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Verbs: Simple Present

Pronoun BE Have Do Go
I Am Have Do Go
you Are Have Do Go
We Are Have Do Go
They Are Have Do Go
He Is Has Does Goes
She Is Has Does Goes
It Is Has Does Goes

Wh- Questions + How

1. Who
2. What
3. When
4. Where
5. Why
6. How

Plurals and exceptions:

Usually, add an s or an es to the end of a word to
make it plural.
There are some exceptions:
o Child > Children o Woman > Women
o Man > Men o Person > People
Use a for singular nouns beginning with a consonant
o Example: a banana
Use an for singular nouns beginning with a vowel
o Example: an apple
Do not use an article for plural nouns
o Example: apples, bananas.
o You can use an adjective to count or indicate the
amount of plural nouns
Example: 2 apples, 3 bananas
Example: some rice
Regular Possessive Object
I My Mine
You Your Yours
We Our Ours
They Their Theirs
He His His*
She Her Hers
It Its Its*
Use regular pronouns instead of nouns.
o Example: John is a tall man > HE is a tall man.
Use possessive pronouns as adjectives to show
o Example: John has a black hat > That is his black hat.
Use object pronouns to show possession of an object.
o Example: Whose hat is this? > That is his.
1. Possessive pronouns (mentioned above): my, your, their, our, his,
her, its.
2. [noun + s] shows possession.
a. Example: Johns hat.

Verbs: Simple Present

Rule: use the infinitive form for (I, you, we, they) and add an s to
verbs for (he, she, it).
Pronoun To Walk To Talk To Eat
I, you, we, they Walk Talk Eat
He, she, it Walks Talks Eats

Adverbs of Frequency:
These words answer the question, How often do you ?
o Always
o Usually
o Often
o Sometimes
o Hardly ever/not very often/rarely
o Never
Wh-/How Questions with Do:
Question Answer
What do you do for fun? I dance.
Where do you like to eat? I like to eat at the Mexican
Who do you play soccer with? I play soccer with my brothers.
When do you finish work? I finish work at 6pm.
Why do you watch TV at Because my favorite show is at
midnight? midnight.
How do you fix your car? I call the mechanic.

Verb: Can
Used to show possibility or to give permission
o You can eat your cake now.
o Can I please go outside?
The negative form = cannot OR cant
Yes/No Questions with CAN:
Question Affirmative answer Negative Answer
Can He Swim? Yes, He Can. No, He Cant.
She Dance? She She
We We We
They They They
You You You
Wh-/How Questions with CAN:
o What can Pamela do?
She can dance, but she cant sing.
o Where can I find apples?
You can find apples at the supermarket.
o What can you cook?
I can cook soup.
o Who can dance?
Rene and Rosario can dance. Angela cant.
o When can you visit?
I can visit on Sunday.
o How can you fix your car?
I studied with a mechanic.
Count/Noncount Nouns
Count Nouns You can use a 1 orange
number to describe 4 apples
Noncount Nouns You cant use Some rice
numbers; use A little bit of
some, a lot, or soup
a little bit to A lot of cereal
indicate amount
Rules for count/Noncount nouns:
Use an/a with singular count nouns:
o An orange
o A banana
Use a number with plural count nouns:
o 5 oranges
o 2 bananas
Use some, a little, or a lot for noncount nouns:
o Some rice
o A lot of noodles
Use any in
o questions
Do you have any oranges?
o negatives
No, I dont have any oranges.
I dont eat any meat.
Use some in
o Affirmatives
Yes, I have some oranges.
o Amounts for noncount nouns
I have some rice.

How often?
Use the question, How often do ____? to find out
o How often do you eat cereal?
I eat cereal every day/twice a week
Time expressions for answering How often?:
o Every day/week/month/year
o Once in a while
o Twice a day/week/month/year
o Three times a day/week/month/year
o I dont (activity/eat cereal) very often
o I never (activity/eat cereal).
Prepositions of Location:
In Across from
On Between
Next to On the corner of
Giving directions:
Go up/down
On the left/right
Take a right/left
Turn right/left
Walk down/up
Asking for directions:
How do I get to _____?
How can I get to _____?
How can I find the _____?
There is/There Are
Singular Question: Short Answer: Short Answer:
Affirmative Negative
Is there a ______? Yes, there is. No, there is
(museum) not (isnt).
Plural Question: Short answer: Short answer:
affirmative negative
Are there _______? Yes, there are. No, there are not
(Museums) (arent).

Affirmative/Positive Negative
Singular There is a museum. There isnt a movie theatre.
Plural There are museums. There arent any movie