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India Textile Industry is one of the leading textile industries in the world.
Though was predominantly unorganized industry even a few years back, but the
scenario started changing after the economic liberalization of Indian economy in
1991. The opening up of economy gave the much-needed thrust to the Indian textile
industry, which has now successfully become one of the largest in the world. India
textile industry largely depends upon the textile manufacturing and export. It also
plays a major role in the economy of the country. India earns about 27% of its total
foreign exchange through textile exports. Further, the textile industry of India also
contributes nearly 14% of the total industrial production of the country. It also
contributes around 3% to the GDP of the country. India textile industry is also the
largest in the country in terms of employment generation. It not only generates jobs
in its own industry, but also opens up scopes for the other ancillary sectors. India
textile industry currently generates employment to more than 35 million
people. Indian textile industry can be divided into several segments, some of which
can be listed as below:
Cotton Textiles
Silk Textiles
Woolen Textiles
Readymade Garments
Hand-crafted Textiles
Jute and Coir
Government initiatives and regulatory framework

Government Initiatives
The Government of India has promoted a number of export promotion policies
for the Textile sector in the Union Budget 2011-12 and the Foreign Trade Policy
2009-14. This also includes the various incentives under Focus Market Scheme and
Focus Product Scheme; broad basing the coverage of Market Linked Focus Product
Scheme for textile products and extension of Market Linked Focus Product Scheme
etc. to increase the Indian shares in the global trade of textiles and clothing. The
various schemes and promotions by the Government of India are as follows - It has
allowed 100 per cent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in textiles under the automatic
Welfare Schemes:
The Government has offered health insurance coverage and life insurance
coverage to 161.10 million weavers and ancillary workers under the Handloom
Weavers' Comprehensive Welfare Scheme, while 733,000 artisans were provided
health coverage under the Rajiv Gandhi Shilpi Swasthya Bima Yojna.
The Central Cottage Industries Corporation of India (CCIC), and the
Handicrafts and Handlooms Export Corporation of India (HHEC) have developed a
number of e-marketing platforms to simplify marketing issues. Also, a number of
marketing initiatives have been taken up to promote niche handloom and handicraft
products with the help of 600 events all over the country.
Skill Development:
As per the 12th Five Year Plan, the Integrated Skill Development Scheme
aims to train over 2,675,000 people within the next 5 years (this would cover over
270,000 people during the first two years and the rest during the remaining three
years). This scheme would cover all sub sectors of the textile sector such as Textiles
and Apparel; Handicrafts; Handlooms; Jute; and Sericulture.
Credit Linkages:

As per the Credit Guarantee program, over 25,000 Artisan Credit Cards have
been supplied to artisans, and 16.50 million additional applications for issuing up
credit cards have been forwarded to banks for further consideration with regards to
the Credit Linkage scheme.

Financial package for waiver of overdues:

The Government of India has announced a package of US$ 604.56 million to

waive of overdue loans in the handloom sector. This also includes the waiver of
overdue loans and interest till 31st March,2010, for loans disbursed to handloom
sector. This is expected to benefit at least 300,000 handloom weavers of the industry
and 15,000 cooperative societies.
Textiles Parks:
The Indian Government has given approval to 40 new Textiles Parks to be set
up and this would be executed over a period of 36 months. The new Textiles Parks
would leverage employment to 400,000 textiles workers. The product mix in these
parks would include apparels and garments parks, hosiery parks, silk parks,
processing parks, technical textiles including medical textiles, carpet and power
loom parks.


Fabric refers to any material made through weaving, knitting, spreading,

crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments,
etc.). Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but often refers to a finished
piece of fabric used for a specific purpose (e.g., table cloth).A textile or cloth is a
flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers often
referred to as thread or yarn.

Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibers of wool, flax, cotton, or other material to
produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting,
or pressing fibers together (felt).

The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and
dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these
terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibers.


