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Spectral efficiency

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Spectral efficiency, spectrum efficiency or bandwidth efficiency refers to the information rate that can be
transmitted over a given bandwidth in a specific communication system.
It is a measure of how efficiently a limited frequency spectrum is utilized by the physical layer protocol, and
sometimes by the media access control (the channel access protocol).

Contents
[hide]

1 Link spectral efficiency

2 System spectral efficiency or area spectral efficiency

3 Comparison table

4 See also

5 References
[edit]Link spectral efficiency

The link spectral efficiency of a digital communication system is measured in bit/s/Hz,[1] or, less frequently but
unambiguously, in (bit/s)/Hz.
It is the net bitrate (useful information rate excluding error-correcting codes) or maximum throughput divided by
the bandwidth in hertz of a communication channel or a data link. Alternatively, the spectral efficiency may be
measured in bit/symbol, which is equivalent to bits per channel use (bpcu), implying that the net bit rate is divided by
the symbol rate (modulation rate) or line code pulse rate.
Link spectral efficiency is typically used to analyse the efficiency of a digital modulation method or line code,
sometimes in combination with a forward error correction (FEC) code and other physical layer overhead. In the latter
case, a "bit" refers to a user data bit; FEC overhead is always excluded.
The modulation efficiency in bit/s is the gross bitrate (including any error-correcting code) divided by the bandwidth.

Contrast between modulation efficiency and spectral efficiency

Example 1: A transmission technique using one kilohertz of bandwidth to transmit 1,000 bits per second has

a modulation efficiency of 1 (bit/s)/Hz.

Example 2: A V.92 modem for the telephone network can transfer 56,000 bit/s downstream and 48,000 bit/s

upstream over an analog telephone network. Due to filtering in the telephone exchange, the frequency range

is limited to between 300 hertz and 3,400 hertz, corresponding to a bandwidth of 3,400 300 = 3,100 hertz.

The spectral efficiency or modulation efficiency is 56,000/3,100 = 18.1 (bit/s)/Hz downstream, and
48,000/3,100 = 15.5 (bit/s)/Hz upstream.
An upper bound for the attainable modulation efficiency is given by the Nyquist rate or Hartley's law as
follows: For a signaling alphabet with Malternative symbols, each symbol represents N = log2 M bits. N is
the modulation efficiency measured in bit/symbol or bpcu. In the case ofbaseband transmission (line
coding or pulse-amplitude modulation) with a baseband bandwidth (or upper cut-off frequency) B,
the symbol rate can not exceed 2B symbols/s in view to avoid intersymbol interference. Thus, the spectral
efficiency can not exceed 2N (bit/s)/Hz in the baseband transmission case. In the passband transmission
case, a signal with passband bandwidth W can be converted to an equivalent baseband signal
(using undersampling or a superheterodyne receiver), with upper cut-off frequency W/2. If double-sideband
modulation schemes such as QAM, ASK, PSK or OFDM are used, this results in a maximum symbol rate
of W symbols/s, and in that the modulation efficiency can not exceed N (bit/s)/Hz. If digital single-sideband
modulation is used, the passband signal with bandwidth W corresponds to a baseband message signal with
baseband bandwidth W, resulting in a maximum symbol rate of 2W and an attainable modulation efficiency
of 2N (bit/s)/Hz.

Example 3: A 16QAM modem has an alphabet size of M = 16 alternative symbols, with N = 4 bit/symbol or

bpcu. Since QAM is a form of double sideband passband transmission, the spectral efficiency cannot
exceed N = 4 (bit/s)/Hz.

Example 4: The 8VSB (8-level vestigial sideband) modulation scheme used in the ATSC digital television

standard gives N=3 bit/symbol or bpcu. Since it can be described as nearly single-side band, the modulation

efficiency is close to 2N = 6 (bit/s)/Hz. In practice, ATSC transfers a gross bit rate of 32 Mbit/s over a 6 MHz

wide channel, resulting in a modulation efficiency of 32/6 = 5.3 (bit/s)/Hz.

Example 5: The downlink of a V.92 modem uses a pulse-amplitude modulation with 128 signal levels,

resulting in N = 7 bit/symbol. Since the transmitted signal before passband filtering can be considered as

baseband transmission, the spectral efficiency cannot exceed 2N = 14 (bit/s)/Hz over the full baseband

channel (0 to 4 kHz). As seen above, a higher spectral efficiency is achieved if we consider the smaller
passband bandwidth.
If a forward error correction code is used, the spectral efficiency is reduced from the uncoded
modulation efficiency figure.

