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A topic

Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirement For The Award Of

Degree Of

MASTER OF ENGINEERING

CIVIL ENGINEERING

Submitted To

Session 2017-2018

Submitted by

Pankaj Agrawal

0610CE17MT09

Asst. Prof. Mr. Rahul Satbhaiya

Department of Civil Engineering

INFINITY MANAGEMENT AND ENGINEERING COLLEGE SAGAR (M.P.)

Disaster Resistance Building

Disaster Resistance-

and fire. Concrete, as a structural material and as

the building exterior skin, has the ability to

withstand natures normal deteriorating

mechanisms as well as natural disasters. Properly Masonry Safe Room

designed, reinforced concrete is resistant to

earthquakes and provides blast protection for

occupants. Concrete safe rooms help provide protection from earthquakes,

tornadoes, hurricanes, fires, and other disasters.

Fire Resistance-

Concrete offers non-combustible construction that helps contain a fire

within boundaries.

throughout a building.

As an exterior wall or roof, concrete helps to prevent a fire from

jumping from building to building.

During wild fires, concrete walls and roofs help provide protection to

human life and the occupants possessions within a building.

Concrete helps contain a fire even if no water supply is available,

whereas sprinklers rely on a water source.

Concrete that endures a fire can often be reused when the building is

rebuilt.

Hurricane Katrina, a concrete house was the sole house left standing in a

Pass Christian, MS, and neighborhood.

Investigators have learned from previous hurricanes

that:

by staple guns. Nails held better than staples if

they were properly placed.

Clay roof tiles resisted wind forces better than

asphalt shingles but were apt to shatter if hit by The Sundbergs' home, in

flying debris. the Pass Christian, MS, area

roof tiles from debris, but were more resistant to yellow circle and is a prime

shattering than clay tiles. example of the durability of

Asphalt gravel roofs, if not well maintained, were concrete homes. (PCA

photo from FEMA)

flaked off in layers by the wind, exposing sub-

layers.

Plywood sheathing failures were due to inadequate nailing.

Particle board does not provide a good base for the attachment of

surface roofing materials.

Gables were more prone to failure than hip roofs. Gables constructed

of concrete masonry fared much better than frame construction.

Inadequate attachment to walls and inadequate lateral support caused

many failures of gables, particularly wood frame gables.

Concrete block walls performed well. Concrete masonry construction

was more forgiving of poor craftsmanship than wood frame

construction. Compliance with the SSTD 10-93, Standard for Hurricane

Resistant Residential Construction or the provisions of ACI 530/ASCE

5/TMS402-95 would have probably reduced the amount of damage

observed in these structures.

Masonry veneer also performed well when properly constructed and

connected to the structure. Damaged veneers were invariably a result

of corroded, inadequate, or improperly embedded ties. Masonry veneer

structures subjected to storm surges were able in many cases to

withstand the storm surge better than wood frame houses without

veneer.

Wood frame walls performed poorly unless well designed and

constructed.

Loads on building components and connections are significantly

increased when the envelope is breached by high wind or flying debris.

Masonry systems appeared to resist breaching as well, if not better,

than other wall systems.

Windows and doors need to be carefully installed. Windows must be

protected with hurricane shutters.

Flood Resistance

Concrete is not damaged by water; concrete that does not dry out

continues to gain strength in the presence of moisture. Concrete

submerged in water absorbs very small amounts of water over long

periods of time, and the concrete is not damaged. In flood-damaged

areas, concrete buildings are often salvageable. Concrete dams and

levees are used for long-lasting flood control.

and engineers are looking at structures that will keep water out and

not shift or float away when submersed in floodwaters. One solution

is reinforced concrete walls to the roof height with a 12-in. thick

concrete slab. In one example, the slab will be kept in place with 8-

in. helical anchors drilled 10 to 13 feet into the ground (Architect

Hank Browne and engineers DMK Group, April 2006 Building Design

and Construction).

is enclosed in a system that traps moisture between the concrete

and other building materials. For instance, a vinyl wall covering in

hot and humid climates will act as a vapor retarder and moisture

can get trapped between the concrete and the wall covering. For

this reason, impermeable wall coverings (such as vinyl wallpaper)

should not be used on concrete walls.