The word 'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textiles, meaning 'woven',
from textiles, the past participle of the verb textiles, 'to weave'. The word 'fabric' also
derives from Latin, most recently from the Middle French barbeque, or 'building,
thing made', and earlier as the Latin fabric 'workshop; an art, trade; a skillful
production, structure, fabric', which is from the Latin fiber, or 'artisan who works in
hard materials', from PIE dhabh-, meaning 'to fit together'.

The word 'cloth' derives from the Old English clay, meaning a cloth, woven
or felted material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz (compare
O.Frisian 'klath', Middle Dutch 'cleet', Dutch 'kleed', Middle High German 'kleit',
and German 'kleid', all meaning "garment"). There are several different types of
fabric from two main sources: manmade and natural. Inside natural, there are two
others, plant and animal. Some examples of animal textiles are silk and wool. An
example of a plant textile is cotton.


The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been
altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of
modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain
weave, twill, or satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern

Incas have been crafting quipus (or khipus) made of fibers either from a protein,
such as spun and plied thread like wool or hair from camelids such as alpacas, llamas,
and camels, or from a cellulose like cotton for thousands of years. Khipus are a series
of knots along pieces of string. Until recently, they were thought to have been only
a method of accounting, but new evidence discovered by Harvard professor Gary
Urton indicates there may be more to the khipu than just numbers. Preservation of
khipus found in museum and archive collections follow general textile preservation
principles and practice.

During the 15th century, textiles were the largest single industry. Before the 15th
century textiles were produced only in a few towns but during, they shifted into
districts like East Anglia, and the Cotswolds.


Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for
clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household they are used
in carpeting, upholstered furnishings, window shades, towels, coverings for tables,
beds, and other flat surfaces, and in art. In the workplace they are used in industrial
and scientific processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags,
backpacks, tents, nets, handkerchiefs, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as
balloons, kites, sails, and parachutes; textiles are also used to provide strengthening
in composite materials such as fiberglass and industrial geotextiles. Using textiles,
children can learn to sew and quilt and to make collages and toys.
Textiles used for industrial purposes, and chosen for characteristics other than their
appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include
textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles (e.g. implants),
geotextiles (reinforcement of embankments), agro textiles (textiles for crop
protection), protective clothing (e.g. against heat and radiation for fire fighter
clothing, against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and bullet proof vests).
In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met. Woven of
threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable
of "self-powering Nano systems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like
wind or body movements.

Sources and types

Textiles can be made from many materials. These materials come from four
main sources: animal (wool, silk), plant (cotton, flax, jute), mineral (asbestos, glass
fibre), and synthetic (nylon, polyester, acrylic). In the past, all textiles were made
from natural fibers, including plant, animal, and mineral sources. In the 20th century,
these were supplemented by artificial fibers made from petroleum.

Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the
finest gossamer to the sturdiest canvas. The relative thickness of fibers in cloth is
measured in deniers. Microfiber refers to fibers made of strands thinner than one

Fashion and textile designers

Fashion designers commonly rely on textile designs to set their fashion
collections apart from others. Armani, the late Gianni Versace, and Emilio Pucci can
be easily recognized by their signature print driven designs.
Plant textiles
Grass, rush, hemp, and sisal are all used in making rope. In the first two, the
entire plant is used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibers from the plant
are utilized. Coir (coconut fibre) is used in making twine, and also in floormats,
doormats, brushes, mattresses, floor tiles, and sacking.

Straw and bamboo are both used to make hats. Straw, a dried form of grass, is also
used for stuffing, as is kapok.

Fibers from pulpwood trees, cotton, rice, hemp, and nettle are used in making paper.

Cotton, flax, jute, hemp, modal and even bamboo fibre are all used in clothing. Pia
(pineapple fibre) and ramie are also Fibers used in clothing, generally with a blend
of other Fibers such as cotton. Nettles have also been used to make a fibre and fabric
very similar to hemp or flax. The use of milkweed stalk fibre has also been reported,
but it tends to be somewhat weaker than other Fibers like hemp or flax.
Acetate is used to increase the shininess of certain fabrics such as silks, velvets, and

Seaweed is used in the production of textiles: a water-soluble fibre known as alginate

is produced and is used as a holding fibre; when the cloth is finished, the alginate is
dissolved, leaving an open area.

