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12/6/2017 Educationalphilosophy:IdealismandtheAimsofEducation

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Educationalphilosophy
Itisablogthathasinformationoneducationalphilosophy.Thearticlesaddresstopicslikenaturalism,pragmatism,
idealism,realism,andIslamicphilosophyofeducation.TherearearticlesonPlato,Aristotle,JohnDewey,and
Rousseauamongothers.

1. PhilosophyofEducation

2. StudentEducation

3. TeacherEducation

4. FreeMastersEducation

5. DistanceLearningPhilosophy

Wednesday,March19,2014
1. PhilosophyofEducation
IdealismandtheAimsofEducation
2. StudentEducation

3. TeacherEducation
Idealism
4. FreeMastersEducation
Introduction
5. BasicQuantumMechanics
Idealismisthemetaphysicalandepistemologicaldoctrinethatideasorthoughtsmake

upfundamentalreality.Essentiallyitisanyphilosophywhicharguesthattheonlything
SearchThisBlog
actuallyknowableisconsciousnesswhereaswenevercanbesurethatmatteror
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anythingintheoutsideworldreallyexiststhustheonlytherealthingsaremental
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entitiesnotphysicalthingswhichexistonlyinthesensethattheyareperceived.Abroad Home
WatchEducationalPhilosophyVideos
definitionofidealismcouldincludemanyreligiousviewpointsalthoughanidealistic

AboutMe
viewpointneednotnecessarilyincludeGod,supernaturalbeingsorexistencesafter
KhalidRawat
death.Ingeneralparlance,idealismisalsousedtodescribeapersonshighideals Follow 118

IamaFacultyMemberat
(principlesorvaluesactivelypursuedasagoal)thewordidealisalsocommonlyused IqraUniversityinKarachi.I
alsoteachatNotredame
asanadjectivetodesignatequalitiesofperfection,desirabilityandexcellence. InstituteofEducation,Karachi,affiliatedwith
AustralianCatholicUniversity,andlocatedin
St.Patrick'sSchoolKarachi.
Definition:
IhavebeenavisitingScholaratSouthern
Idealisticphilosophytakesmanyandvariedformsbutthepostulateunderlyingallthis IllinoisUniversity,Carbondale,Illinois,USA.I
havebeenaffiliatedwithteachingand
isthatmindorspiritistheessentialworldstuff,thattherulerealityisamaterial researchsince,last14to15years.

character. Ihavewrittenandpublishmanyarticles,most
ofthemareavailableonmywebpages.
Idealismineducation:

Idealismpervadesallthecreationanditisanunderlying,unlimitedandultimateforce
Viewmycompleteprofile
whichregionssupremeoverallmindandmatter.Theyalladvocateitsgreatimportance
BlogArchive
ineducationandlaymoreemphasisonaimsandprinciplesofeducationthanonmodels,
2008(19)
aidsanddevices.
2010(19)

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12/6/2017 Educationalphilosophy:IdealismandtheAimsofEducation
2011(14)
IdealismandAimsofEducation:
2012(3)
Thefollowingaretheaimsofeducationaccordingtothephilosophyofidealism: 2013(1)

SelfrealizationorExhalationofPersonality: 2014(37)
March(36)
AccordingtotheidealismmanisthemostcreationofGod.Selfrealizationinvolves PhilosopherandHisTask
NaturalismasPhilosophyofEducation
fullofknowledgeoftheselfanditisthefirstaimofeducationTheaimofeducation
IdealismandPhilosophyofEducation
especiallyassociatedwithidealismistheexhalationofpersonalityorselfrealizationit Dewey,PragmatismandPhilosophyof
ducation
isthemakingactualorrealpersonalitiesoftheself.
NaturalismandEducationalPhilosophy
ToEnsureSpiritualDevelopment: IdealismasaPhilosophicalApproach
towardsEduca...
Idealisticgivegreaterimportancetospiritualvaluesincomparisonwithmaterial RousseauandhisContributionto
NaturalisticEduc...
attainments.Thesecondaimofeducationistodevelopthechildmentally,morallyand
Pragmatism:ItsMeaningandDefinition
aboveallspiritually.Educationmustenablemankindthroughitsculturetoentermore IdealismandtheAimsofEducation
IbneKhuldoon'sPhilosophyof
andmorefullyintothespiritualrealm. Education