Concrete is not affected by wind-driven rain and moist outdoor air in hot

and humid climates because it is impermeable to air infiltration and wind-

driven rain. Moisture that enters a building must come through joints

between concrete elements. Annual inspection and repair of joints will

minimize this potential. More importantly, if moisture does enter through

joints, it will not damage the concrete. Good practice for all types of wall

construction is to have permeable materials that breathe (are allowed to

dry) on at least one surface and to not encapsulate concrete between two

impermeable surfaces. Concrete will dry out if not covered by

impermeable treatments.

Earthquake Resistance-

Guam, the United States (Richter scale 8.1); Manila,

the Philippines (Richter scale 7.2); and Kobe, Japan

(Richter scale 6.9) have subjected concrete

buildings to some of natures deadliest forces.

Concrete framing systems have a proven capacity to

In figure

withstand these major earthquakes. Another

pertinent example is the 1994 Northridge, CA, earthquake (Richter scale

6.8). It was one of the costliest natural disasters in U.S. history, with total

damages estimated at $20 billion. Most engineered structures within the

affected region performed well, including structures with concrete

components. It should be noted that parking structures with large plan

areasregardless of structural systemdid not perform as well as other

types of buildings.

safest and most durable types of structures during an earthquake. Homes

built with reinforced concrete walls have a record of surviving

earthquakes intact, structurally sound and largely unblemished. In

reinforced concrete construction, the combination of concrete and steel

provides the three most important properties for earthquake resistance:

stiffness, strength, and ductility.

Studies of earthquake damage consistently show

well-anchored shear walls are the key to

earthquake resistance in low-rise buildings.

Optimal design conditions include shear walls

that extend the entire height and are located on

all four sides of a building. Long walls are

stronger than short walls, and solid walls are

better than ones with a lot of openings for Properly anchored walls

windows and doors. These elements are are key to earthquake

designed to survive severe sideways (in-plane) resistance in low rise

forces, called racking and shear, without being buildings.

damaged or bent far out of position. Shear walls also must be well

anchored to the foundation structure to work effectively. Properly installed

steel reinforcing bars extend across the joint between the walls and the

foundation to provide secure anchorage to the foundation.

necessary stiffness, strength, and ductility to resist the forces of an

earthquake or have walls that are not well anchored to a solid foundation,

or both. Three types of buildings sustain the most significant damage:

Multi-story buildings with a ground floor consisting only of columns;

Wood-frame houses with weak connections between the walls and

foundation;

Unreinforced masonry or concrete buildings

Concrete resists compression forces, and reinforcing steel resists tensile

forces produced by an earthquake. Even a lightly reinforced concrete

shear wall has over six times the racking load resistance as framed wall

construction.

Blast resistance

through tests. The Insulating Concrete Form

Association (ICFA) and the Northern Virginia

Concrete Advisory Council successfully

demonstrated the blast-resistant properties of

ICF building systems during the Force Protection

Equipment Demonstration (FPED V) April 2628,

ICF reaction boxes prior to blast

2005, at Quantico Marine Corps Base in test

Northern Virginia. During the blast

demonstrations, eleven separate ICF reaction

boxes, weighing 13 tons apiece and with walls

measuring 8 feet tall and 6 inches thick were

subjected to explosion from 50 lbs of TNT at

differing distances (3.5 feet to 10 feet) and to

pressures from 300 pounds per square inch (psi)

to over 7,000 psi. Known for decades for its

impact resistant properties, expanded

An ICF wall after a 50 lb.

polystyrene (psi), the primary material in ICFs, TNT detonation from 10

has recently shown great potential as a blast- feet away.

resistant product. In each instance during six

different blast demonstrations, EPS compressed against the face of the

concrete wall and reduced the pressure of the blast.

blast resistant properties. These concretes often have a compressive

strength exceeding 14,500 psi and contain steel fibers. These blast-

resistant structures are often used in bank vaults and military

applications.

Building Protection

Ubiquitous precast concrete planters provide protection to federal

buildings, museums, and national landmarks. These barriers are attractive

yet are a deterrent to wayward vehicles. Attractive concrete barriers that

also provide seating are becoming common.