Lyocell is a man-made fabric derived from wood pulp. It is often described as a man-
made silk equivalent; it is a tough fabric that is often blended with other fabrics
cotton, for example.

Fibers from the stalks of plants, such as hemp, flax, and nettles, are also known as
'bast' Fibers.

Mineral textiles

Asbestos and basalt fibre are used for vinyl tiles, sheeting, and adhesives, "transite"
panels and siding, acoustical ceilings, stage curtains, and fire blankets.

Glass fibre is used in the production of spacesuits, ironing board and mattress covers,
ropes and cables, reinforcement fibre for composite materials, insect netting, flame-
retardant and protective fabric, soundproof, fireproof, and insulating Fibers.

Metal fiber, metal foil, and metal wire have a variety of uses, including the
production of cloth-of-gold and jewelry. Hardware cloth (US term only) is a coarse
woven mesh of steel wire, used in construction. It is much like standard window
screening, but heavier and with a more open weave. It is sometimes used together
with screening on the lower part of screen doors, to resist scratching by dogs. It
serves similar purposes as chicken wire, such as fences for poultry and traps for
animal control.
Synthetic textiles

All synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing.

Polyester fibre is used in all types of clothing, either alone or blended with Fibers
such as cotton.

Aramid fibre (e.g. Twaron) is used for flame-retardant clothing, cut-protection, and

Acrylic is a fibre used to imitate wools, including cashmere, and is often used in
replacement of them.

Nylon is a fibre used to imitate silk; it is used in the production of pantyhose. Thicker
nylon Fibers are used in rope and outdoor clothing.

Spandex (trade name Lycra) is a polyurethane product that can be made tight-fitting
without impeding movement. It is used to make active wear, bras, and swimsuits.

Olefin fibre is a fibre used in active wear, linings, and warm clothing. Olefins are
hydrophobic, allowing them to dry quickly. A sintered felt of olefin Fibers is sold
under the trade name Tyvek.

Ingeo is a polylactide fibre blended with other Fibers such as cotton and used in
clothing. It is more hydrophilic than most other synthetics, allowing it to wick away

Lurex is a metallic fibre used in clothing embellishment.

Milk proteins have also been used to create synthetic fabric. Milk or casein fibre
cloth was developed during World War I in Germany, and further developed in Italy
and America during the 1930s.14 Milk fibre fabric is not very durable and wrinkles
easily, but has a pH similar to human skin and possesses anti-bacterial properties. It
is marketed as a biodegradable, renewable synthetic fibre.

Carbon fibre is mostly used in composite materials, together with resin, such as
carbon fibre reinforced plastic. The Fibers are made from polymer Fibers through

Production methods

Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer

threads (called the warp) with a set of crossing threads (called the weft). This is done
on a frame or machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. Some
weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanized.

Knitting and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either
on a knitting needle or on a crochet hook, together in a line. The two processes are
different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle
waiting to interlock with another loop, while crocheting never has more than one
active loop on the needle.

Spread Tow is a production method where the yarn are spread into thin tapes, and
then the tapes are woven as warp and weft. This method is mostly used for composite
materials; Spread Tow Fabrics can be made in carbon, aramide, etc.

Braiding or plaiting involves twisting threads together into cloth. Knotting involves
tying threads together and is used in making macrame.
Lace is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing and
any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the
work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine.

Carpets, rugs, velvet, velour, and velveteen are made by interlacing a secondary yarn
through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile.

Felting involves pressing a mat of Fibers together, and working them together until
they become tangled. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the
Fibers, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool.

Nonwoven textiles are manufactured by the bonding of Fibers to make fabric.

Bonding may be thermal or mechanical, or adhesives can be used.