DevelopmentofIntelligencesandRationality: IbneKhuldoon,theGreatMuslim
PhilosopherandE...
Inallthingstheirregionsanexternallawthisallpervadingenergetic,selfconscious Dewey,PragmatismandEducation
Needs,ImportanceandEffectsof
andhenceeternallawthisallpervadingenergetic.ThisunityisGod.Educationshould PhilosophyinLif...

leadandguidemantofacewithnatureandtounityandGod. DarulUloomDeoband:Roleof
DeobandMovementinM...
IdealismandCurriculum AligarhEducationalMovementandSir
SyedAhmedKh...
Idealistsgivemoreimportancetothoughts,feelingsidealsandvaluesthantothechild AimsofEducation

andhisactivities.Theyfirmlyholdthatcurriculumshouldbeconcernedwiththewhole PrivatizationofEducationandLiteracy
Rate
humanityanditsexperience. GenerationofTheoryfromQualitative
data:Summar...
ViewsofPlatoaboutcurriculum Plato'sIdeasonEducation
PhilosophyandEducation
AccordingtoPlatotheaimoflifeistorealizeGod.Whichispossibleonlybypursing
Plato:Education,DiviedLineArgument
highidealsnamelyTruth,Beauty,andGoodness.Threetypesofactivitiesnamely anAllegory...
Dewey'sExperienceanEDucation
intellectual,aestheticandmoralcancanattainthesehighideals.
Aristotle'sEthicsanEducation
ViewsofHerbartCurriculum Rousseau:EmileandEducation
MainIdeasinDewey'sExperienceand
AccordingtoHerbarttheidealisticaimofeducationisthepromotionofmoralvalues. Education

HegaveprimeimportancetosubjectslikeLiterature,History,Art,Music,andPoetry AristotleEucation,SpiritualHappiness,
Virtue
togetherwithotherhumanitiesandsecondaryplacetoscientificsubjects. AllegoryofCaveandEducation
RepublicandEducation:Plato'sIdeas
HistoryofIdealism
Plato'sIdeasonEducation
Platoisoneofthefirstphilosopherstodiscusswhatmightbetermedidealism.Usually HowWeThink:Dewey
Rousseau:SummaryofEmileBook1
PlatoreferredtoasPlatonicRealism.Thisisbecauseofhisdoctrinedescribesformsor AllegoryoftheCave
Plato'sEducationalViewsinRepublic
universals.(Whicharecertainlynonmaterialidealsinabroadsense).Plato
Republic,Plato'sStatementon
Education
maintainedthattheseformshadtheirownindependentexistence.Platobelievedthat
MeaningofTruthandAllegoryofCave
inPlato'sR...
fullrealityitisachievedonlythroughthoughtandcouldbedescribeasanon JohnDewey

subjectivetranscendentalidealist.Thetermmetaphysicsliterallymeansbeyondthe June(1)

2016(8)
physicalThisareaofPhilosophyafocusesonthenatureofreality.Metaphysics 2017(3)

attemptstofindunityacrossthedomainsofexperiencesthought.Atthetime
Labels

metaphysicalleveltherearefourbroadphilosophicalschoolsofthoughtthatapplyto Avicenna
DeaobandMovement
educationtoday.Theyareidealism,realism,pragmatism(sometimescalled Dewey
DeweyandHeidegger
experientialismandexistentialism).Platowasanidealistphilosopherwhofoundedthe IbneKhuldoon
IdealismandEducation
firstschoolofphilosophyinAthens.Hisworkformsthefoundationofwestern IdealismandRealism
IslamicPhilosophy
philosophy.HispresentationofphilosophicalworksintheformofDialoguesgavethe LifeandEducation