ABSTRACT

A very large portion of digital image processing is devoted to image restoration. This

includes research in algorithm development and routine goal oriented image processing.

Image restoration is the removal or reduction of degradations that are incurred while the

image is being obtained. Visual information transmitted in the form of digital images is

becoming a major method of communication in the modern age, but the image obtained after

transmission is often corrupted with noise. The received image needs processing before it can

be used in applications. Image denoising involves the manipulation of the image data to

produce a visually high quality image. This thesis reviews the existing denoising algorithms,

such as filtering approach, wavelet based approach, and multifractal approach, and performs

their comparative study.

Reduction of noise is essential especially in the field of image processing. Several researchers

are continuously working in this direction and provide some good insights, but still there are

lot of scope in this field. Noise mixed with image is harmful for image processing. In this

dissertation we proposed an efficient Multithresholding approach for reducing noise and blur

parameters.

In our approach we provide the comparison considering the image of Leena improve the SNR

ratio. Images are evermore corrupted with noise during acquisition, transmission, and

retrieval from storage media. Distinct dots in reality are stipple in a Photograph taken with a

digital camera under low lighting conditions. Abstract of sound is absolute especially in the

field of

INTRODUCTION

Vision is the most advanced of human senses, so it is not surprising that images play the

single most important role in our perception. However, unlike humans, who are limited to the

visual band of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum, imaging machines cover almost the entire

EM spectrum, ranging from gamma to radio waves. They can operate on images generated

by sources that human are not accustomed to associating with images. These include

ultrasound, electron microscopy and computer-generated images. Thus digital image

processing encompasses a wide and varied field of applications.

In this context several researches apply their work in this direction. Adaptive Directional

Lifting (ADL) is one of the image compressions due to the characteristics of representing the

edges and textures in images efficiently [1, 2]. Several researches have shown that the

application of image denoising can also benefit from this technique

[3, 4].

Because of this, it can effectively decorrelate the dependencies found over image

discontinuities and compact high frequency components induced by image features into the

lower level or low band pass. If we think about the Wavelet transform then it can be

effectively capture singular points up to two dimensions means including one dimension, but

it is fail in representing the major features like edge , color ,contour and so on. There are

several directional and non-directional redundant transforms which are explored in different

research papers, including the curvelet, contourlet, wedgelet, bandlet, and the steerable

wavelet [5-8].

1.1 Overview

There are several approaches which are basically concern with denoise an image data, such

as averaging filter, Median filter, Gaussian filter and Partial Differential Equations (PDE)

approach. If we analyze the properties of good images then it will be with the less noise and

minimize the blur or blur reduction is the important factor. The PDE approach is much

effective and applies in several research like [9],[10]. But it is more effective if we apply

fourth order partial differential equation. Applications of the PDE models can be widely

found in a broad range of image restoration tasks such as denoising and enhancement [11]

color image processing [12][13] and resolution. This provide us the future insight or work

with the forth order partial differential equation with the same order in the direction of blur

reduction.

Image Denoising play an important role in Image processing task [14]. Remove the noise

when the edges are in the preserving state is called image denoising. In the image processing

task it is a major and most common problem. If we want a very high quality resolution

images as the outcome then we must consider the noise parameters for reducing those

parameters to achieve better. The main purpose or the aim of image denoising is to recover

the main image from the noisy image [15].

V(i)=U(i) + N(i)

Where v(i)is the observed value, u(i)is the true value and n(i) is the noise perturbation at a

pixel i. If we analyses then there are several ways of model the noise. In some of the cases the

noise is considerable. For modelling and framework purposes it is correct to additive white

Gaussian Noise (AWGN) which is adaptive in nature to model the noise parameters. For that

we also consider blur as the degrading performance categorization.

The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method is an analytical technique for numerical analysis. It

provide the approximate analysis to partial differential equations(PDE) which is generally

calculated by the expansion in terms of function , which is also called basis method and used

for calculating the unknown coefficients. Then we can apply the FFT method to partial

differential equations like

u 2u 2u

= c2( 2 + ) + E(x, y)

t x y 2

This reduces the number of spatial variables until only a two-point boundary-value problem

or initial-value problem remains, which is solved by standard methods. FFT is used for

separate the variables so that it is used in the elaboration of partial differential equation. The

PDE of Forth order is also help for reduction and separation because of the higher degree. It

is much more flexible in the context of uses and separations of variables, so the identification

is also easy and detectable and reduces the noise coefficients.

