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How well the system does it:

Worst-case execution time

Average execution time

Throughput

Predictability

Capacity

Safety

Reliability

Functional

requirements

are modeled

as use cases,

sequence diagrams,

activity diagrams or

statecharts

QoS Requirements are

modeled as constraints

10 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

System Use Cases

11 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Use Cases Are Not ..

A functional decomposition model of the system internals thats HOW

They do not capture HOW in any way

They do not capture anything the Actor does outside of the System

How do I capture HOW?


Use Object Model Diagrams to capture Static Structure

Use Sequence Diagrams and State Diagrams (or Activity

Diagrams) to capture Dynamic Behavior

12 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Good Example: Cardionada

13 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Bad Example: Cardionada-NADA

Wrong Actors

Assumes a design

Not primary capabilities

14 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Things to avoid

Single messages are not use cases!

Use cases represent a large number of different scenarios

Each scenario has many (possibly hundreds) of messages

Low-level interfaces are not use cases

Low-level interfaces are means to realize use cases

LLIs are subsumed within actual use cases

A use case should map to a reason for the user to interact with

the system, not the means by which it occurs

15 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Detailing Use Cases

By operational example

Use scenarios captured via sequence diagrams

Each scenario capture a specific path through the use case


Partially constructive

Infinite set, so you must select which are interestingly different

Non-technical users can understand scenarios

By specification

Use an informal (e.g. English) and/or formal (e.g. statechart) to

represent all possible paths

Fully constructive

Non-technical readers might not understand formal specs

16 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Use Case Description

17 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Detailing Use Cases: Scenarios

A typical system has one dozen to a few dozen use case

Each use case typically has a few to several dozen scenarios of

interest

Scenarios capture a specific actor-system interaction

protocols of interaction

permitted sequences of

message flow

collaboration of structural elements

show typical or exceptional paths through the use case

18 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Example: Use Case Sequence Diagram

19 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Detailing Use Cases: Statecharts


20 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Detailing Use Cases: Statecharts

Alarm on

Critical Event

21 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

How do we describe

structure using UML?

22 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Objects, Classes and Interfaces

An object is a run-time entity that occupies memory at some specific

point in time

Has behavior (methods)

Has data (attributes)

A class is a design-time specification that defines the structure and

behavior for a set of objects to be created at run-time.

Specifies behavior implementation (methods)

Specifies data (attributes)

An interface is a design time concept that specifies the messages a

class receives (provided) or uses (required)

Specifies behavior only (operation implementation)

May have virtual attributes (no implementation)

May have a protocol state machine (no actions)

23 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

An object is one of the common building blocks in a UML model.

Software: It can represent a system, a subsystem or a specific software


element in a concrete programming language.

Systems: It can represent a real-world system, subsystem, or element

Several definitions are available:

An object is a real-world or conceptual thing that has autonomy

An object is a cohesive entity consisting of data and the operations that act

on those data

An object is a thing that has an interface that enforces protection of the

encapsulation of its internal structure

What is an Object ?

24 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Objects can be

Software things

Occupy memory at some point in time

E.g. CustomerRecord, ECGSample, TextDisplayControl

Electronic things

Occupy physical space at some point in time

E.g. Thermometer, LCDDisplay, MotionSensor, DCMotor

Mechanical things

Occupy physical space at some point in time

E.g. WingSurface, Gear, Door, HydraulicPress

Chemical things

Occupy physical space at some point in time

E.g. Battery, GasMixture, Halothane

System things

Occupy space at some point in time


E.g. PowerSubsystem, RobotArm, Space Shuttle

25 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

A Class is the definition or specification of an object

An object is an instance of a class

An object has the attributes and behaviours defined by its class

It is common to have many instances of a class at the same time

Human (class)

Sam(Object)

Phil (Object) Lauren (Object)

Classes

is a instance of

is an instance of

is an instance of

26 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Class Diagram

27 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Structural Diagrams

Diagrams serve many purposes

System model-capture & specification

View aspects of system design

Provide basis for communication and review

Diagrams bring 2 things to the design process

Represent different aspects of design, e.g.