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Nietzsche
worldofphilosophythedialectic.PlatotookSocratesmaximvirtueisknowledgeand
PhilosophyandEducation
Plato
extrapolateditintoanelaboratetheoryofknowledgewhichenvisagedalevelofreality
PragmatismandEducation
Rousseau
beyondthatimmediatelyavailabletothesensesbutaccessibletoreasonandintellect.
WhatisPhilosophy

ThestudentsofPlatosacademythefirstschoolofphilosophyinAthens,weretogo
ReportAbuse
beyondtheconcreteworldofperceptionandcometounderstandtheuniversalideasor
ads
formswhichrepresentedahigherlevelofreality.Platosidealismextendedtothe

conceptofanidealstateasoutlinedinhisRepublic.Thiswasastateruledbyan

intellectualeliteofphilosopherkings.

Topic:Naturalistic(Rousseau17121778)
DefinitionofNaturalism:
The meaningofthe name Naturalism is strongly implied inthe word itself.Itisthe
view point which regards the world of nature as the all in all of reality naturalism PakistanNews Translate

commonlyknownasMaterialismItisaphilosophicalparadigmwherebyeverything Philosophia
SelectLanguage
phenomenology
canbeexplainedintermsofnaturalcauses.Naturalismbydefinitionexcludesanysuper andeducational Poweredby Translate
research
naturalagentoractivity.Naturalismisnotsciencebutanassertionaboutscience.More Upanishad
Philosophy
specifically it is the assertion that scientific knowledge is final, leaving no room for
extrascientificorPhilosophyknowledge.(R.B.Perry) Followers

Mgasumusubaybay(19)
Naturalism is usually defined most briefly as the philosophical concept that the only

reality is nature, as gradually discovered by our intelligence using the tools of

experience,reasonandscience.

Accordingtonaturalism:
Mansconscienceisthevoiceofreasonandthevoiceofnature.

Protagonistofnaturalism:
Sundin
Aristotle

Comte

Hobbes
HerbertSpencer

Darwin

Samuelbutler
Rousseau

The State of Nature as a Foundation for Ethics and Political


Philosophy:

Thescopeofmodernphilosophywasnotlimitedonlytoissuesconcerningscienceand

metaphysics. Philosophers of this period also attempted to apply the same type of

reasoning to ethics and politics. One approach of these philosophers was to describe

humanbeingsinthestateofnature.Thatis,theyattemptedtostriphumanbeingsof

allthoseattributesthattheytooktobetheresultsofsocialconventions.Indoingso,they

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hoped to uncover certain characteristics of human nature that were universal and

unchanging. If this could be done, one could then determine the most effective and

legitimateformsofgovernment.

The two most famous accounts of the state of nature prior to Rousseaus are those of Thomas
HobbesandJohn.Hobbescontendsthathumanbeingsaremotivatedpurelybyselfinterest,and
that the state of nature, which is the state of human beings without civil society, is the war of
every person against every other. Hobbes does say that while the state of nature may not have
existed all over the world at one particular time, it is the condition in which humans would be if
there were no sovereign. Lockes account of the state of nature is different in that it is an
intellectual exercise to illustrate peoples obligations to one another. These obligations are
articulated in terms of natural rights, including rights to life, liberty and property. Rousseau was
also influenced by the modern natural law tradition, which attempted to answer the challenge of
skepticism through a systematic approach to human nature that, like Hobbes, emphasized self
interest. Rousseau therefore often refers to the works of Hugo Grotius, Samuel von Pufendorf,
JeanBergerac,andJeanJacquesBurlamaqui.Rousseauwouldgivehisownaccountofthestate
ofnatureintheDiscourseontheOriginandFoundationsofInequalityamongMen, which will be

examinedbelow .