Bark cloth is made by pounding bark until it is soft and flat.

Textiles are often dyed, with fabrics available in almost every color. The dying
process often requires several dozen gallons of water for each pound of clothing.17
Colored designs in textiles can be created by weaving together Fibers of different
colors (tartan or Uzbek Ikat), adding colored stitches to finished fabric (embroidery),
creating patterns by resist dyeing methods, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the
rest (tie-dyeing), or drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them
(batik), or using various printing processes on finished fabric. Woodblock printing,
still used in India and elsewhere today, is the oldest of these dating back to at least
220 CE in China. Textiles are also sometimes bleached, making the textile pale or
Textiles are sometimes finished by chemical processes to change their
characteristics. In the 19th century and early 20th century starching was commonly
used to make clothing more resistant to stains and wrinkles. Since the 1990s, with
advances in technologies such as permanent press process, finishing agents have
been used to strengthen fabrics and make them wrinkle free.18 More recently,
nanomaterials research has led to additional advancements, with companies such as
Nano-Tex and Nano Horizons developing permanent treatments based on metallic
nanoparticles for making textiles more resistant to things such as water, stains,
wrinkles, and pathogens such as bacteria and fungi.19

More so today than ever before, textiles receive a range of treatments before they
reach the end-user. From formaldehyde finishes (to improve crease-resistance) to
biocidic finishes and from flame retardants to dyeing of many types of fabric, the
possibilities are almost endless. However, many of these finishes may also have
detrimental effects on the end user. A number of disperse, acid and reactive dyes
(for example) have been shown to be allergenic to sensitive individuals. Further to
this, specific dyes within this group have also been shown to induce purpuric contact

Although formaldehyde levels in clothing are unlikely to be at levels high enough to

cause an allergic reaction, due to the presence of such a chemical, quality control
and testing are of utmost importance. Flame retardants (mainly in the brominated
form) are also of concern where the environment, and their potential toxicity, are
concerned. Testing for these additives is possible at a number of commercial
laboratories, it is also possible to have textiles tested for according to the Oeko-tex
certification standard which contains limits levels for the use of certain chemicals in
textiles products.

India is the second largest producer of fibre in the world and the major fibre produced
is cotton. Other Fibers produced in India include silk, jute, wool, and man-made
fibers. 60% of the Indian textile Industry is cotton based.
The strong domestic demand and the revival of the Economic markets by 2009 has
led to huge growth of the Indian textile industry. In December 2010, the domestic
cotton price was up by 50% as compared to the December 2009 prices. The causes
behind high cotton price are due to the floods in Pakistan and China.India projected
a high production of textile (325 lakh bales for 2010 -11).5 There has been increase
in India's share of global textile trading to seven percent in five years.5 The rising
prices are the major concern of the domestic producers of the country.

Man Made Fibers: These includes manufacturing of clothes using fiber or

filament synthetic yarns. It is produced in the large power loom factories.
They account for the largest sector of the textile production in India.This
sector has a share of 62% of the India's total production and provides
employment to about 4.8 million people.6
The Cotton Sector: It is the second most developed sector in the Indian Textile
industries. It provides employment to huge amount of people but its
productions and employment is seasonal depending upon the seasonal nature
of the production.
The Handloom Sector: It is well developed and is mainly dependent on the
SHGs for their funds. Its market share is 13%. of the total cloth produced in
The Woolen Sector: India is the 7th largest producer. of the wool in the world.
India also produces 1.8% of the world's total wool.
The Jute Sector: The jute or the golden fiber in India is mainly produced in
the Eastern states of India like Assam and West Bengal. India is the largest
producer of jute in the world.
The Sericulture and Silk Sector: India is the 2nd largest producer of silk in the
world. India produces 18% of the world's total silk. Mulberry, Eri, Tasar, and
Muga are the main types of silk produced in the country. It is a labor-intensive

Indian Textile Policy

Government of India passed the National Textile Policy in 2000

Textile Organization

The Indian Textile industries is mainly dominated by some government, semi

government and private institutions.
The major functions of the ministry of Textile are:

Bhilwara Textiles Industry

Textile Policy & Coordination
Man-made Fiber Industry
Cotton Textile Industry
Jute Industry
Silk and sericulture Industry
Wool Industry
Decentralized Power loom Sector
Export Promotion
Planning & Economic Analysis
Finance Matters
Information Technology(IT)

The advisory boards include:

All India Handlooms Board

All India Handicrafts Board
All India Power looms Board
Advisory Committee under Handlooms Reservation of Articles for
Co-ordination Council of Textiles Research Association
MM cotton industry

The major export promoting councils include:

Apparel Export Promotion Council, New Delhi

Carpet Export Promotion Council, New Delhi
Cotton Textiles Export Promotion Council, Mumbai

The major PSU or Public Sector Undertaking are:

National Textile Corporation Ltd. (NTC)

British India Corporation Ltd. (BIC)
Cotton Corporation of India Ltd. (CCI)
Jute Corporation of India Ltd. (JCI)
National Jute Manufacturers Corporation (NJMC)
Handicrafts and Handlooms Export Corporation (HHEC)
National Handloom Development Corporation (NHDC)
Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts, New Delhi
Handloom Export Promotion Council, Chennai
Indian Silk Export Promotion Council, Mumbai
Power loom Development & Export Promotion Council, Mumbai
Synthetic & Rayon Textiles Export Promotion Council, Mumbai
Wool & Woolen Export Promotion Council, New Delhi

Other autonomous bodies in this industry are:

Central Wool Development Board, Jodhpur

National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi
National Centre for Jute Diversification

The textile Research Associations are:

South India Textiles Research Association (SITRA), Coimbatore

Ahmedabad Textiles Industrys Research Association
Bombay Textiles Research Association, Mumbai
Indian Jute Industries Research association, Kolkata
Man-made Textiles Research Association, Surat
Synthetic and art silk Mills Research Association, Mumbai
Wool Research Association, Thane
Northern India Textiles Research Association, Ghaziabad
Organized sector

According to Kearneys Retail Apparel Index India ranked as the fourth most
promising market for apparel retailers in 2009.

There is large scope of improvement in the textile industry of India as there is a

huge increase in personal disposable income among the Indians after the 1991
liberalisation. There is also a large growth of the organised sector in the Indian textile
industries.The foreign brands along with the collaboration of the Indian companies
established business in India. Some of these are Puma, Armani, Benetton, Esprit,
Levi Strauss, Hugo Boss, Liz Claiborne, Crocs etc.

The major Indian Industries include Bombay Dyeing, Fabindia, Grasim Industries,
JCT Limited, Lakshmi Machine Works, Lakshmi Mills and Mysore Silk Factory.


The Indian Textile Industry occupies an important place in the Economy of

the Country because of its contribution to the Industrial Output, Employment
Generation and Foreign Exchange Earnings. At present, the contribution of the
textile Industry to GDP is about 4 percent. The textile industry provides direct
employment to about more than 35 million people and is the second largest
employment provider in India next to agriculture. The contribution of this industry
to gross export earnings is about 31% of the country.

The Textile Industry is a self-reliant industry from the production

of raw materials to the delivery of final products with considerable value addition at
each stage of processing. The industry was deli censed in 1991 and under the current
policy no prior government approval is necessary to set up textile mills. The per
capita cloth availability in the country has increased from 24.1 square meters in 1991
to 30.7 square meters in 2000-01.The textile sector including the garment sector has
a continual increase in the FDI inflow from Rs.80.99 million to Rs.234.73million.