Functional

Structural
Behavioral

Quality of Service

Show aspects at different levels of abstraction

System

Subsystem

Component

Primitive class

28 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Interfaces

UML interfaces specify operations or event receptions

UML Interfaces have no implementation

No methods

No attributes

Classes realize an interface by

providing a method (implementation) of an operation or

specifying an event reception on a state machine

A class that realizes an interface is said to be compliant with that

interface

Classes may realize any number of interfaces

Interfaces may be realized by any number of classes

29 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Interfaces

30 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Relationships allow objects to communicate at run-time

Objects may use the facilities of other objects with an association


There are two specialized forms of association:

Objects may contain other objects with an aggregation

Objects may strongly aggregate others via composition

Classes may derive attributes and behaviours from other classes

with a generalization

Classes may depend on others via a dependency

Relationships

31 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Associations allow instances of classes to communicate at run-time

Instances of associations are called links

Links may come and go during execution

Denotes one object using the facilities of another

Lifecycles of the objects are independent

Allows objects to provide services to many others

Associations

32 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Associations may have labels

This is the name of the association

Associations may have role names

Identifies the role of the object in the association

Associations may indicate multiplicity

Identifies the number of instances of the class that participate in the

association

*
1..[n | *]

Associations may indicate navigation with an open arrowhead

Unadorned associations are assumed to be bi-directional

Most associations are unidirectional

Associations

33 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Indicated by a hollow diamond

Whole-part relationship

Denotes one object logically or physically contains another

Weaker form of aggregation. Nothing is implied about

Navigation

Ownership

Lifetimes of participating objects

Aggregation

34 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Indicated by containment or a filled aggregation diamond

Whole both creates and destroys part objects

Composite is a higher level abstraction than the parts

Allows the class model to be viewed and

manipulated at many levels of abstraction

Stronger form of aggregation

Implies a multiplicity of no more than one

with the whole

Forms a tree with its parts

Y
X

Composition

35 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Composition Example

Keypad Display

System

FrontPanel

Button LED

Acquisition Filter Measurement

AcquisitionSubsystem

11

11

84

111

11

System

:AcquisitionSubsystem

:FrontPanel

AcquisitionSubsystem

:Acquisition

:Filter
1

:Measurement

FrontPanel

:Keypad

:Display

Keypad

:Button

:LED

Two ways

to show

composition

36 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Relationships

37 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Dependencies

A dependency can be used when a

class has no direct relation to

another class, but depends on it in


some way.

A Dependency stereotype (<<>>)

details how one item is

dependent on the other

One class may depend on

another to build an executable

from code with a <<usage>>

dependency

A Use Case may depend on a

class that realizes its required

functionality

Measurement ErrorManager

LinkList

Library Collection

Iterator

<<Usage>>

<<Friend>>

<<Bind>>

38 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Advanced Structural Concepts

39 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Advanced Structural Concepts

Flows

Structure Classes
Ports

40 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Information Flows

Information flows are an abstract view of collaboration

Information items represent data

Similar to data flow diagrams

Non-constructive

No sequence is shown

Information Flows are details with data elements known as Flow

Items

Flow Items can be primitive types, records containing other items, or

even classes

Operations and event receptions on the target class will realize

information flow

Information flow items will be parameters or return values of the

operations

41 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Item Flows

42 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Structured Classes

A structured class is a class that is composed of parts

The structured class is responsible for the creation and destruction of its

parts

The structured class owns the parts via composition

A part is an object role that executes in the context of the structured


class

Parts are typed by classes

Parts are connected via connections

Connections are contextualized links

The structured class links together the parts as necessary

43 Real-Time UML Telelogic AB

Structured Classes

PRIMARY USE: show systems at different levels of abstraction

Composite is at a higher level of abstraction than the part (e.g. system and

subsystem)

Composite achieves its behavioral goals primarily through delegation

Additional use: Populate simple classes into active classes for SO


FEATURES 100V Operating Supply Voltage 5A/phase peak current 5, 25, 125 microsteps/step Full
step and half step operation User selectable phase current 90 out of phase chopping to save
power consumption Galvanic isolation Full output protection against short-circuits Thermal and
undervoltage protection Step clock in excess of 200kHz Fault indication output Special circuit to
reduce midrange instability
DESCRIPTION The GS-D500A is a member of the SGS-THOMSON family of stepper motor driver
modules and boards. It drives motors in full step, half step and microstep mode. On top of that if
offers an unusually large number of features that allow a complete control of the

electromechanical characteristics of the motion system to obtain optimum performance. The


powermos output stages offer both low conduction and commutation losses for increased
efficiency; this, combined with a complete protection scheme, results in an extremely rugged
unit suitable for harsh environment operation.

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS

Symbol Parameter Value Unit

Vs DC Supply Voltage 110 V Vss DC Logic Supply Voltage 13 V lph Output Current per Bridge 6
Apk

l iLogic Input Current 30 mA Vis Isolation Voltage 500 V Tstg Storage Temperature Range 20 to
+85 C Thop Operating Heatsink Temperature +85 C

Note: Absolute maximum ratings are limit values above which the unit can be permanently
damaged * Thermal protection intervention @ Th > 90C

This datasheet has been downloaded from http://www.digchip.com at this page

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Tamb = 25C and Vs = 24V unless otherwise specified)

Symbol Parameter Test Conditions Min Typ Max Unit

Vs DC Supply Voltage 12 100 V

Vss DC Logic Supply Voltage 11.5 12 12.5 V

Iph Phase Current per Output* 0.5 5 A

li Logic Input Current 10 mA

Vsl On board Logic Supply Output 4.75 5 5.25 V

Iosl On board Logic Supply Current Output 100 mA

fc Clock Pulse Frequency 200 kHz

* Output Shorts Protection phase-to-phase, phase-to-ground. Note: the unit requires an input
filtering capacitor in the range of 4700 to 10000 F/100V, with low ESR and located as close as
possible to the board.