BiographyofRousseau:

JeanJacques Rousseau was born June 28, 1712 in Geneva and died July 2, 1778 in
Ermenonville, France. He was one of the most important philosophers of the French
enlightenment. JeanJacques Rousseau was also involved philosophically and wrote his first
major philosophical work in 1750. From this work he earned a prize from the Academy of Dijon.
Thetext,DiscoursesurlessciencesETlesarts,beginswithaquestion,Thequestionbeforeme
is:'WhethertheRestorationoftheartsandscienceshashadtheeffectofpurifyingorcorrupting
morals. This first discourse represents a radical critique of civilization. According to Rousseau,
civilizationistobeseenasahistoryofdecayinsteadofprogress.Hedoesnotconceiveofthe
worldasnecessarilygoodperse,butratherarguesforasenseofrationalismonemustattain
rationalknowledgeinordertobeabletocontrolnature.

Rousseauisoftenreferredtoasthephilosopheroffreedombecauseheseemedtopraise

the natural or primitive state of human beings over the civilized one and in nature,

human beings like animals free of the pressures and corruptions of the political

state.Indeed, Rousseaus views of nature and the natural played a central role in his

philosophy.HebelievedthatManwasbornfreeandgoodandcouldremainthatway

insomeidealstateofnature.

Rousseausconceptionofeducation:
Rousseaus conception of education is naturalistic. He is against a system of

conventional and formal education. Conventional and formal education is manmade

and hence, not desirable Everything is good as it comes from the hands of author of

naturebuteverythingdegeneratesinthehandofman.ForRousseau,educationdoesnot

meanmerelyimpartinginformationorstoringknowledge.Educationfromnaturedoes

notmeanoneofsociallifeorinstitutions.Itwastoprepareanaturalman.Thenatural
manisnotthesavagemanbutmangovernedanddirectedbythelawsofhisownnature

ratherthanthoseofsocialinstitutions.Rousseaubelievedthattheeducationfromman

andthingsmustbesubordinatestothatthenaturalpowers,emotionnsandreactionsare

more trustworthy as a basis for action than reflection or experience that comes from

associationwithsociety.

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Rousseausviewsontheprinciplesofteaching:
The principles of teaching as suggested implicitly by Rousseau reflect his naturalistic

philosophy.Helaysstressondirectexperienceofthingsandontheprincipleoflearning
bydoing.Hesays,Teachbydoingwheneveryoucanandonlyfallbackonwordswhen

doing is out of the question He observes, too much reading serves only to make us

presumptuous blockheads conceited and sophisticated. Besides these two principles,

Rousseauadvocatestheadoptionoftheheuristicattitudewhichplacesthechildinthe

positiontodiscover.(Emile)

For example, to learn science in a practical fashion, by means of rough experiments

performed with apparatus selfmade and selfinvented. Rousseau like a modern

educators thinks less of the teachers own exposition, much more of the learning

experiences of the pupil. He is against the telling method and the tendency to be

didactic.Thetellingmethodcannotcausethechildtolearn.

Rousseausviewondiscipline:
Rousseaus cry is freedom and absence of restraint for Emile, It is only in an

atmosphere of freedom that Emile can develop his innate powers spontaneously.

Impositions are of no use. Punishments have no value as the child has no correct

conception of wrong or why punishment is given. The childs reasoning power is not
welldeveloped.Hewantschildrentohavetheirownway,andtosuffertheunavoidable

consequences or inevitable reactions of their conduct.Children should never receive

punishment as such it should always come as natural consequences of their

faults.Rousseauadvisestheteachernottointerveneinmattersofmoralguidancesasa

meansofdiscipliningthechild.Hecontendsthatthechildsnatureisessentiallygood,

andanyinterventionistherefore,harmful.

Rousseausviewsontheeducationofwoman:
In the fifth book of Emile Rousseau presents his views on womens education by

introducing an imaginary woman called Sophy. While Emiles education is

unconventional and natural, Sophys education is to be conventional and orthodox.

