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Outline

Steady-State Error Steady-state error for state-space


equations.
for State-Space Models Error due to step.
Error due to disturbance.
M. Sami Fadali Output tracking.
Professor of Electrical Engineering Perturbation model.
University of Nevada, Reno

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State-Space Equations
Block Diagram
State-space model
Closed-loop system with state feedback.
Preamplifier with gain .
Feedback control

Closed-loop dynamics

Square system: , square matrix.


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Steady-State Error Error due to Step
All inputs step functions:

(square)
Internally stable system implies nonsingular .
Assume stable closed-loop dynamics
Final Value Theorem (limit exists)

(square)

(square)

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Zero Steady-State Error: Step Gain


Assume stable closed-loop system.

For (square: recall matrix is full rank)

Assume a square system (includes scalar) For , can use a (right) pseudoinverse
for

For : zero error by
adding a preamplifier with gain to make

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Transmission Zero SISO Example

Closed-loop transfer function (zero at 0)


Closed-loop transfer function (without preamp.)

Step Input:

If the matrix is singular, there exists Step Response:


i.e. the system has a transmission zero at zero. Cannot follow a step.
Cannot track a step input.
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Example: Step Input Evaluate Error Due to Step


x1 (t ) 0 1 0 0 x1 (t ) 0
x (t ) 0
0 1 0 x 2 (t ) 0
2 r (t )
x3 (t ) 0 0 0 1 x3 (t ) 0
x (t ) 156 139 53 11 x (t ) 1
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x1 (t )
x (t )
y (t ) 100 0 4 2 2
x3 (t )
x (t ) Can make steady-state error zero by adding a
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preamplifier of gain
2 4 100
11 53 139 156

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Example: Error Due to Step Effect of Disturbance
State-space Model

For zero steady-state error


Linear system: use superposition.
Transfer functions

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Total Steady-State Error Example: Error Due to Step Disturbance


_ & Step Input
x1 (t ) 0 1 0 0 x1 (t ) 0 0
x (t ) 0 0 1 0 x2 (t ) 0 0 r (t )
Assume a square system 2
x3 (t ) 0 0 0 1 x3 (t ) 0 1 d (t )

x 4 (t ) 156 139 53 11 x4 (t ) 1 0

x1 (t )
x (t )
y (t ) 100 0 4 2 2
x3 (t )

x4 (t )
4 s 3 62 s 2 178s 788
Td ( s ) 4
s 11s 3 53s 2 139 s 156

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Steady-state Error Output Regulation
Design a regulator for in the steady state.

Equilibrium:



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Solve for the Reference Input Example



Equilibrium: Find the equilibrium state and reference input

for a steady state output


or

For , the solution exists if the matrix is
invertible (full rank)


or

Reference input

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Perturbations from Equilibrium Perturbation Block Diagram




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Error Convergence to Zero

Error converges to zero if the closed-loop


dynamics are stable.

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