2/10
Figure 1. Signals timing

GS-D500A

3/10

Figure 2. Block diagram

GS-D500A

4/10

MECHANICAL DATA (dimensions are in millimeters)

GS-D500A HARDWARE AVAILABLE COMMANDS

SW1, SW2, SW3 Microsteps/step programming

SW4 Phase peak current selection

SW5 Midrange stabilization ON/OFF

SW6 Current reduction at rest

R42 Phase AB current programming

R43 Phase CD current programming

GS-D500A

GS-D500A CONNECTORS PINS DESCRIPTION

CONNECTOR J1 J1-1 Phase A output J1-2 Phase B output J1-3 Phase C output J1-4 Phase D
output J1-6 Ground

CONNECTOR J2 J2-1 Motor Supply Voltage J2-3 Auxiliary Supply Voltage (+12V) J2-2,4 Ground

CONNECTOR J3 Pin Function J3-1 Step clock isolated input (see fig. 3): this is a logic input
that performs the step function, i.e. on every transition of this input the motor is moved one
step in the proper direction. J3-2 Direction isolated input (see fig. 4): the logic state applied to
this pin decides the rotation direction of the motor shaft.

J3-4 Microsteps/step rate remote programming (SW1). J3-5 On board +5V output J3-6,7 Return
path for on board +5V output

J3-8 Disable input (see fig. 6): a logic high level applied to this input causes the power driver
outputs to float. This condition allows the manual positioning of the system. Care must be used
when this input is activated because the detention torque is lost. J3-9 Optocoupler supply
voltage J3-10 Zero current control isolated input (see fig. 5): when activated the phase current is
reduced to zero

J3-12 Microsteps/step rate remote programming (SW2) J3-13 Fault logic output (see fig. 9): this
ouput is at a low logic level whenever an anomalous condition is detected. J3-15
Microsteps/step rate remote programming (SW3)

Figure 3. Stepclock input circuit Figure 4. Direction input circuit

5/10

GS-D500A

6/10

Figure 5. Zero current input circuit Figure 6. Disable input circuit

A - GS-D500A DESCRIPTION The GS-D500A is a complete subsystem to drive stepper motors


either in full step or microstep mode. A very large number of auxiliary functions has been
included to allow extreme simplicity and flexibility in use. Particular care has been devoted to
protections, so that the GS-D500A can be safely used in very harsh environments. In addition to
the obvious function to drive the motor phases in a chopping mode, the following functions
have been implemented: - Sine/cosine generation - Selection of three different microsteps/step
rates

- Selection of full/half step drive - Programming of peak phase current to optimize the torque

- Automatic phase current reduction at rest (selectable) - Full protection against short-circuit
between phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground - Thermal and undervoltage protection

- Galvanic isolation of 3 input signals (clock, direction, zero current). - Fault indication output -
On board auxiliary voltages generation - Midrange stability circuitry (selectable)

As a result, the GS-D500A can provide up to 5A per phase and, in its simplest application, just
three command signals are required: step clock, direction, disable.

GS-D500A

7/10

A1 - SUPPLY VOLTAGE

THE POWER SUPPLY MUST BE TURNED OFF WHEN PLUGGING OR UNPLUGGING THE BOARD

The supply pins are: J2-1 for Motor Supply Voltage J2-3 for Auxiliary Voltage J2-2,4 for Ground
rail

The other supply voltages needed by the boards are internally generated. If an undervoltage
condition is detected (Vs < 10V) the GS-D500A is automatically disabled and a led is activated.
The Motor Supply voltage is in the range from 12 to 100V, the Auxiliary voltage from 11 to 13V.
At power-on the Auxiliary Supply voltage must be applied before the Motor Supply voltage,
while at power-off the Motor Supply voltage must be removed before the Auxiliary voltage.

A2 - FULL-STEP/HALF-STEP/MICROSTEP PROGRAMMING BY HARDWARE The number of


microsteps per step is field programmable. The digitized sine and cosine functions, required by a
microstepping control, are stored in a Lock-Up-Table inside the GS-D500A. Two options are
provided for the proper microsteps/step rate selection. Three switches (SW1, SW2, SW3) are
available on the front edge of the board. The full-step/half-step/microstep mode is defined by
the following table.