Rousseauaccountsforthisdifference:Hesaysthatwomenisanappendageofmanher

aimoflifeistopleaseherhusband,toobeyhim,tobringhim(man)upwhenheisa

child, to tend him when he is a man, to counsel him, to render his life agreeable and

pleasant.Henceawoman,accordingtoRousseaudoesnotrequireknowledgebuttaste

andproprietyofmanners.

Rousseausviewsonsocialvalues:
Rousseausnaturalismrootedmaninnatureratherthansociety.Somuchdidheregard

manasachildofnature,asoveragainstsociety,thatheproposedinhisEmiletokeep

Emile away from society until adolescence. In his social contract he reveals how the

problemofsocialorganizationiscomplicatedbytheimportanceofthefreedomofthe

man.Individualman,hecontentedisnotamanunlessheisfreeifheisinbondage,he

islessthanaman.Yetunbridledfreedomisneitherinharmonywithhisownwelfarenot

thewelfareofthesociety.Evidentlysomesocialorganizationisneeded,butonewhich

preserves for man his freedom. It would seem that for naturalism social values are
syntheticvalueswhichresultfromagreementsinwhichindividualmenbindthemselves

together.Theyaresecondgood,notsomuchpreferredasindividualgoods,whichresult

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indirectly as a consequence of the desire to avoid the grater evils which accompany

anarchy.Theyarenotorganicvalues,whicharedeterminedinpartbythewaynatureof

societyandwhichwouldneverbepossessedbyindividualmenseparately,evenifthey

didnotneedtobesavedfromconflictandchaosbysomekindofsocialorganization.

Conclusion:
Rousseauhasexertedgreatinfluenceoneducationinitsmanifoldaspects.Althoughhis

mainaiminlifewastodestroytraditionalism,yetmanyoftheimportantprinciplesin

modern pedagogy can be traced back to him. He asserted that education is a natural

process its function is not to remark the nature of the child by forcing on him the

traditionalorcustomarywayofthinkinganddoing.ItisduetoRousseauthattheneed

ofsensetrainingandphysicalactivitiesintheearlierdevelopmentofthechildhasbeen
recognizedinmodernsystemsofeducation.

PragmatisminEducation

Outline

Introduction
Pragmatismineducation
Howrelevantispragmatismtotheeducationsystemtoday
Exampleofpragmatism
Strengthandadvantages
conclusion

PragmatisminEducationwascreatedbyJohnDewey.ThisisAmericanpragmatismand

represents form idealism. Dewey's pragmatists views state that thinking of a persons

mind is conditioned by the group of people he or she. Pragmatism emerged from the
writings of John Dewey who believed that experimentation was the best approach for

educating young minds. For example, pragmatists feel that field trips, educational

excursionsetcaremoreeffectiveinteachingstudentsabouttheworldinsteadofaudio
visual aids. Pragmatism includes such as thoughts as futurism, and educational

humanism. Pragmatic education philosophy doesn't assign a traditional role to the


teachers who are only seen as guides and not exactly more knowledgeable beings.
Pragmatism focuses on real life experiences as the main source of knowledge and

education.(GeorgeR.Knight)Theygivestheexampleoffieldtripsashesaysthatfora
childtolearnaboutdairyproducts,itsbettertotakehimtoabarnandlethimexperience

thewholethinghimselfinsteadofshowinghimamovieonthesubject.(p.75)Idealism
is an important philosophy that gained greater influence over education in the 20th

centuryandwasnotsopopularpriortothat.Ithasbeenpresentintheeducationalfield
for a long time emphasizing the reality of ideas, thoughts, and mind over material.