Example 6: If a forward error correction (FEC) code with code rate 1/2 is added, meaning that the encoder

input bit rate is one half the encoder output rate, the spectral efficiency is 50% of the modulation efficiency.

In exchange for this reduction in spectral efficiency, FEC usually reduces the bit-error rate, and typically
enables operation at a lower signal to noise ratio (SNR).
An upper bound for the spectral efficiency possible without bit errors in a channel with a
certain SNR, if ideal error coding and modulation is assumed, is given by the Shannon-
Hartley theorem.

Example 7: If the SNR is 1 times expressed as a ratio, corresponding to 0 decibel, the link spectral

efficiency can not exceed 1 (bit/s)/Hz for error-free detection (assuming an ideal error-correcting code)
according to Shannon-Hartley regardless of the modulation and coding.
Note that the goodput (the amount of application layer useful information) is
normally lower than the maximum throughput used in the above calculations,
because of packet retransmissions, higher protocol layer overhead, flow control,
congestion avoidance, etc. On the other hand, a data compression scheme, such
as the V.44 or V.42bis compression used in telephone modems, may however give
higher goodput if the transferred data is not already efficiently compressed.
The link spectral efficiency of a wireless telephony link may also be expressed as
the maximum number of simultaneous calls over 1 MHz frequency spectrum in
erlangs per megahertz, or E/MHz. This measure is also affected by the source
coding (data compression) scheme. It may be applied to analog as well as digital
transmission.
In wireless networks, the link spectral efficiency can be somewhat misleading, as
larger values are not necessarily more efficient in their overall use of radio
spectrum. In a wireless network, high link spectral efficiency may result in high
sensitivity to co-channel interference (crosstalk), which affects the capacity. For
example, in a cellular telephone network with frequency reuse, spectrum
spreading and forward error correction reduce the spectral efficiency in (bit/s)/Hz
but substantially lower the required signal-to-noise ratio in comparison to non-
spread spectrum techniques. This can allow for much denser geographical
frequency reuse that compensates for the lower link spectral efficiency, resulting in
approximately the same capacity (the same number of simultaneous phone calls)
over the same bandwidth, using the same number of base station transmitters. As
discussed below, a more relevant measure for wireless networks would be system
spectral efficiency in bit/s/Hz per unit area. However, in closed communication links
such as telephone lines and cable TV networks, and in noise-limited wireless
communication system where co-channel interference is not a factor, the largest
link spectral efficiency that can be supported by the available SNR is generally
used.
[edit]System spectral efficiency or area spectral efficiency

In digital wireless networks, the system spectral efficiency or area spectral


efficiency is typically measured in (bit/s)/Hz per unit area, (bit/s)/Hz percell, or
(bit/s)/Hz per site. It is a measure of the quantity of users or services that can be
simultaneously supported by a limited radio frequency bandwidth in a defined
geographic area. It may for example be defined as the
maximum throughput or goodput, summed over all users in the system, divided by
the channel bandwidth. This measure is affected not only by the single user
transmission technique, but also by multiple access schemes and radio resource
management techniques utilized. It can be substantially improved by dynamic radio
resource management. If it is defined as a measure of the maximum goodput,
retransmissions due to co-channel interference and collisions are excluded. Higher-
layer protocol overhead (above the media access control sublayer) is normally
neglected.

Example 8: In a cellular system based on frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) with a fixed channel

allocation (FCA) cellplan using afrequency reuse factor of 4, each base station has access to 1/4 of the total
available frequency spectrum. Thus, the maximum possible system spectral efficiency in (bit/s)/Hz per site is

1/4 of the link spectral efficiency. Each base station may be divided into 3 cells by means of 3 sector

antennas, also known as a 4/12 reuse pattern. Then each cell has access to 1/12 of the available spectrum,
and the system spectral efficiency in(bit/s)/Hz per cell or (bit/s)/Hz per sector is 1/12 of the link spectral

efficiency.
The system spectral efficiency of a cellular network may also be expressed as
the maximum number of simultaneous phone calls per area unit over 1 MHz
frequency spectrum in E/MHz per cell, E/MHz per sector, E/MHz per site, or
(E/MHz)/m2. This measure is also affected by the source coding (data
compression) scheme. It may be used in analog cellular networks as well.
Low link spectral efficiency in (bit/s)/Hz does not necessarily mean that an
encoding scheme is inefficient from a system spectral efficiency point of view.
As an example, consider Code Division Multiplexed Access (CDMA) spread
spectrum, which is not a particularly spectral efficient encoding scheme when
considering a single channel or single user. However, the fact that one can
"layer" multiple channels on the same frequency band means that the system
spectrum utilization for a multi-channel CDMA system can be very good.