SW1 SW2 SW3 MODE

OFF ON OFF Half step

ON ON OFF 125 microsteps/step

ON OFF ON 25 microsteps/step

OFF ON ON 5 microsteps/step

ON ON ON Full step

The switches are in OFF condition when the knob is pulled versus the board edge. Invalid
combinations disable the board.

A2.1 - MICROSTEP PROGRAMMING BY HOST COMPUTER The microsteps/step rate can also be
remotely changed by using the three logic inputs available on the J3 connector (pins 4,12 and
15) that corresponds, respectively, to SW1, SW2, SW3. The interaction between logic signals and
hardware switches is shown in fig. 4.

Figure 7. Remote microstepping programming

To operate the logic pins of the J3 connector, the three internal switches must be in the OFF
state.

A3 - CURRENT REDUCTION AT REST Phase current can be reduced when the motor is stopped if
SW6 is open. Current reduction is operative about 1 second after the last clock pulse.

GS-D500A

8/10

A4 - SETTING OF THE DIRECTION POLARITY The rotation direction signal must be applied at pin
J3-3. The direction (CW or CCW) depends on the status of the direction signal as shown in the
following table:
DIR. SIGNAL ROTATION

HIGH CCW

LOW CW

A5 - PHASE CURRENT PROGRAMMING The phase current can be programmed by means two on-
board trimmer called R42 and R43 (see mechanical drawing). R42 programs the current in phase
AB, while R43 programs the current in phase CD.

A6 - MIDRANGE STABILITY A particular circuitry is implemented on the board to avoid midrange


oscillations. This circuit is inserted on the current control loop when SW5 is OFF.

A7 - CURRENT SELECTION IN MICROSTEP/CONSTANT CURRENT SWITCHING (SW4)

When the board is used to drive a motor in microstep mode, an automatic switching from
sinusoidal/cosinusoidal current to constant current is performed when the sinusoidal output
waveform exceeds 500Hz. The constant output current can be chosen to be 0.707 of the peak
current or the peak current: this possibility is given by SW4. (See fig. 8).

SW4 OFF 0.707 x Ipeak

SW4 ON Ipeak

Figure 8. Current selection by SW4

An histeresys is inserted on the 500Hz threshold to avoid unwanted oscillations.

GS-D500A

9/10

A8 - OUTPUT OVERLOAD AND SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION

To prevent permanent damage to the GS-D500A, three protections have been implemented
against overload and short circuits between: - output to output - output to ground When one of
these adverse conditions occurs, the driver of the output H-bridges is disabled for about 500ms
and the condition is signaled by the FAULT signal.

A9 - FAULT SIGNAL

The FAULT signal is available at pin J3-13. When a fault is present, pin 13 goes low versus pins
6,7. Whenever the FAULT signal is activated, the led provided in the front edge of the module is
switched ON. The FAULT signal is active (low) when: - the supply voltage is lower than 12V - the
heatsink temperature is higher than 90C - an output overload is present - a disable is active.

Figure 9 - FAULT signal output circuit


GS-D500A

10/10

Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, SGS-THOMSON


Microelectronics assumes no responsibility for the consequences of use of such information nor
for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of SGS-
THOMSON Microelectronics. Specification mentioned in this publication are subject to change
without notice. This publication supersedes and replaces all information previously supplied.
SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics products are not authorized for use as critical components in
life support devices or systems without express written approval of SGS-THOMSON
Microelectronics.

1994 SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics All Rights Reserved

SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics GROUP OF COMPANIES Australia - Brazil - China - France -


Germany - Hong Kong - Italy - Japan - Korea - Malaysia - Malta - Morocco - The Netherlands
Singapore - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - Taiwan - Thailand - United Kingdom - U.S.A.
FEATURES 100V Operating Supply Voltage 5A/phase peak current 5, 25, 125 microsteps/step Full
step and half step operation User selectable phase current 90 out of phase chopping to save
power consumption Galvanic isolation Full output protection against short-circuits Thermal and
undervoltage protection Step clock in excess of 200kHz Fault indication output Special circuit to
reduce midrange instability

DESCRIPTION The GS-D500A is a member of the SGS-THOMSON family of stepper motor driver
modules and boards. It drives motors in full step, half step and microstep mode. On top of that if
offers an unusually large number of features that allow a complete control of the

electromechanical characteristics of the motion system to obtain optimum performance. The


powermos output stages offer both low conduction and commutation losses for increased
efficiency; this, combined with a complete protection scheme, results in an extremely rugged
unit suitable for harsh environment operation.