AmericanpragmatismrepresentsanactivistdevelopmentofKantandHegelsidealism.
Asatheoryofmutabletruth,pragmatismclaimsthatideasaretrueinsofarastheyare
usefulinaspecificsituationwhatworkstodayinonecasemaynotworktomorrowin

another case. The standard of moral truth is expediency. Ethical ideas are accepted as
longastheycontinuetowork.AccordingtoJohnDeweyssocialpragmatism,whatis

trueisthatwhichworksforasocietythroughthepromotionofthepublicgood.Dewey
advocatesarelativistic,secularizedformofaltruismthatcallsforsacrificingoneselfto

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attain the ends of the People. In this view society, rather than the individual, passes

moral judgment. Social policies are measured by their consequences instead of by


abstractprinciplesofwhatisrightorjust.Therearenofacts,nosetrulesoflogic,no

objectivity,andnocertainty.Thereareonlypoliciesandproposalsforsocialactionsthat
must be treated as working hypotheses. The experience of consequences will indicate

the need to keep or alter the original hypotheses. For pragmatists knowledge of the
worldisimpossibletoseparatefromactionsuponit.Thereisnorealityoutthereboth

factsandvaluesareproductsofmeninteractingwithanenvironmentandshapingitto
their wills. Society, Men are free to choose their own way of thinking and to create
whatever reality they want to embrace. However, a mans mind is conditioned by the

collectivethinkingofotherpeople.Themindisthusasocialphenomenontruthiswhat
works for the groups. It is participation in the common life of democratic society that

realizesthefreedomoftheindividualandproducesgrowthinhimandinsociety.They
usually do not and need not reflect before acting. The goal of thought is merely to

reconstruct the situation in order to solve the problem. If the proposal, when
implemented, resolves the issue, then the idea is pragmatically true. Truth cannot be

knowninadvanceofaction.Onemustfirstactandthenthink.Onlythencanrealitybe
determined.Valuejudgmentsaretobemadeaccordingtodesiresbasedonfeelings.The

testofonesdesireisitscongruitywiththemajorityofothermenswishes,feelings,and
values at that time. These, of course, can be examined and abandoned in a future
context. Value judgments are instrumental, never completed, and therefore are

corrigible. In the end it is feeling, for the pragmatist that is paramount. Dewey is
primarilyconcernedwiththedemocraticidealanditsrealizationineverysphereoflife.

He advocates education as a way to reconstruct children according to the pragmatist


visionofman.Childcentered,ratherthansubjectcentered,educationtreatsthestudent

as an acting being and therefore is focused on discrete, experiential projects. Dewey


dismissesasirrelevanttheteachingoffundamentalknowledgesuchasreading,writing,

math, and science. Both the educator and the students are to be flexible and tentative.
The purpose of a school is to foster social consciousness. The child is to be taught to
transcendtheassimilationoftruthsandfactsbylearningtoserveandadapttoothersand

to comply with the directives of their representatives. A disdain for reason and
knowledgeisthuscombinedwiththepracticeofaltruismandcollectivism.LikeMarx,

DeweycomprehendedandappreciatedtheconflictualessenceoftheHegeliandialectic.
Deweystressedtheclashintheeducationprocessbetweenthechildandthecurriculum

and between the potential and talent of the student and the structure of an outmoded
school system. The traditional curriculum, loaded down with formal subjects, was

unsuited to the childs active and immediate experience. Dewey saw children as
alienatedfromtheiracademicworkbecauseofacontradictionbetweentheinterestsof
theschoolandtherealinterestsofthestudents.Therewasanincongruitybetweenthe

values,goals,andmeansembodiedintheexperienceofamatureadultandthoseofan
undeveloped, immature being. The teaching of abstract, generalprinciples,andeternal

and external truths was beyond a childs understanding and a barrier to the authentic
growthanddevelopmentofthechild.

