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# MAPA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

## Muralla St. Intramuros, Manila

School of Civil, Environmental and Geological Engineering

## FIELD WORK NO. 3

LAYING OF A SIMPLE CURVE ON
UNEVEN GROUND USING THEODOLITE

SUBMITTED BY:

## GROUP NO: 6 CHIEF OF PARTY: Macatangay, Eljay

DATE OF FIELDWORK:

## DATE OF SUBMISSION: 11 December 2017

SUBMITTED TO:
PROFESSOR: ENGR. BIENVENIDO CERVANTES
FIELD WORK NO.3: LAYING OF A SIMPLE CURVE ON UNEVEN GROUND USING
THEODOLITE (DOUBLE DEFLECTION ANGLE METHOD)
DATE: GROUP NO. : 6
TIME: 12:00 PM- 4:30 NN LOCATION:
WEATHER: SUNNY PROFESSOR: ENGR. BIENVENIDO CERVANTES
RESEARCH
There are elements on a horizontal curve. Each element are designated and explained as follows:

POINT OF INTERSECTION- The point of intersection is the point where the back and
forward tangents intersect. Sometimes, the point of intersection is designated as Vertex.

INTERSECTING ANGLE- The intersecting angle is the deflection angle at the PI. Its
value is either computed from the preliminary traverse angles or measured in the field.

A CENTRAL ANGLE- The central angle is the angle formed by the two radii drawn from
the centre of the circle to the PC and PT. The value of the central angle is equal to the I angle.
Some authorities call both the intersecting angle and central angle either I or A.

RADIUS-The radius of a circle of which the curve is an arc or segment. The radius is
always perpendicular to the back and forward tangents.

POINT OF CURVATURE-The point of curvature is the point on the back tangent where
the circular curve begins. It is sometimes designated as BC (beginning of curve) or TC (tangent to
curve).

POINT OF TANGENCY. The point of tangency is the point on the forward tangent where
the curve ends.

DISCUSSION

This field work entails the laying of a simple curve on uneven ground using the double
deflection angle method. In order for the group to perform the field work, the group computed the
necessary data such as the intersection angle, the total deflection angle, the radius of the curve, the
tangential distances (forward and backward tangents), the length of the long chord, and half of the
degree of the first and second sub chord and the degree of the curve using the formulas discussed
during the lecture days of the professor. Through these computations, the group had reference on
laying out the simple curve.

A simple curve consists of a circular arc tangent to two straight sections of a route. Though
spiral transitions are commonly used at the ends of circular arcs on modern highways and railroads,
a thorough knowledge of the simple curve, its basic geometry, calculation and method of staking
is necessary to understand more complex curve problems.
There is no universally accepted notation. The intersection of tangent V is called the vertex,
or point of intersection, abbreviated P.I. The deflection angle between tangents is denoted by I: it
is equal to the central angle of the curve. For a survey progressing in the direction indicated, the
tangent up to the P.I. is the forward tangent. The beginning of the circular arc at A is known as
T.C. a(tangent to curve); the end at B, the C.T. (curve to tangent). In a simple curve the T.C. and
the C.T. are equidistant from the P.I. The T.C. is sometimes designated as the P.C. (point of curve)
or B.C. (beginning of curve). Corresponding terms for the C.T. are P.T.(point of tangent) and E.C.
(end of curve).

Certain lines on the curve layout are very useful in calculations and fieldwork. The distance
from the P.I. to the T.C. , known as tangent distance, T; the distance from the P.I. to the midpoint
K of the curve, called the external distance, E; and the radius of the circular arc, designated by R.
Also shown are the long chord, LC, which is the distance between the T.C. and the C.T.; and the
middle ordinate, M, the distance from the midpoint C of the long chord o the midpoint K of the
curve.

Laying out a curve by deflection angle.In this method, curves are staked out by use of
deflection angles turned at the point of curvature from the tangent to points along the curve. The
curve is set out by driving pegs at regular interval equal to the length of the normal chord. Usually,
the sub-chords are provided at the beginning and end of the curve to adjust the actual length of the
curve. The method is based on the assumption that there is no difference between length of the
arcs and their corresponding chords of normal length or less. The underlying principle of this
method is that the deflection angle to any point on the circular curve is measured by the one-half
the angle subtended at the center of the circle by the arc from the P.C. to that point.

In order for the group to layout the simple curve, the group first determined the scale to be
used which was 1 : 8 in order to make the curve fit inside the Mapua and to avoid obstructions for
the space available was too small compared to the computed values. The group first determined
the P.C. Then the group first laid out the back tangent and the forward tangent using the old
procedure through the use of the theodolite, the range pole and the tape in order to determine the
P.T. Then the group set the two instruments on P.C. and on P.T. respectively. Then the group
performed the deflection angle method on both instruments such that the line would have to depend
on the deflection angle. Then the group measured the points of intersections of the lines created
then compared these measurements to the computed values through the percent error. The group
was confident enough that the field work done was accurate and precise because the computed
percent errors were too small meaning the values are still within the boundary of the acceptable
values.
CONCLUSION

After performing this field work, the group was rest assured that all of the objectives of
this field work have been met and achieved. Through the great effort exerted by each member of
the group, the group was able to lay out a simple curve on uneven ground. By following what was
written on the manual and the instruction given by the professor, the group was able to lay out a
simple curve using the double deflection angle method. After the professor had discussed it
clearly in the lecture, the group got its relevant application to our course civil engineering such
that in roads and major highways, we can measure the correct laying out of curves before
constructing the roads. Since the instrument given to the group was the transit to work on, the
group had difficulty in reading the Vernier scale for there was no magnifying glass provided by
the surveying department so the group had to rely on each others instinct through asking one
another if right angle measurements was determined. Through this field work, the group became
masters in using the transit for it helped the group remember the forgotten knowledge about the
instrument.

In every field work, there are always errors that should be considered. The probable sources
of errors are the angle readings since Vernier scale was used by the group in angle measurements,
tape errors for the ground was uneven, sag of the tape could also be experienced, and as measuring
beyond, the direction of the curve becomes confusing thats an additional grounds of error and
since laying out longer distances using a steel tape would have larger potential of errors. Since the
computed value for the percent error by the group was minimal the group could be rest assured
that this was a successful field work.

I recommend first to check if the equipment borrowed is functioning well. To make the
fieldwork better, I recommend lessening the error by making sure that the tape does not sag. And
always make sure the theodolites are always balanced; be careful because if you accidentally bump
it or make it moves a little it will be a source of error. Again, I recommend starting early so that
you can know early if you obtained wrong data and repeat it again if needed

One application of it is the road at the mountains because the ground there is uneven, for