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS

Symbol Parameter Value Unit

Vs DC Supply Voltage 110 V Vss DC Logic Supply Voltage 13 V lph Output Current per Bridge 6
Apk

l iLogic Input Current 30 mA Vis Isolation Voltage 500 V Tstg Storage Temperature Range 20 to
+85 C Thop Operating Heatsink Temperature +85 C

Note: Absolute maximum ratings are limit values above which the unit can be permanently
damaged * Thermal protection intervention @ Th > 90C

This datasheet has been downloaded from http://www.digchip.com at this page

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Tamb = 25C and Vs = 24V unless otherwise specified)

Symbol Parameter Test Conditions Min Typ Max Unit

Vs DC Supply Voltage 12 100 V


Vss DC Logic Supply Voltage 11.5 12 12.5 V

Iph Phase Current per Output* 0.5 5 A

li Logic Input Current 10 mA

Vsl On board Logic Supply Output 4.75 5 5.25 V

Iosl On board Logic Supply Current Output 100 mA

fc Clock Pulse Frequency 200 kHz

* Output Shorts Protection phase-to-phase, phase-to-ground. Note: the unit requires an input
filtering capacitor in the range of 4700 to 10000 F/100V, with low ESR and located as close as
possible to the board.

2/10

Figure 1. Signals timing

GS-D500A

3/10

Figure 2. Block diagram

GS-D500A

4/10

MECHANICAL DATA (dimensions are in millimeters)

GS-D500A HARDWARE AVAILABLE COMMANDS

SW1, SW2, SW3 Microsteps/step programming

SW4 Phase peak current selection

SW5 Midrange stabilization ON/OFF

SW6 Current reduction at rest

R42 Phase AB current programming

R43 Phase CD current programming

GS-D500A

GS-D500A CONNECTORS PINS DESCRIPTION


CONNECTOR J1 J1-1 Phase A output J1-2 Phase B output J1-3 Phase C output J1-4 Phase D
output J1-6 Ground

CONNECTOR J2 J2-1 Motor Supply Voltage J2-3 Auxiliary Supply Voltage (+12V) J2-2,4 Ground

CONNECTOR J3 Pin Function J3-1 Step clock isolated input (see fig. 3): this is a logic input
that performs the step function, i.e. on every transition of this input the motor is moved one
step in the proper direction. J3-2 Direction isolated input (see fig. 4): the logic state applied to
this pin decides the rotation direction of the motor shaft.

J3-4 Microsteps/step rate remote programming (SW1). J3-5 On board +5V output J3-6,7 Return
path for on board +5V output

J3-8 Disable input (see fig. 6): a logic high level applied to this input causes the power driver
outputs to float. This condition allows the manual positioning of the system. Care must be used
when this input is activated because the detention torque is lost. J3-9 Optocoupler supply
voltage J3-10 Zero current control isolated input (see fig. 5): when activated the phase current is
reduced to zero

J3-12 Microsteps/step rate remote programming (SW2) J3-13 Fault logic output (see fig. 9): this
ouput is at a low logic level whenever an anomalous condition is detected. J3-15
Microsteps/step rate remote programming (SW3)

Figure 3. Stepclock input circuit Figure 4. Direction input circuit

5/10

GS-D500A

6/10

Figure 5. Zero current input circuit Figure 6. Disable input circuit

A - GS-D500A DESCRIPTION The GS-D500A is a complete subsystem to drive stepper motors


either in full step or microstep mode. A very large number of auxiliary functions has been
included to allow extreme simplicity and flexibility in use. Particular care has been devoted to
protections, so that the GS-D500A can be safely used in very harsh environments. In addition to
the obvious function to drive the motor phases in a chopping mode, the following functions
have been implemented: - Sine/cosine generation - Selection of three different microsteps/step
rates

- Selection of full/half step drive - Programming of peak phase current to optimize the torque

- Automatic phase current reduction at rest (selectable) - Full protection against short-circuit
between phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground - Thermal and undervoltage protection

- Galvanic isolation of 3 input signals (clock, direction, zero current). - Fault indication output -
On board auxiliary voltages generation - Midrange stability circuitry (selectable)

As a result, the GS-D500A can provide up to 5A per phase and, in its simplest application, just
three command signals are required: step clock, direction, disable.

GS-D500A

7/10

A1 - SUPPLY VOLTAGE

THE POWER SUPPLY MUST BE TURNED OFF WHEN PLUGGING OR UNPLUGGING THE BOARD

The supply pins are: J2-1 for Motor Supply Voltage J2-3 for Auxiliary Voltage J2-2,4 for Ground
rail

The other supply voltages needed by the boards are internally generated. If an undervoltage
condition is detected (Vs < 10V) the GS-D500A is automatically disabled and a led is activated.
The Motor Supply voltage is in the range from 12 to 100V, the Auxiliary voltage from 11 to 13V.
At power-on the Auxiliary Supply voltage must be applied before the Motor Supply voltage,
while at power-off the Motor Supply voltage must be removed before the Auxiliary voltage.