Deweysnewschoolwouldbecomeavehicleforthedealienationandsocializationof
thechild.Theschoolwouldbeanembryonicsocialistcommunityinwhichtheprogress

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of the student could only be justified by his relation to the group. Deweys activity

methodandmanualtraining
could produce a collective occupational spirit in the school. Dewey, like Marx, was

convincedthatthoughtisacollectiveactivityinwhichtheindividualsimplyactsasa
cellinthesocialbody.ForDewey,cognitionisanactivityofthegrouporsocietyasa

wholeandinnovationsaretheproductsofcollectivescienceandtechnology,ratherthan
thecreationsofindividualthinkersanddoers.JohnDeweysprogressivemodelofactive
learningpromotedarevoltagainstabstractlearningandattemptedtomakeeducationan

effective tool for integrating culture and vocation. Dewey was responsible for
developingaphilosophicalapproachtoeducationcalledexperimentalismwhichsaw

education as the basis for democracy. His goal was to turn public schools into
indoctrination centers to develop a socialized population that could adapt to an

egalitarian state operated by intellectual elite. Disavowing the role of the individual
mindinachievingtechnologicalandsocialprogress,Deweypromotedthegroup,rather

thantheteacher,asthemainsourceofsocialcontrolintheschools.Denyingtheideasof
universal principles, natural law, and natural rights, Dewey emphasized social values

andtaughtthatlifeadjustmentismoreimportantthanacademicskills.Deweyexplained
thatthesubjectmatterandmorallessonsinthetraditionalcurriculaweremeanttoteach
and inspire, but were irrelevant to the students immediate action experiences. The

contradiction between the students real interests and those of the traditional school
alienatedstudentsfromtheirschoolwork.Schoolagechildrenwerecaughtbetweenthe

opposingforcesofimmature,undevelopedbeingsandthevalues,meanings,andaimsof
subject matter constructed by a mature adult. Dewey believed that students energy,

talent, and potential could not be realized within the structure of an archaic school
system.

A good example of pragmatism would be technical or career education. If you know

somebodyisn'tgoingtomakeitthroughcollege,there'snopointinteachingthemthings
thatwon'tdirectlyapplytoajobheorshemayhave.Inordertopreparethemforthe

workforce, some of their school day is used to prepare them for a specific trade. E.g.
why teach somebody who is going to be an auto mechanic the elements of plot since

they'renevergoingtohaveapracticalapplicationforthatknowledge.
Whenstudentslearnhowtofollowprocedurestheymoresecureabouttheirenvironment
and what is expected of them. This security allows the student to feel relaxed in his

environmentbecausehehasmasteredtheenvironment.Heisnotinsecureaboutwhatto
donext.Thishelpsstudentsgetbackontaskaftersomethingsuchasafiredrill.Italso

allowsforseamlessteachingwithasubstituteteacherbecauseprocedureswillstaythe
same.Thisreducesbehaviorproblemsandkeepsthefocusonlearningandeducating.

Conclusion
Nature and comprehend knowledge as the product of the interaction between human
being and environment, and knowledge as having practical instrumentality in the

guidanceandcontrolofthatinteraction.Thismeansthatknowledgeisnotastaticgiven
butaprocessandthatanypropositionacceptedasanitemofknowledgehasthisstatus

only provisionally, in other worlds just a coincidence that it works. It soon can be
replacedbyabetterproposition.

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Realism

RealisminEducation:

For the realist, the world is as it is, and the job of schools would be to teach students
abouttheworld.Goodness,fortherealist,wouldbefoundinthelawsofnatureandthe
order of the physical world. Truth would be the simple correspondences of
observation.TheRealistbelievesinaworldofThingsorBeings(metaphysics)andin
truthasanObservableFact.Furthermore,ethicsisthelawofnatureorNaturalLawand
aestheticsisthereflectionofNature.

AIMSOFEDUCATION:

Realists do not believe in general and common aims of education.According to them


aims are specific to each individual and his perspectives. And each one has
differentperspectives.Theaimofeducationshouldbetoteachtruthratherthanbeauty,
to understand the present practical life. The purpose of education, according to social
realists,istopreparethepracticalmanoftheworld.

