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A INDUCTIONHEATING
B
Harvey,Ian
C DOI:10.1615/AtoZ.i.induction_heating

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E

F
Whenanelectricallyconductivebodyisplacedintheregionofatimevaryingmagneticfield,electriccurrentsareinducedin
G
thebodycausingthermalpowergenerationinthebody.Thiseffect,knownasinductionheating,iswidelyusedinindustries
H
rangingfromtheproductionofopticalglassfibertotheheatingof25tonnesteelslabs[examplesaregiveninBNCE(1984)].
I
Themagneticfieldisproducedbyasuitablearrangementofconductors,theinductioncoil,connectedtoasourcewhichcan
IAEA providetherequiredtimevaryingcurrentinthecoil.Electricalpowersuppliedtothecoilisthusconvertedtothermalpower
ICECONDENSERCONTAINMENTS, in the workpiece through the electromagnetic field, without physical electrical connection to the workpiece. Almost
FORNUCLEARREACTOR
invariably, power sources used for induction heating provide an alternating current to the induction coil, the choice of
ICEDRIFT frequencybeingcriticaltotheparticularheatingapplication.
ICHEME
Theinducededdycurrentintensityisgreatestatthesurfaceoftheworkpieceanddecreasestowardsitscenterasafunction
ICING
oftheratio:thickness/skindepth.Astheratioincreases,agreaterproportionofthetotalpowerisdissipatednearthesurface,
IDEALDIODELAW
thisphenomenonisknownastheskineffect.Theskindepth,,isdefinedas= ,whereistheelectricalresistivity
IDEALGAS
(m)and=2f(rad/s)istheangularfrequencyofthecoilcurrent.Theabsolutemagneticpermeabilityisr0,where
IDEALGASLAW
=4107(H/m);therelativepermeability,0,isafunctionoftheappliedmagneticfieldstrengthformagneticmaterialsand
IDEALMIXTURE
hasthevalue1fornonmagneticmaterialssuchascopperandaluminum.
IDEALPLASMA

IDEALSOLUTIONS
Powergeneratedinaworkpieceandtheinductionheatingefficiencycanbederivedforregularshapes,suchascylindrical
rods or tubes and wide rectangular slabs, from analytical solutions to the diffusion equation of the induced current,
IDENTIFICATIONPROCEDURE
supplemented by empirical factors. These derivations are given in Davies & Simpson (1979), Orfeuil (1987) and Davies
IEA
(1990). The analytical solutions assume constant material properties throughout the workpiece, whereas resistivity and
IEE specific heat vary with temperature and the permeability of magnetic materials is a function of field strength and
IFRF temperature,reducingto0abovetheCurietemperature(750Cforsteel).Computerbasednumericalsolutionsarenow
IGNITION,EXPLOSION commonlyusedtotakeaccountofthesevariations,anearlyexamplebeingGibson(1973).
ILLPOSEDNESSOFINVERSE
PROBLEMS
ForasolidcircularbilletofdiameterdandlengthL,heatedinanenclosingcircularcoilofdiameterD,lengthLcandhaving

IMAGESEQUENCEPROCESSING
NturnswithacurrentofIamp/turn,theinducedpowerPwisapproximatelygivenby:

IMECHE

IMMERSEDBODIES,FLOWAROUND
ANDDRAG

IMMERSEDBODIES,HEAT
whereQrodisgiveninFigure1asafunctionofd/,andKcisdependentontheratiosd/D,d/andL/Lc.Orfeuil(1987)gives
TRANSFERANDMASSTRANSFER
empiricalvaluesforKc,whichtendtounityasd/DandL/Lcapproachunity.Thepowerinducedinhollowcylindersofwall
IMMERSEDJETS
thicknesstiscalculatedwithQrodintheaboveexpressionreplacedbyanequivalentfluxfactorQcyl,whichisafunctionof
IMMISCIBLELIQUIDS
t/d,d/andrindependentlyof.Davies(1990)showsgraphsofQcylforarangeoftheseparameters.
IMMISCIBLELIQUIDS,BOILINGHEAT
TRANSFER
Similarly,forarectangularslaboflengthL,havingwidthW,muchgreaterthanitsthicknesst,theinducedpoweris:
IMPACTOFPARTICLESON
SURFACE