A2 - FULL-STEP/HALF-STEP/MICROSTEP PROGRAMMING BY HARDWARE The number of


microsteps per step is field programmable. The digitized sine and cosine functions, required by a
microstepping control, are stored in a Lock-Up-Table inside the GS-D500A. Two options are
provided for the proper microsteps/step rate selection. Three switches (SW1, SW2, SW3) are
available on the front edge of the board. The full-step/half-step/microstep mode is defined by
the following table.

SW1 SW2 SW3 MODE

OFF ON OFF Half step

ON ON OFF 125 microsteps/step

ON OFF ON 25 microsteps/step

OFF ON ON 5 microsteps/step

ON ON ON Full step

The switches are in OFF condition when the knob is pulled versus the board edge. Invalid
combinations disable the board.

A2.1 - MICROSTEP PROGRAMMING BY HOST COMPUTER The microsteps/step rate can also be
remotely changed by using the three logic inputs available on the J3 connector (pins 4,12 and
15) that corresponds, respectively, to SW1, SW2, SW3. The interaction between logic signals and
hardware switches is shown in fig. 4.

Figure 7. Remote microstepping programming

To operate the logic pins of the J3 connector, the three internal switches must be in the OFF
state.

A3 - CURRENT REDUCTION AT REST Phase current can be reduced when the motor is stopped if
SW6 is open. Current reduction is operative about 1 second after the last clock pulse.

GS-D500A

8/10

A4 - SETTING OF THE DIRECTION POLARITY The rotation direction signal must be applied at pin
J3-3. The direction (CW or CCW) depends on the status of the direction signal as shown in the
following table:

DIR. SIGNAL ROTATION

HIGH CCW

LOW CW

A5 - PHASE CURRENT PROGRAMMING The phase current can be programmed by means two on-
board trimmer called R42 and R43 (see mechanical drawing). R42 programs the current in phase
AB, while R43 programs the current in phase CD.

A6 - MIDRANGE STABILITY A particular circuitry is implemented on the board to avoid midrange


oscillations. This circuit is inserted on the current control loop when SW5 is OFF.

A7 - CURRENT SELECTION IN MICROSTEP/CONSTANT CURRENT SWITCHING (SW4)

When the board is used to drive a motor in microstep mode, an automatic switching from
sinusoidal/cosinusoidal current to constant current is performed when the sinusoidal output
waveform exceeds 500Hz. The constant output current can be chosen to be 0.707 of the peak
current or the peak current: this possibility is given by SW4. (See fig. 8).

SW4 OFF 0.707 x Ipeak

SW4 ON Ipeak

Figure 8. Current selection by SW4

An histeresys is inserted on the 500Hz threshold to avoid unwanted oscillations.

GS-D500A
9/10

A8 - OUTPUT OVERLOAD AND SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION

To prevent permanent damage to the GS-D500A, three protections have been implemented
against overload and short circuits between: - output to output - output to ground When one of
these adverse conditions occurs, the driver of the output H-bridges is disabled for about 500ms
and the condition is signaled by the FAULT signal.

A9 - FAULT SIGNAL

The FAULT signal is available at pin J3-13. When a fault is present, pin 13 goes low versus pins
6,7. Whenever the FAULT signal is activated, the led provided in the front edge of the module is
switched ON. The FAULT signal is active (low) when: - the supply voltage is lower than 12V - the
heatsink temperature is higher than 90C - an output overload is present - a disable is active.

Figure 9 - FAULT signal output circuit

GS-D500A

10/10

Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, SGS-THOMSON


Microelectronics assumes no responsibility for the consequences of use of such information nor
for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of SGS-
THOMSON Microelectronics. Specification mentioned in this publication are subject to change
without notice. This publication supersedes and replaces all information previously supplied.
SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics products are not authorized for use as critical components in
life support devices or systems without express written approval of SGS-THOMSON
Microelectronics.

1994 SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics All Rights Reserved

SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics GROUP OF COMPANIES Australia - Brazil - China - France -


Germany - Hong Kong - Italy - Japan - Korea - Malaysia - Malta - Morocco - The Netherlands
Singapore - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - Taiwan - Thailand - United Kingdom - U.S.A.
FEATURES 100V Operating Supply Voltage 5A/phase peak current 5, 25, 125 microsteps/step Full
step and half step operation User selectable phase current 90 out of phase chopping to save
power consumption Galvanic isolation Full output protection against short-circuits Thermal and
undervoltage protection Step clock in excess of 200kHz Fault indication output Special circuit to
reduce midrange instability

DESCRIPTION The GS-D500A is a member of the SGS-THOMSON family of stepper motor driver
modules and boards. It drives motors in full step, half step and microstep mode. On top of that if
offers an unusually large number of features that allow a complete control of the

electromechanical characteristics of the motion system to obtain optimum performance. The


powermos output stages offer both low conduction and commutation losses for increased
efficiency; this, combined with a complete protection scheme, results in an extremely rugged
unit suitable for harsh environment operation.