REALISMANDTHECHILD:

Realism in education recognizes the importance of the child. The child is a real unit
whichhasrealexistence.Hehassomefeelings,somedesiresandsomepowers.All
these cannot be overlooked. These powers of the child shall have to be given due
regarding at the time of planning education. Child can reach near reality through
learningbyreason.Childhastobegivenasmuchfreedomaspossible.Thechildistobe
enabled to proceed on the basis of facts the child can learn only when he follows the
lawsoflearning.

REALISMANDTHETEACHER:

Theteacher,fortherealist,issimplyaguide.Therealworldexists,andtheteacheris
responsibleforintroducingthestudenttoit.Todothisheuseslectures,demonstrations,
andsensoryexperiences,theteacherdoesnotdothisinarandomorhaphazardwayhe
must not only introduce the student to nature, but show him the regularities, the
rhythmofnaturesothathemaycometounderstandnaturallaw.Boththeteacherand
the student are spectators, but while the student looks at the world through innocent
eyes,theteachermustexplainittohim,aswellasheisable,fromhisvantagepointof
increasedsophistication.Forthisreason,theteachersownbiasesandpersonalityshould
be as muted as possible. In order to give the student as much accurate information as
quickly and effectively as possible, the realist may advocate the use of teaching
machinestoremovetheteachersbiasfromfactualpresentation.Thewholeconceptto
teachingmachinesiscompatiblewiththepictureorrealityasamechanisticuniversein
whichmanissimplyoneofthecogsinthemachine.
Ateachershouldbesuchthathehimselfiseducatedandwellversedwiththecustomsof
belief and rights and duties of people, and the trends of all ages and places. He must
havefullmasteryoftheknowledgeofpresentlife.Hemustguidethestudenttowards
the hard realities of life. He is neither pessimist, nor optimist. He must be able to
exposechildrentotheproblemsoflifeandtheworldaround.

REALISMANDCURRICULAM:

According to humanistic realism, classical literature should be studied but not for
studyingitsformandstylebutforitscontentandideasitcontained.
Senserealism attached more importance to the study of natural sciences and
contemporarysociallife.Studyoflanguagesisnotsosignificantasthestudyofnatural
sciencesandcontemporarylife.

http://pakphilosophy.blogspot.com/2014/03/idealismandaimsofeducation.html 9/11
12/6/2017 Educationalphilosophy:IdealismandtheAimsofEducation
Neorealismgivesstressonthesubjectphysicsandonhumanisticfeelings,physicsand
psychology, sociology, economics, Ethics, Politics, history, Geography, agriculture
varied arts, languages and so on, are the main subjects to be studied according to the
Neorealists.

REALISMANDMETHODSOFTEACHING

Themethodoftherealistsinvolvesteachingforthemasteryoffactsinordertodevelop
an understanding of natural law. This can be done by teaching both the materials and
their application. In fact, real knowledge comes only when the organism can organize
the data of experience. The realist prefers to use inductive logic, going from the
particular facts of sensory experience to the more general laws deducible from these
data.

References

Breed, F. (1942). Education and the Realistic Outlook Philosophies of Education


national society for the study of education, fortyfirst yearbook, Part 1. Chicago:
UniversityofChicagoPress.

Broundy,S. (1961). Building a Philosophy of Education. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:


PrenticeHall,Inc.

Butler,J.,Donald,FourPhilosophies and TheirEducation andReligion.NewYork:


Harper&Row.

Herbart,J.F.,TheScienceofEducation.Boston:D.C.Heath&Company,1902.

Locke,John.EssayConcerningHumanUnderstanding.Oxford:ClarendonPress,1902.
ThebasicstatementofLockesepistemologicalposition.

Singh,Y.K.,(2007).PhilosophyFoundationOfEducation:Ansariroad:S.B.Nangia.

Shahid,S.M.,(2002).HistoryandPhilosophyofEducation:Islamabad:YousafMustaq.

Weber, Christian O., Basic Philosophies of Education. New York: Holt, Rinehart and
Winston,Inc.1960.

March19,2014

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