1.2 Objective and Motivation

The need for ecient image restoration methods has grown with the massive production of

digital images and movies of all kinds, often taken in poor conditions. No matter how good

cameras are, an image improvementis always desirable to extend their range of action.

A digital image is generally encoded as a matrix of grayscale or color values. Inthe case of a

movie, this matrix has three dimensions, the third one corresponding totime. Each pair (i,

u(i)), where u(i) is the value ati, is called a pixel, short for pictureelement. In the case of

grayscale images, i is a point on a two-dimensional (2D) gridand u(i) is a real value. In the

case of classical color images, u(i) is a triplet of valuesfor the red, green, and blue

components. All of what we shall say applies identicallyto movies, three-dimensional (3D)

images, and color or multispectral images.

The two main limitations in image accuracy are categorized as blur and noise.Blur is intrinsic

to image acquisition systems, as digital images have a nite number ofsamples and must

satisfy the ShannonNyquist sampling conditions. The secondmain image perturbation is

noise.

Each one of the pixel values u(i) is the result of a light intensity measurement,usually made

by a charge coupled device (CCD) matrix coupled with a light focusingsystem. Each captor

of the CCD is roughly a square in which the number of incomingphotons is being counted for

a xed period corresponding to the obturation time.When the light source is constant, the

number of photons received by each pixeluctuates around its average in accordance with the

central limit theorem. In otherwords, one can expect uctuations of order n for an incoming

photons. In addition,each captor, if not adequately cooled, receives heat photons. This

perturbation isusually called obscurity noise. In a rst rough approximation one can write

v(i) = u(i) +n(i),

where i I, v(i) is the observed value, u(i) would be the true value at pixel i,namely, the

one which would be observed by averaging the photon counting on a longperiod of time, and

n(i) is the noise perturbation. As indicated, the amount of noiseis signal-dependent; that is,

n(i) is larger when u(i) is larger. In noise models, thenormalized values of n(i) and n(j) at

dierent pixels are assumed to be independentrandom variables, and one talks about white

noise. So our main motivation of this dissertation to reduce the noise and blur of the image.

Digital cameras produce three common types of noise: random noise, "fixed pattern" noise,

and banding noise. The three qualitative examples below show pronounced and isolating

cases for each type of noise against an ordinarily smooth grey background.Random noise is

characterized by intensity and color fluctuations above and below the actual image intensity.

There will always be some random noise at any exposure length and it is most influenced by

ISO speed. The pattern of random noise changes even if the exposure settings are identical.

Fixed pattern noise includes what are called "hot pixels," which are defined as such when a

pixel's intensity far surpasses that of the ambient random noise fluctuations. Fixed pattern

noise generally appears in very long exposures and is exacerbated by higher temperatures.

Fixed pattern noise is unique in that it will show almost the same distribution of hot pixels if

taken under the same conditions (temperature, length of exposure, ISO speed).

Banding noise is highly camera-dependent, and is noise which is introduced by the camera

when it reads data from the digital sensor. Banding noise is most visible at high ISO speeds

and in the shadows, or when an image has been excessively brightened. Banding noise can

also increase for certain white balances, depending on camera model.

Although fixed pattern noise appears more objectionable, it is usually easier to remove since

it is repeatable. A camera's internal electronics just has to know the pattern and it can subtract

this noise away to reveal the true image. Fixed pattern noise is much less of a problem than

random noise in the latest generation of digital cameras, however even the slightest amount

can be more distracting than random noise.

Knowledge about the problem domain is coded into the image processing system in the form

of knowledge database. This knowledge is as simple as describing the regions of the image

where the information of the interest is located. Each module will interact with the

knowledge base to decide about the appropriate technique for the right application. For

example, if the acquired image contains spike-like noise the preprocessing module interacts

with the knowledge base to select an appropriate smoothing filter-like median filter to

remove the noise.