From growing its own raw material (cotton, jute, silk and wool) to providing value
added products to consumers (fabrics and garments), the textile industry covers a
wide range of economic activities, including employment generation in both
organized and unorganized sectors. Manmade fibers account for around 40 per cent
share in a cotton dominated Indian textile industry. India accounts for 15% of world's
total cotton crop production. And it is the second largest employer after the
agriculture sector in both rural and urban areas. India has a large pool of skilled low-
cost textile workers; experienced in technical skills. Almost all sectors of the textile
industry have shown significant achievement. India's cotton textile industry has a
high export potential. Cost competitiveness is driving the penetration of Indian basic
yarns and grey fabrics in international commodity markets. Besides natural fibers
such as cotton, jute and silk, synthetic raw material products such as polyester staple
fiber, polyester filament yarn, acrylic fiber and viscose fiber are produced in India.

From 1st January 2013, all textile and clothing products would be
traded internationally without quota-restrictions. And this impending reality brings
the issue of competitiveness to the fore for all firms in the textile and clothing
sectors, including those in India. With the dismantling of quotas in 2004 under
mandate from the Agreement in Textile and Clothing of the WTO, the focus has
clearly shifted to the future of the Indian textile and clothing exports. It is imperative
to understand the true competitiveness of Indian textile and clothing firms in order
to make an assessment of what lies over a period of time.

During the MFN period, the textile exporters from industrial countries and those
from developing countries merely changed shares between themselves during 24
years .The share of industrial countries declined by almost as much (19.2%) as was
the gain in the share of developing countries (18.8%). Clothing exporters, however,
exhibit significant changes, with the share of top exporters having declined by

New entrants have come in as well as some old ones have been knocked out. Of
these new entrants, most- if not all- are from developing countries, since the share
of industrial countries has declined during the period, and that of developing
countries has increased.

The countries that are gaining share in clothing exports are the ones whose industries
are integrated to one or the other advanced country through some policy-induced
preferential arrangements. Mexico, Caribbean region, East European countries and
Mediterranean countries are capturing much of the space vacated.

There has been a much deeper globalization in clothing than in textiles. Indeed, that
has been one of the principal reasons for the developed countries agreeing to an
eventual phase-out in the UR of negotiations. While in textiles, there was an
inexorable shift away from developed countries in 1973 to1997 and to developing
countries at large, in clothing the shift away from developed countries is increasingly
being grabbed by preferred developing countries.

Thus, in clothing, the non-preferred group of developing countries is fighting

amongst themselves for a pie that is increasingly declining.

One should expect a much higher level of intra-industry and intra-firm trade in
clothing than in textiles. This is entirely compatible with the fact that it is the trade
in Clothing that is growing faster than that in textile.

And this trend is likely to deepen, as Clothing retailers consolidate, and Outward
Processing Trade (OPT) traffic increases. The Opportunity clearly lies much more
in clothing, though the caveat is the exporting.

Country would have to achieve the preferred status, and integrate its manufacturing
with that of an importing country in order to continue exporting to the restricted
markets. The pressure to export would intensify in the years to come since 80% of
additional output during 1995-2013 is expected to be located in developing
countries. On the other hand, only 50% of the additional fibre consumption would
originate in developing countries.

The main objective of the textile policy 2000 is to provide cloth of acceptable quality
at reasonable price for the vast majority of the population of the country, to
increasingly contribute to the provision of sustainable employment and the economic
growth of the nation; and to compete with confidence for an increasing share of the
global market.



Sheep are the primary source of wool in military textile. Wool consists mainly of a
protein called keratin. This is made up of amino acids. Keratin contains 3 4 % sulfur
which is an insect attractant. Wool fibers absorb more moisture and accept dyes
better than vegetable fibers. Wool is not a strong fiber and weakens considerably
when wet.


Silk is an animal (insect) fiber that is derived from the cocoon filament of the
silkworm (Bombay mori). Because it is basically protein, silk is easily affected by
alkalis and various inorganic acids. Like wool, it easily absorbs moisture and will
take dyes readily. These dyes, however, are not as light-fast as those on wool. Silk
is as strong as a steel wire the same diameter but is very light sensitive. Therefore,
it will break down faster than wool when exposed to ultra violet rays. The most
commonly encountered military artifacts composed of silk are scarves, medal
ribbons and escape maps.