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS

Symbol Parameter Value Unit

Vs DC Supply Voltage 110 V Vss DC Logic Supply Voltage 13 V lph Output Current per Bridge 6
Apk

l iLogic Input Current 30 mA Vis Isolation Voltage 500 V Tstg Storage Temperature Range 20 to
+85 C Thop Operating Heatsink Temperature +85 C

Note: Absolute maximum ratings are limit values above which the unit can be permanently
damaged * Thermal protection intervention @ Th > 90C

This datasheet has been downloaded from http://www.digchip.com at this page

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Tamb = 25C and Vs = 24V unless otherwise specified)

Symbol Parameter Test Conditions Min Typ Max Unit

Vs DC Supply Voltage 12 100 V

Vss DC Logic Supply Voltage 11.5 12 12.5 V

Iph Phase Current per Output* 0.5 5 A

li Logic Input Current 10 mA

Vsl On board Logic Supply Output 4.75 5 5.25 V

Iosl On board Logic Supply Current Output 100 mA

fc Clock Pulse Frequency 200 kHz

* Output Shorts Protection phase-to-phase, phase-to-ground. Note: the unit requires an input
filtering capacitor in the range of 4700 to 10000 F/100V, with low ESR and located as close as
possible to the board.

2/10

Figure 1. Signals timing

GS-D500A

3/10

Figure 2. Block diagram

GS-D500A

4/10

MECHANICAL DATA (dimensions are in millimeters)

GS-D500A HARDWARE AVAILABLE COMMANDS

SW1, SW2, SW3 Microsteps/step programming

SW4 Phase peak current selection

SW5 Midrange stabilization ON/OFF


SW6 Current reduction at rest

R42 Phase AB current programming

R43 Phase CD current programming

GS-D500A

GS-D500A CONNECTORS PINS DESCRIPTION

CONNECTOR J1 J1-1 Phase A output J1-2 Phase B output J1-3 Phase C output J1-4 Phase D
output J1-6 Ground

CONNECTOR J2 J2-1 Motor Supply Voltage J2-3 Auxiliary Supply Voltage (+12V) J2-2,4 Ground

CONNECTOR J3 Pin Function J3-1 Step clock isolated input (see fig. 3): this is a logic input
that performs the step function, i.e. on every transition of this input the motor is moved one
step in the proper direction. J3-2 Direction isolated input (see fig. 4): the logic state applied to
this pin decides the rotation direction of the motor shaft.

J3-4 Microsteps/step rate remote programming (SW1). J3-5 On board +5V output J3-6,7 Return
path for on board +5V output

J3-8 Disable input (see fig. 6): a logic high level applied to this input causes the power driver
outputs to float. This condition allows the manual positioning of the system. Care must be used
when this input is activated because the detention torque is lost. J3-9 Optocoupler supply
voltage J3-10 Zero current control isolated input (see fig. 5): when activated the phase current is
reduced to zero

J3-12 Microsteps/step rate remote programming (SW2) J3-13 Fault logic output (see fig. 9): this
ouput is at a low logic level whenever an anomalous condition is detected. J3-15
Microsteps/step rate remote programming (SW3)

Figure 3. Stepclock input circuit Figure 4. Direction input circuit

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GS-D500A

6/10

Figure 5. Zero current input circuit Figure 6. Disable input circuit

A - GS-D500A DESCRIPTION The GS-D500A is a complete subsystem to drive stepper motors


either in full step or microstep mode. A very large number of auxiliary functions has been
included to allow extreme simplicity and flexibility in use. Particular care has been devoted to
protections, so that the GS-D500A can be safely used in very harsh environments. In addition to
the obvious function to drive the motor phases in a chopping mode, the following functions
have been implemented: - Sine/cosine generation - Selection of three different microsteps/step
rates

- Selection of full/half step drive - Programming of peak phase current to optimize the torque

- Automatic phase current reduction at rest (selectable) - Full protection against short-circuit
between phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground - Thermal and undervoltage protection

- Galvanic isolation of 3 input signals (clock, direction, zero current). - Fault indication output -
On board auxiliary voltages generation - Midrange stability circuitry (selectable)

As a result, the GS-D500A can provide up to 5A per phase and, in its simplest application, just
three command signals are required: step clock, direction, disable.