After studying different approaches we observe that we can work with the reduction of noise

and SNR. There is also some scope for the reducing the time of denoising while unaffected

the accuracy. There are several approaches for noise free image retrieval but still there are lot

of scope in the direction of reduction.so that better image will be retrieved. If we analyse the

research work in [14] and [15] they do not achieve good results in the case of noise

parameters , they do not detect any Blur + Noise combination when they consider the noise

parameters, it can be recovered by Thresholding Techniques for Image Denoising.. The noise

is also bit higher which can be reduces with blur and noise parameters with different noise

parameters and conditions.

1.4 Scope

After studying and analyzing several research works in the direction of image denoising, we

can suggest some following points which can be improved or there is the need of betterment

in the field of image denoising. The points are following:

1. Reduction of Noise with different noise parameters.

2. Need of reducing Blur

3. Reduction of time of denoising while unaffected the accuracy.

4. Betterment in SNR and PSNR.

5. Image reconstruction is also in less time with high quality accessibility.

Images are a natural way for humans to think about spatial information, and digital images

are a natural representation of spatial data. Like all recorded signals, digital images are often

corrupted by noise, increasing the difficulty with which human observers or computer

algorithms are able to extract the useful underlying information. Although noise can be

mitigated by improved image acquisition hardware, in some modalities, such as coherent

imaging, the noise is an inherent part of the imaging process.

However, information content may be preserved even at high noise levels. With some effort,

one can still discern the structural details in the presence of noise. Thus, the goal of noise

filtering, or image denoising, is to exploit the available information in the observed image to

obtain an estimate of the noise-free signal.

This thesis documentation consists of various chapters which are given as follows:

Chapter 1 Introduction illustrates overview and objective of thesis. Then motivation and

problem definition are described. It then gives structure of the thesis document.

Chapter 2 Literature Survey provides the background necessary for the rest of the

dissertation. It reviews related concepts in the context of the work presented in this

dissertation. A brief survey about image denoising is presented. Main contribution of the

research presented in this dissertation is to establish connection for several applications; we

then focus our review on several novel technologies that are adopted by our method to

address interaction and infrastructure issues.

Chapter 3 Analysisillustrates overview and basis of the different denoising method with their

applicability. It provides the semantics of different services and uses.

Chapter 4 Proposed Approach discusses the software and the proposed work with proper

explanation with flowchart.In this chapter we also discuss the result analysis.

This chapter starts with overview of the implementation of the whole application. A result

illustrates the results obtained by using snapshots along with some explanations.

Chapter 6 Conclusion and Future work discusses about the conclusion drawn from

proposed dissertation work as well as some insights into future research on this topic.

There are various formats of the image supported by MATLAB for processing based on

requirements of application. The extension of the image file shows the format of the image.

The Table 2.1 describes various image formats.

.tif, .tiff

TIFF Tagged Image File Format

.jpg, .jpeg

JPEG Joint Photograph Experts Group

.gif

GIF Graphics Interchange Format

.bmp

BMP Window Bitmap

.png

PNG Portable Network Graphics

.xwd

XWD X Window Dump

2.3.1 Data Classes

Although we work with integer coordinates, the values (intensities) of pixels are not restricted

to be integers in MATLAB. Table 1.1 lists the various classes supported by MATLAB and

the Image processing Toolbox for representing pixel values. The first eight entries in the table

are referred to as numeric data classes. The ninth entry is the char (character) class and, as

shown, the last entry is referred to as logical data class.

All numeric computations in MATLAB are done in double quantities, so this is also a

frequent data class encounter in image processing applications. Class uint8 and logical are

also encountered frequently, especially when reading images from image file formats such as

TIFF or JPEG. These classes use 1 byte to represent each pixel. Some scientific data sources,

such as medical imagery, require more dynamic range than is provided by uint8, so the

uint16 and int16 classes are used often for such data. These classes use 2 bytes for each array

element. The floating-point classes double and singleare used for computationally intensive

operations such as Fourier transform. Double-precision floating-point uses 8 bytes per

element, whereas, single-precision floating-point uses 4 bytes. The int8, uint32, and int32

classes, although supported by the toolbox, are not used commonly for image processing.

Many Image processing Toolbox functions however support all the data classes listed in

table.