IMPACTINGSPRAYS

IMPEDANCEMETHODFORVOID
FRACTIONS
SubstitutionoftheQfactorsbyProdorPslabfromFigure1givesthereactivepower(VAR)intheworkpiece,whichisneeded
IMPELLERMIXERS
fortheevaluationofthepowerfactorofthecoil.
IMPELLERS

IMPINGEMENTSEPARATORS

IMPINGINGJETS

IMPINGINGSPRAYS

IMPULSETURBINES

IMPULSES

IMPURITIESINCRYSTALS

INLINEMIXERS

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INLINETUBEBANKS

INCINERATION

INCLINEDCHANNEL

INCLINEDTUBEBANKS

INCLINEDTUBES

INCLINEDWALLS

INCLUSIONS

INCOMPLETEGAMMAFUNCTION

INCOMPRESSIBLEFLUID

INDEFINITEINTEGRALS

INDETERMINATEORIGINNOZZLE
JETS
Figure1.FluxfactorsQandPforrods&slabs.
INDUCEDDRAFTAIRCOOLEDHEAT
EXCHANGERS Theefficiencyofconversionoftheelectricalpowersuppliedtothecoilintothermalpowerintheworkpiece,knownasthe
INDUCTIONHEATING coilorelectricalefficiency,c,isgivenby:

INDUSTRIALAERODYNAMICS

INDUSTRIALFUSIONREACTORS

INERTGASES

INERTIALCONFINEMENT
REACTORS whereQistherelevantfluxfactor,KAisthespacefactorofthecoilsystemandSC/SWistheratioofthecoilperimetertothat

INERTIALREFERENCEFRAMES of the workpiece in the same plane. Harvey (1976) shows that coil efficiency can be significantly increased by the use of
multilayerwindingsinsteadofthemoreconventionalsinglelayercoil.Thesehighefficiencycoilsarenowcommonlyused
INERTIALSEPARATORS
forheatingnonferrousbilletsatmainsfrequency.
INFINITESERIES

INFINITETRIGONOMETRICSERIES Theoverallefficiencyofinductionheatingissupplythermalcsupplyistypically0.80.9(perunit)andaccountsforlosses

INFLUENCE incables,powerfactorcorrectioncapacitorsandfrequencyconversionequipment;thethermalefficiency,thermal,represents

INFRAREDDRYING thermallossesfromtheworkpieceandiscriticallydependentonoperatingtemperature,thermalinsulationandmethodof

INFRAREDIMAGING
operationoftheheater.Typicalvaluesareintherange0.70.9(perunit).

INFRAREDPHOTOGRAPHY Transverse flux induction heating is employed for heating continuous metal strips. In this mode, the magnetic field is
INFRAREDRADIATION directed at the broad face of the material rather than through its narrow crosssection, with the induced current flowing
INFRAREDSPECTROSCOPY acrossthewidthofthestrip.Theadvantagesofthemethodincludeahigherefficiency,particularlyfornonferrousstrips,at
much lower operating frequencies than are possible with conventional axial flux induction heaters. Ireson (1989) gives a
INFRAREDPROPERTIESOF
CARBONFIBERS usefuloverallaccountofthetechniqueanditscommercialrealization.

INFRAREDSPECTRAOF
Apart from mains frequency installations, power supplies for modern, induction heaters are derived from solid state
MOLECULES
frequency converters. Unit sizes up to 7 MW have been installed for metal melting at 13 kHz and I MW units are now
INGRESS
availableforfrequenciesupto500kHz,previouslythedomainofpowervacuumtubetriodes.
INJECTION

INLETEFFECTSINCHANNELFLOW
References
INSTABILITIESINLAMINARFLOW
1. Davies,E.J.(1990)ConductionandInductionHeating.PeterPeregrinusLtd.London.
INSTABILITIESINTWOPHASE
SYSTEMS
2. Davies,E.J.andSimpson,P.G.(1979)InductionHeatingHandbook.
3. McGrawHillBookCompany(UK)Limited.Maidenhead.
INSTABILITY
4. Gibson,R.C.(1973)SLEDDY,acomputerprogrammeforcalculatingtheinductionandotherheatingofmetalslabsand
INSTABILITYANDTURBULENCE
longcylindricalbillets.
INSTABILITYOFSLIPFLOW
5. ReportECRC/MM16.EATechnology.Capenhurst,Chester.
INSTITUTEOFENERGY,IOE 6. Guidetoinductionheatingequipment.(1984)BritishNationalCommitteeforElectroheat(BNCE).30Millbank,London.
INSTITUTIONOFCHEMICAL 7. Harvey,I.G.(1976)Thetheoryofmultilayeredwindingsforinductionheatingandtheirapplicationtoa1MW,50Hz,
ENGINEERS,ICHEME longitudinalfluxbilletheater.PaperH(a)4.8thUIECongress.Liege.
INSTITUTIONOFELECTRICAL 8. Ireson,R.C.J.(1989)Inductionheatingwithtransversefluxinstripmetalprocesslines.IEEPowerEngineeringJournal.3:
ENGINEERS,IEE
(2).London.
INSTITUTIONOFMECHANICAL 9. Orfeuil,M.(1987)ElectricProcessHeating.BattellePress.Columbus,Richmond,Ohio
ENGINEERS,IMECHE