GS-D500A

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A1 - SUPPLY VOLTAGE

THE POWER SUPPLY MUST BE TURNED OFF WHEN PLUGGING OR UNPLUGGING THE BOARD

The supply pins are: J2-1 for Motor Supply Voltage J2-3 for Auxiliary Voltage J2-2,4 for Ground
rail

The other supply voltages needed by the boards are internally generated. If an undervoltage
condition is detected (Vs < 10V) the GS-D500A is automatically disabled and a led is activated.
The Motor Supply voltage is in the range from 12 to 100V, the Auxiliary voltage from 11 to 13V.
At power-on the Auxiliary Supply voltage must be applied before the Motor Supply voltage,
while at power-off the Motor Supply voltage must be removed before the Auxiliary voltage.

A2 - FULL-STEP/HALF-STEP/MICROSTEP PROGRAMMING BY HARDWARE The number of


microsteps per step is field programmable. The digitized sine and cosine functions, required by a
microstepping control, are stored in a Lock-Up-Table inside the GS-D500A. Two options are
provided for the proper microsteps/step rate selection. Three switches (SW1, SW2, SW3) are
available on the front edge of the board. The full-step/half-step/microstep mode is defined by
the following table.

SW1 SW2 SW3 MODE

OFF ON OFF Half step

ON ON OFF 125 microsteps/step

ON OFF ON 25 microsteps/step
OFF ON ON 5 microsteps/step

ON ON ON Full step

The switches are in OFF condition when the knob is pulled versus the board edge. Invalid
combinations disable the board.

A2.1 - MICROSTEP PROGRAMMING BY HOST COMPUTER The microsteps/step rate can also be
remotely changed by using the three logic inputs available on the J3 connector (pins 4,12 and
15) that corresponds, respectively, to SW1, SW2, SW3. The interaction between logic signals and
hardware switches is shown in fig. 4.

Figure 7. Remote microstepping programming

To operate the logic pins of the J3 connector, the three internal switches must be in the OFF
state.

A3 - CURRENT REDUCTION AT REST Phase current can be reduced when the motor is stopped if
SW6 is open. Current reduction is operative about 1 second after the last clock pulse.

GS-D500A

8/10

A4 - SETTING OF THE DIRECTION POLARITY The rotation direction signal must be applied at pin
J3-3. The direction (CW or CCW) depends on the status of the direction signal as shown in the
following table:

DIR. SIGNAL ROTATION

HIGH CCW

LOW CW

A5 - PHASE CURRENT PROGRAMMING The phase current can be programmed by means two on-
board trimmer called R42 and R43 (see mechanical drawing). R42 programs the current in phase
AB, while R43 programs the current in phase CD.

A6 - MIDRANGE STABILITY A particular circuitry is implemented on the board to avoid midrange


oscillations. This circuit is inserted on the current control loop when SW5 is OFF.

A7 - CURRENT SELECTION IN MICROSTEP/CONSTANT CURRENT SWITCHING (SW4)

When the board is used to drive a motor in microstep mode, an automatic switching from
sinusoidal/cosinusoidal current to constant current is performed when the sinusoidal output
waveform exceeds 500Hz. The constant output current can be chosen to be 0.707 of the peak
current or the peak current: this possibility is given by SW4. (See fig. 8).
SW4 OFF 0.707 x Ipeak

SW4 ON Ipeak

Figure 8. Current selection by SW4

An histeresys is inserted on the 500Hz threshold to avoid unwanted oscillations.

GS-D500A

9/10

A8 - OUTPUT OVERLOAD AND SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION

To prevent permanent damage to the GS-D500A, three protections have been implemented
against overload and short circuits between: - output to output - output to ground When one of
these adverse conditions occurs, the driver of the output H-bridges is disabled for about 500ms
and the condition is signaled by the FAULT signal.

A9 - FAULT SIGNAL

The FAULT signal is available at pin J3-13. When a fault is present, pin 13 goes low versus pins
6,7. Whenever the FAULT signal is activated, the led provided in the front edge of the module is
switched ON. The FAULT signal is active (low) when: - the supply voltage is lower than 12V - the
heatsink temperature is higher than 90C - an output overload is present - a disable is active.

Figure 9 - FAULT signal output circuit

GS-D500A

10/10

Information furnished is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, SGS-THOMSON


Microelectronics assumes no responsibility for the consequences of use of such information nor
for any infringement of patents or other rights of third parties which may result from its use. No
license is granted by implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of SGS-
THOMSON Microelectronics. Specification mentioned in this publication are subject to change
without notice. This publication supersedes and replaces all information previously supplied.
SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics products are not authorized for use as critical components in
life support devices or systems without express written approval of SGS-THOMSON
Microelectronics.

1994 SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics All Rights Reserved

SGS-THOMSON Microelectronics GROUP OF COMPANIES Australia - Brazil - China - France -


Germany - Hong Kong - Italy - Japan - Korea - Malaysia - Malta - Morocco - The Netherlands
Singapore - Spain - Sweden - Switzerland - Taiwan - Thailand - United Kingdom - U.S.A.