exactly 6 and the above map ψ _{S} _{3} is an isomorphism, that is, Aut(S _{3} ) ^{∼} S _{3} .
= 1 modulo 10, φ has order larger than 2, hence equal
=
=
=
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5. Prove that the kernel and image of a homomorphism are subgroups.
Solution: Let φ : G → H be a group homomorphism.
φ(1) = φ(1 · 1) = φ(1)φ(1)
so φ(1) = 1. This shows both that 1 ∈ ker(φ) and that 1 ∈ im(φ).
Further, for all a in G we have that 1 = φ(1) = φ(aa ^{−}^{1} ) = φ(a)φ(a ^{−}^{1} ); multiplying on the left by φ(a) ^{−}^{1} we obtain φ(a ^{−}^{1} ) = φ(a) ^{−}^{1} . This shows that if a ∈ ker(φ) then a ^{−}^{1} ∈ ker(φ), and that if a ∈ im(φ) then a ^{−}^{1} ∈ im(φ).
Finally, if a, b ∈ ker(φ) then φ(ab) = φ(a)φ(b) = 1, so ker(φ) is closed and hence a subgroup of G. Likewise, for any φ(a), φ(b) ∈ im(φ), φ(a)φ(b) = φ(ab) shows that im(φ) is closed and hence a subgroup of H.
6. Describe all homomorphisms φ : Z ^{+} → Z ^{+} , and determine which are injective, which are surjective, and which are isomorphisms.
Solution: As described in (4a), such a map φ is determined by the image of 1, since it must be that φ(n) = nφ(1), and all of these are distinct. So the maps are just multiplication by n for each n ∈ Z. These are injective unless n = 0, but only surjective in the cases n = 1 or n = −1, which are thus also the bijective cases.
(a) 7. Let H be a subgroup of G, and let g ∈ G. The conjugate subgroup gHg ^{−}^{1} is deﬁned to be the set of all conjugates ghg ^{−}^{1} , where h ∈ H. Prove that gHg ^{−}^{1} is a subgroup of G. 

Solution: Let ghg ^{−}^{1} ∈ gHg ^{−}^{1} 
, 
where h ∈ 
H; 
then (ghg ^{−}^{1} ) ^{−}^{1} 
= 

gh 
^{−}^{1} g ^{−}^{1} is a conjugate of h ^{−}^{1} ∈ H by g ^{−}^{1} , and so is also in gHg ^{−}^{1} . 

Also if gh _{1} g ^{−}^{1} and gh _{2} g ^{−}^{1} are any two elements of gHg ^{−}^{1} , then 

gh 
_{1} g ^{−}^{1} gh _{2} g ^{−}^{1} = g(h _{1} h _{2} )g ^{−}^{1} ∈ gHg ^{−}^{1} . Finally, 1 = g1g ^{−}^{1} ∈ gHg ^{−}^{1} , 

so gHg ^{−}^{1} is nonempty and thus a subgroup. 