Table 2.2: Classes used for Image Processing in MATLAB

Name Description

Double Double precision, floating-point numbers in the approximate range 10308 (8 bytes

per element)

Single Single precision, floating-point numbers in the approximate range 1038 (4 bytes

per element)

uint8 Unsigned 8-bit integers in the range [0,255] (1 byte per element)

uint16 Unsigned 16-bit integers in the range [0,65535] (2 byte per element)

uint32 Unsigned 32-bit integers in the range [0,4294967295] (4 byte per element)

int8 Signed 8-bit integers in the range [-128, 127] (1 byte per element)

int16 Signed 16-bit integers in the range [-32768, 32767] (2 byte per element)

int32 Signed 32-bit integers in the range [-2147483648, 2147483647] (4 byte per element)

The char data class holds characters in Unicode representation. A character string is merely

a 1*n array of characters. Logical data class contains only the values 0 or 1, with each

element being stored in memory using function logical or by using relational operators.

MATLAB also supports uint64 and int64, but the toolbox does not.

Gaussian noise is evenly distributed over the signal [Um98]. This means that each pixel in the

noisy image is the sum of the true pixel value and a random Gaussian distributed noise value.

As the name indicates, this type of noise has a Gaussian distribution, which has a bell shaped

probability distribution function given by,

1 ( X )2

f (X ) exp X

2 2 2

Where g oir X represents the gray level, m or is the mean or average of the function, and

is the standard deviation of the noise. Graphically, it is represented as shown in Figure 2.1.

When introduced into an image, Gaussian noise with zero mean and variance as 0.05 would

look as in Figure 2.4. Figure 2.5 illustrates the Gaussian noise with mean (variance) as 1.5

(10) over a base image with a constant pixel value of 100.

(mean=0, variance 0.05) (mean=1.5, variance 10)

Salt and pepper noise [Um98] is an impulse type of noise, which is also referred to as

intensity spikes. This is caused generally due to errors in data transmission. It has only two

possible values, a and b. The probability of each is typically less than 0.1. The corrupted

pixels are set alternatively to the minimum or to the maximum value, giving the image a salt

and pepper like appearance. Unaffected pixels remain unchanged. For an 8-bit image, the

typical value for pepper noise is 0 and for salt noise 255. The salt and pepper noise is

generally caused by malfunctioning of pixel elements in the camera sensors, faulty memory

locations, or timing errors in the digitization process. The probability density function for this

type of noise is shown in Figure 2.6. Salt and pepper noise with a variance of 0.05 is shown

in Figure 2.7.

Speckle noise is a multiplicative noise. This type of noise occurs in almost all coherent

imaging systems such as laser, acoustics and SAR(Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery. The

source of this noise is attributed to random interference between the coherent returns. Fully

developed speckle noise has the characteristic of multiplicative noise. Speckle noise follows a

gamma distribution and is given as

where variance is

a and g is the gray level.

On an image, speckle noise (with variance 0.05) looks as shown in Figure 2.8.The gamma

distribution is given below in Figure 2.9.

Brownian noise comes under the category of fractal or 1/f noises. The mathematical model

for 1/f noise is fractional Brownian motion. Fractal Brownian motion is a non-stationary

stochastic process that follows a normal distribution. Brownian noise is a special case of 1/f

noise. It is obtained by integrating white noise. It can be graphically represented as shown in

Figure 2.10. On an image, Brownian noise would look like Image 2.11 which is developed

from Fraclab.

PROPOSED WORK

4.1 Combinational Design

The active research in image processing is noise. If we think about the corrupted images, then

we analyses that it is corrupted by random variations inintensity values which is the noise. It

is because of the data acquisition process. The main aim of image denoising methods is to

recover the original image or fetching the better quality image after reduction from a noisy

one, in order to perform, in an easier and with a more semantic way to a task which is the part

of image processing as image segmentation.