Cotton is a vegetable fiber derived from lint on the cotton seed. It can survive in
moderate alkaline condition but is adversely affected by acids. Cotton does not
transmit moisture like linen and is very absorbent in its processed state. It is this
characteristic clock wise twist ; for this reason , it is commonly spun in a Z twist.

Linen is a spun and woven vegetable-based fiber derived from flax stalks and
branches. Linen fiber lies close together and are durable. They withstand moderate
alkaline condition because of their cellulose content, but are readily affected by
acids. Moisture easily passes through the fiber of linen, causing in the overall
strength. Linen does not take dye well and is usually left in a blenched or unclenched
white state.


All textiles are deteriorated by light, insect, microorganism, and air pollution. Which
alone or together, causes considerable loss of tensile strength and pliability? The
oxygen on the atmosphere affects all organic substance to varying degrees.
Prolonged exposure to normal atmospheric condition will cause textiles to weaken
and disintegrate. The speed of the deterioration varies according to environment and
the nature of the fibers . The main factors that promote the decay of textile can be
categorized into three groups.


All organic source textiles are subject to attack by molds, mildew and bacteria. The
environment that favor the growth of these organism are as damp heat, stagnant air,
and dirty storage conditions. Animal source textiles are particularly susceptible to
attack by insect and rodents.


Exposure to ultraviolet light causes a type of deterioration known as tendering, as

well as the photochemical degradation of susceptible dyes. Environment that are too
damper too dry can lead to mold growth or desiccation of a textile. Improper
handling or storage can cause stress on the fabric which leads to tearing or


Exposure to gases from adhesives or paints can cause tendering. In some cases, these
gases are converted to acids, a primary cause for the deterioration of some textiles.
A coat of paint or layer of adhesives in a display case for example, may produce
fumes or off gas for months after it appear to be dry. In larger cities, air pollution
may be a serious threat to textile as well as human health. Traditionally, the textile
industry is very energy, water, and chemical intensive. About 60% of the energy is
used by dyeing and finishing operations. Environment problems associated with the
textile industry are typically those associated with water pollution. Natural
impurities extracted from the fiber being processed along with chemical used for
processing are the two main sources of pollution. Effluents are generally hot,
alkaline, strong smelling and colored by chemicals used in dying process.

Established in 1957 by the late Vengaya Naidu K, SRI KARPAGAM Organic

Company was incorporated as a private limited company in 1914. The flagship of
the Coimbatore-based Sri Karpagam, its associate companies is SRI KARPAGAM
Machine Works, Sri Karpagam Synthetic Machinery Manufacturers and SRI
KARPAGAM Auto Looms. PKR is a composite mill manufacturing a range of
cotton, viscose, blended yarn and a variety of grey and processed cloth. The
company has four manufacturing units located at Coimbatore, Singanallur,
Kovilpatti and Palladam, all in Tamilnadu. The company's cloth processing is done
by its subsidiary, United Bleachers. SRI KARPAGAM exports cotton yarn and grey
cloth to the UK, Germany, Italy, Tamilnadu and Japan. In 1977, Coimbatore Cotton
Mills was amalgamated with the company.

We are a professionally managed company engaged in the field of manufacturing,

supplying and exporting of high quality knitted and hosiery garments. We started
with a zeal and determination to redefine fashion in the industry. Standing on the
grounds of style and elegance, we offer knitted and hosiery garments that are abreast
of the changing international trends and working the total no of employees are 650.


To manufacture products comparable to international standards, to be

customer-focused and globally competitive through better quality,
latest technology and continuous innovation.

To manufacture world-class products of outstanding quality that give

our customers a competitive advantage through superior products and
value, so we can make every customer smile.
To encourage people's ownership, empowerment and working under
team structure.
To attain highest level of efficiency, integrity and honesty.


Customer's satisfaction and delight.

Superior quality of performance.
Concern for the environment and the community.
Passionate about excellence.
Fair to all.
To provide a safe workplace and promote healthy work habits.