(b) 
Prove that a subgroup H of a group G is normal if and only if gHg ^{−}^{1} = 
H for all g ∈ G.
Solution: If this equation holds, then for any h ∈ H , g ∈ G we
normal in G. Conversely, if H is
normal, then for any g ∈ G, if x ∈ gHg ^{−}^{1} , there exists h ∈ H such that x = ghg ^{−}^{1} = h, so in fact gHg ^{−}^{1} = H.
have ghg ^{−}^{1} ∈ gHg ^{−}^{1} = H, so H is
8. Prove that the center of a group is a normal subgroup.
Solution: If G is a group, then for all a ∈ Z (G), g ∈ G we have
gag ^{−}^{1} = agg ^{−}^{1} = a ∈ Z(G)
Therefore Z(G) is normal in G.
9. Prove that if a group contains exactly one element of order 2, then that element is in the center of the group.
Solution: Let a be the unique element of order 2 in a group G. Then as conjugation preserves order (by the last homework), for every g ∈ G a _{g} = gag ^{−}^{1} also has order 2, and hence a _{g} = a. This means that ga = ag for every g ∈ G, i.e. that a ∈ Z(G).
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10. Let φ : G → G ^{} be a surjective homomorphism, and let N be a normal subgroup of G. Prove that φ(N ) is a normal subgroup of G ^{} .
Solution: Let n ^{} ∈ φ(N ) and g ∈ G ^{} . There exist n ∈ N and g ∈ G such that φ(n) = n ^{} and φ(g) = g ^{} . Then
g ^{} n ^{} (g ^{} ) ^{−}^{1} = φ(g)φ(n)φ(n) ^{−}^{1} = φ(gng ^{−}^{1} ) ∈ φ(N)
since gng ^{−}^{1} ∈ N by normality of N . Thus φ(N ) is a normal subgroup of
G ^{} .
11. Let G be a group. Prove that the inversion function φ : G → G given by φ(x) = x ^{−}^{1} is a homomorphism iﬀ G is abelian.
Solution: Observe that for all a, b ∈ G, we have φ(ab) = φ(b)φ(a). Now, if φ is a homomorphism, then for every a, b ∈ G we have
ab = φ(a ^{−}^{1} )φ(b ^{−}^{1} ) = φ(a ^{−}^{1} b ^{−}^{1} ) = φ((ba) ^{−}^{1} ) = ba
and therefore G is abelian. Conversely, if G is abelian, for every a, b ∈ G we have
φ(ab) = (ab) ^{−}^{1} = b ^{−}^{1} a ^{−}^{1} = a ^{−}^{1} b ^{−}^{1} = φ(a)φ(b)
so φ is a homomorphism.
12. Prove that the nonempty ﬁbres of a map form a partition of the domain.
For each a ∈ A, a ∈ f ^{−}^{1} [f (a)],
Solution:
so every element of the domain is in some nonempty ﬁbre of f . Further,
if a ∈ f ^{−}^{1} (b), then b = f (a), so each element of the domain is in a unique nonempty ﬁbre of f . Hence the nonempty ﬁbres of f form a partition of
A as desired.
Let f : A → B be a function.
(a) 13. Prove that the relation x conjugate to y in a group G is an equivalence relation on G. Solution: Reﬂexivity: for every x ∈ G, x = x _{1} , so x ∼ x. 

Symmetry: 
if x ∼ y there exists some g ∈ G such that x _{g} = y, but 

then x = y _{g} −1 , so y ∼ x. 

Transitivity: 
if x = y _{g} and y = z _{h} , then x = z _{h}_{g} , so x ∼ y and y ∼ z 

implies x ∼ z. 

(b) 
Describe the elements a whose conjugacy class (= equivalence class) consists of the the element a alone. Solution: An element a is of this type precisely when gag ^{−}^{1} = a for all g ∈ G, that is, when a ∈ Z(G). 
14. Prove directly that distinct cosets do not overlap.
Solution: Let H be a subgroup of a group G, let a, b ∈ G, and let
x ∈
Multiplying on the left by h ^{−}^{1} , we obtain a = bh _{2} h ^{−}^{1} . Then for any
bh _{2} .
aH ∩ bH.
Then there are h _{1} , h _{2}
1
∈ H
such that ah _{1}
1
=
x
=
∈ aH, there exists some h _{3} ∈ H such that y = ah _{3} = bh _{2} h ^{−}^{1} h _{3} ∈ bH, so aH ⊂ bH. By symmetry, bH ⊂ aH, so aH = bH. Therefore, overlapping
y
1
cosets are identical, i.e. distinct cosets do not overlap.
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15. Let H, K be subgroups of a group G of orders 3, 5 respectively. Prove that H ∩ K = {1}.
Solution: An intersection of subgroups is again a subgroup; this follows because for all a, b ∈ H ∩ K, ab ^{−}^{1} ∈ H and ab ^{−}^{1} ∈ K, so ab ^{−}^{1} ∈ H ∩ K, and further 1 ∈ H ∩ K. Thus H ∩ K is a subgroup both of H and of K. By Lagrange’s theorem H ∩ K divides H = 3, and H ∩ K divides K = 5, so H ∩ K = 1; therefore, H ∩ K = {1}.
Note that this argument immediately generalizes to show that any family of subgroups such that the greatest common divisor of their orders is 1 has trivial intersection.
(a) 16. Prove that every subgroup of index 2 is normal. Solution: Let H be a subgroup of index 2 in a group G. Then the left cosets of H in G must consist of H, and G\H. These must also be the right cosets of H in G by the same argument. Therefore, the left and right cosets of H coincide, i.e. gH = Hg for all g ∈ G. This is equivalent to gHg ^{−}^{1} = H for all g ∈ G, which by (6b) is equivalent to normality of H. 

(b) 
Give an example of a subgroup of index 3 which is not normal. Solution: Consider (12) ≤ S _{3} . It is an index 3 subgroup, but is not normal as, for instance, (12) _{(}_{2}_{3}_{)} = (13) ∈/ (12) . 
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