4.2 Structure

The same procedure employed for 1-D signal denoising can also be applied to image

denoising.After implementing the double-density DWT, real double-density dual-tree DWT,

and complex double-density dual-tree DWT for 2-D signals, we can develop three different

methods using these DWTs to remove noise from an image. The double-density DWT

method will be discussed first.

function y = double_S2D(x,T)

% x: noise signal

% T: threshold

[af, sf] = filters1;

J = 4;

w = double_f2D(x,J,af);

% loop thru scales

for j = 1:J

% loop thru subbands

for s = 1:8

w{j}{s} = soft(w{j}{s},T);

end

end

y = double_i2D(w,J,sf);

This program method takes two input parameters, the first being the noisy image, whose

dimension is 512 x 512, and the second being the threshold point. We take the forward DWT

over four scales and apply soft thresholding to the wavelet coefficients through all the

subbands. After thresholding, we then take the inverse wavelet transform.

Figure 4.1 Noisy Image

The following example shows how to convert an image to double data type, how to create a

noisy image and display the denoised image. Note that we use a threshold value of 20, which

is the optimal threshold point for this case.

s1 = double(imread('peppers.jpg')); % load image as a double

s = s1(:,:,3); % convert to a 2-D image

figure(1) % display original image

imagesc(s)

colormap(gray)

axis image

title('Original Image')

x = s + 20*randn(size(s)); % add Gaussian noise to image

figure(2) % display noisy image

imagesc(x)

colormap(gray)

axis image

title('Noisy Image')

T = 15; % choose a threshold of 15

y = double_S2D(x,T); % denoise using Double-Density DWT

figure(3) % diplay denoised image

imagesc(y)

colormap(gray)

axis image

title('Denoised Image')

This program produces the following denoised image:

From the resulting image, we can see the denoising capability of 2-D double-density DWT.

function y = doubleden_R2D(x,T);

[Faf, Fsf] = FSdoubledualfilt;

[af, sf] = doubledualfilt;

J = 4;

w = doubledualtree_f2D(x,J,Faf,af);

% loop thru scales:

for j = 1:J

% loop thru subbands

for s1 = 1:2

for s2 = 1:8

w{j}{s1}{s2} = soft(w{j}{s1}{s2},T);

end

end

end

y = doubledualtree_i2D(w,J,Fsf,sf);

This program results in the following denoised image:

From the resulting image, we can see the denoising capability of 2-D double-density

DWT.

function y = doubledual_C2D(x,T)

[Faf, Fsf] = FSdoubledualfilt;

[af, sf] = doubledualfilt;

I = sqrt(-1);

J = 4;

w = cplxdoubledual_f2D(x,J,Faf,af);

% loop thru scales

for j = 1:J

% loop thru subbands

for s1 = 1:2

for s2 = 1:8

C = w{j}{1}{s1}{s2} + I*w{j}{2}{s1}{s2};

C = soft(C,T);

w{j}{1}{s1}{s2} = real(C);

w{j}{2}{s1}{s2} = imag(C);

end

end

end

y = cplxdoubledual_i2D(w,J,Fsf,sf);

We can see that 2-D double-density method is best in terms of noise attenuation by the

following "RMS Error vs. Threshold Point" plot.

Figure 4.5 2-D Threshold Comparison

(4.6)

4.3.3 Flow Chart

As shown in the below flowchart. We proposed a multiple threshoding technique. First the

received noisy image is applied to first thresholding method and oupput of first thresholding

method is applied to second threshold in technique as shown in figure 4.6. In the next

subsequent section we also provide the result comparison which shows the effectiveness of

our approach.

Noisy Image

DWT

Bayes Threshold

IDWT

DWT

Multistage

Threshold

IDWT

Denoised Image

Figure 4.8 explains the proposed method flow chart in detail. As shown in first stage discrete

wavelet transform of noisy image is taken and thresholded using Bayesian approach because

Bayesian threshold has the better performance in comparison to normal and visu threshold

technique. After applying threshold inverse discrete wavelet transform is taken. This is the

end of first level thresholding. This output acts as input for next stage of thresholding. In the

previous equation, M and N are the number of rows and columns in the input images,

respectively. Then the block computes the PSNR using the following equation:

PSNR = 10 log R 2 / MSE

In the above equation, R is the maximum fluctuation in the input image. For example, if the

input image has a double-precision floating-point data type, then R is 1. If it has an 8-bit

unsigned integer data type, R is 255, etc. Table- 1 compares various techniques on the basis

of their PSNR & MSE value for two types of noises salt & pepper noise and Gaussian noise.