INSULATION Numberofviews:10527 Articleadded:2February2011 Articlelastmodified:13February2011 Copyright20102015 Backtotop

INSULATORS,ELECTRICAL

INTEGRALCONDENSATIONCURVE

INTEGRALEQUATIONS

INTEGRALS

INTEGRATIONBYPARTS

INTEGRODIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS

INTENSEFORMATIONOFHIGHER
SILANESINTHEGASPHASE

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INTENSIFICATIONOFHEAT
TRANSFER

INTENSITYOFRADIATIVEENERGY
TRANSPORT

INTERDIFFUSIONCOEFFICIENT

INTERFACEHEATTRANSFER
COEFFICIENT

INTERFACEMASSTRANSFER
COEFFICIENT

INTERFACESTRUCTURE
INFLUENCE

INTERFACETEMPERATUREDROP

INTERFACETRACKINGSIMULATION
OFBUBBLES

INTERFACES

INTERFACIALAREA

INTERFACIALCHARACTERISTICS

INTERFACIALFLOWS

INTERFACIALFRICTIONFACTOR

INTERFACIALJUMPCONDITIONS

INTERFACIALMOMENTUM
TRANSFER

INTERFACIALRESISTANCE

INTERFACIALSHEARSTRESS

INTERFACIALTENSION

INTERFERENCE

INTERFERENCETECHNIQUES

INTERFEROMETRY

INTERMITTENCY

INTERMITTENTFLOW

INTERMOLECULARFORCES

INTERMOLECULARPAIRPOTENTIAL

INTERMOLECULARPOTENTIALS

INTERNALCOILS

INTERNALCOMBUSTIONENGINES

INTERNALENERGY

INTERNALFLOWS

INTERNALHEATGENERATIONINA
TALLCAVITY

INTERNALREBOILERS

INTERNATIONALATOMICENERGY
AGENCY,IAEA

INTERNATIONALENERGYAGENCY,
IEA

INTERNATIONALFLAMERESEARCH
FOUNDATION,IFRF

INTERNATIONALTEMPERATURE
SCALE

INUNDATION

INUNDATION,EFFECTON
CONDENSATION

INVERSEANNULARFLOW

INVERSEDESIGNOFENCLOSURES
WITHPARTICIPATINGMEDIAAND
MULTIMODEHEATTRANSFER

INVERSEPROBLEM

INVERSEPROBLEMSINRADIATION
TRANSFER

INVERSESOLUTIONSOFA
SECONDGRADE
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC
ALIGNEDFLUIDFLOW

INVERSIONLAYER,EFFECTON

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POLLUTION

INVERSIONPOINT

INVERSIONPOINTTEMPERATURE

INVISCIDFLOW

IOE

IONEXCHANGE

IONICBONDING

IONICCONTINUA

IONIZATION

IONIZINGRADIATION

IONS

IONS,TRANSPORTIN
ELECTROLYTE

IOTVOSNUMBER

IRON

IRREVERSIBILITY

IRREVERSIBLEPROCESSES

IRREVERSIBLETHERMODYNAMICS

IRRIGATIONGUN

IRROTATIONALFLOW

ISENTROPICEXPONENT

ISENTROPICPROCESSES

ISOBUTANE

ISOOCTANE

ISOPROPANOL

ISOBAR

ISOBARICJET

ISOCHORE

ISOELECTRICPOINTS

ISOENTHALPICPROCESS

ISOGONALMAPPING

ISOTACHORISOVEL

ISOTHERM

ISOTHERMALPROCESS

ISOTOPES

ITERATIVEMETHOD


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