The value of noise density for which values are calculated here is v=0.01. Figure 3 shows the

result for all the techniques. After the analysis of proposed scheme it is observed that it has

better performance for Gaussian noise in comparison to salt & pepper noise.

We used the Matlab R2010a to run the experiment under the PC environment of Windows 7

ultimate and CPU Pentium Dual-core which frequency is 1.86 GHz and memory with 2 GB.

For result comparison we consider different imagesof leena and show the effectiveness of

our algorithm. The proposed new denoising technique is compared with various existing

technique based on PSNR (Peak signal to noise ratio) and MES (Mean square error). The

Mean Square Error (MSE) and the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) are the two error

metrics used to compare image quality. The MSE represents the cumulative squared error

between the noisy and the original image, whereas PSNR represents a measure of the peak

error. The lower the value of MSE, lower the error.

To compute the PSNR, the block first calculates the mean-squared error using the equation:

MSE = (1/ MN) (m=1 to M) (n=1 to N) ( x(m,n)-x^ (m,n))2

The table 4.1 shows the comparison which shows the effectiveness of our approach.

Table 4.1: Result Analysis

Techniques Salt And Pepper Noise Gaussian Noise

In the above table when we compares various techniques on the basis of their PSNR &

MSE value for two types of noises salt & pepper noise and Gaussian noise. The value of

noise density for which values are calculated here is v=0.01. Figure 3 shows the result for all

the techniques. After the analysis of proposed scheme it is observed that it has better

performance for Gaussian noise in comparison to salt & pepper noise. The result is simulated

using Matlab.

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

6.1 Conclusion

In this dissertation we survey several aspects for image denoising. The process of removing

noise from an image is known as noise reduction or denoising. A standard denoising

technique is the convolutions of the image with different distribution technique. There is also

a need of we consider a new partial differential equations (PDE) denoising method which can

smooth out the high frequency oscillation while keeping the edges in the high noisy level

images.

which combines Bayes Shrinkage thresholding and Adaptive Multi-scale Products

Thresholding. This method multiplies the adjacent wavelet sub-bands to strengthen the

significant features in the image and then applies the thresholding to the multi scale products.

The advantage of proposed technique is that it has not only improvement in image

characteristics such as PSNR & MSE but also in image quality (Visual image). This

technique is also less complex in terms of level of denoising in comparison to adaptive

spatial multi-scale technique. The proposed technique is verified for Gaussian noise and salt

& pepper noise and observed that it has better performance for both but as the density of

noise is increased performance for salt & pepper noise is less but for Gaussian noise it has

significant performance.

In future we can apply neural network and fuzzy sets to improve the results. We also apply

heterogeneous framework to handle the database which can make the database handling in

the proper way. We also try the approach with other databases and video files also.

REFERENCES

[1] W. P. Ding and F. Wu, Adaptive directional lifting based wavelet transform for image

coding, IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 416684, 2007

Trans. Image Processing, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 500511, 2008.

[3] X. T. Wang, G. M. Shi, and Y. Niu, Image denoising based on improved adaptive

directional lifting wavelet transform, in International Conference on Signal Processing,

2008, vol. 2, pp. 11121116.

[4] X. T. Wang, G. M. Shi, Y. Niu, and L. Zhang, Robust adaptive directional lifting

wavelet transform for image denoising, IET Image Process (Accepted), 2009.

vol. 40, 2007,pp. 578-585,.

Transform, Fifth International Conference on Fuzzy Systems and Knowledge Discovery,

2008, pp. 301-305.

Bandlet Domain, IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2008,

pp. 1158-1161.

[8] B. Fisch and E.L. Schowart, "Iearning an Integral Equation Approximation to Nonlinear

Anisotropic Diffusion in Image processing", Dept. cognitive and Neural Systems Boston

University.

[9] Perona. P and Ma[ik. J, "Sca[e-space and edge detection using anisotropic diffusion," in

Proceeding of IEEE Computer Society workshop on Computer Vision, 1987, pp. 16-27.

diffusion in image processing", IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 5, 1996, pp. 1539-1553.

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