Example 9: In the W-CDMA 3G cellular system, every phone call is compressed to a maximum of 8,500

bit/s (the useful bitrate), and spread out over a 5 MHz wide frequency channel. This corresponds to a link
throughput of only 8,500/5,000,000 = 0.0017 (bit/s)/Hz. Let us assume that 100 simultaneous (non-silent)

calls are possible in the same cell. Spread spectrum makes it possible to have as low a frequency reuse
factor as 1, if each base station is divided into 3 cells by means of 3 directional sector antennas. This
corresponds to a system spectrum efficiency of over 1 100 0.0017 = 0.17 (bit/s)/Hz per site, and 0.17/3 =
0.06 (bit/s)/Hz per cell or sector.
The spectral efficiency can be improved by radio resource
management techniques such as efficient fixed or dynamic channel
allocation, power control, link adaptation and diversity schemes.
A combined fairness measure and system spectral efficiency measure is
the fairly shared spectral efficiency.
[edit]Comparison table

Examples of numerical spectral efficiency values of some common


communication systems can be found in the table below.

[hide]

E
Spectral efficiency of common communicatio

Net
BandwidthB per
bitrate R per
Launched carrier
Service Standard carrier
year
(MHz)
(Mbit/s)

1G cellular NMT 450modem 1981 0.0012 0.025


1G cellular AMPS modem 1983 0.0003[2] 0.030
0.013 8
2G cellular GSM 1991 timeslots = 0.2
0.104
0.013 3
2G cellular D-AMPS 1991 timeslots = 0.030
0.039
Max. 0.0096
CDMA2000 1 per phone call
2.75Gcellular 2000 1.2288
voice typ 22 calls
per carrier
Max.: 0.384;
2.75Gcellular GSM + EDGE 2003 0.2
Typ.: 0.20;
Max.: 0.384;
2.75Gcellular IS-136HS +EDGE 0.2
Typ.: 0.27;
Max.: 0.384
3G cellular WCDMA FDD 2001 5
per mobile;
CDMA2000 1x Max.: 0.153
3G cellular 2002 1.2288
PD per mobile;

CDMA20001EV- Max.: 3.072


3G cellular 2002 1.2288
DO Rev.A per mobile;

FixedWiMAX IEEE 802.16d 2004 96 20 (1.75, 3.5, 7, ...)


Max.: 42.2 per
3.5G cellular HSDPA 2007 5
mobile;
Max.: 3.9 per
3.9GMBWA iBurst HC-SDMA 2005 0.625
carrier;
Max.: 326.4
3.9Gcellular LTE 2009 20
per mobile;
Wi-Fi IEEE 802.11a/g 2003 Max.: 54; 20
IEEE
Wi-Fi 2007 Max.: 144.4; 20
802.11nDraft 2.0
Max: 867 (2-
IEEE
Wi-Fi 2012 antenna AP, 2- 80
802.11acDraft 3.0
antenna STA)
4 timeslots =
TETRA ETSI 1998 0.025
0.036
Digital radio DAB 1995 0.576 to 1.152 1.712
Digital radio DAB with SFN 1995 0.576 to 1.152 1.712
Max.: 31.67;
Digital TV DVB-T 1997 8
Typ.: 22.0;
Max.: 31.67;
Digital TV DVB-T withSFN 1996 8
Typ.: 22.0;
Digital TV DVB-H 2007 5.5 to 11 8
Digital TV DVB-H withSFN 2007 5.5 to 11 8
Digital cable DVB-C 256-
38 6
TV QAM mode
Broadband
ADSL2downlink 12 0.962
modem
Broadband
ADSL2+downlink 28 2.109
modem
Telephone
V.92 downlink 1999 0.056 0.004
modem

N/A means not applicable.


CDMA spectral efficiency refers to the system spectral efficiency in bit/s/Hz/site or Erlang/MHz/site that can be
achieved in a certain CDMA based wireless communication system. CDMA techniques (also known as spread
spectrum) are characterized by a very low link spectral efficiency in (bit/s)/Hz as compared to non-spread spectrum
systems, but a comparable system spectral efficiency.
The system spectral efficiency can be improved by radio resource management techniques, resulting in that a higher
number of simultaneous calls and higher data rates can be achieved without adding more radio spectrum or more
base station sites. This article is about radio resource management specifically for direct-sequence spread
spectrum (DS-CDMA) based cellular systems.

Contents
[hide]

1 CDMA based standards

2 Introduction to radio resource management

3 Quasi-Linear Interference Cancellation (QLIC)

4 1/8 rate gating on R-FCH (Reverse fundamental channel)

5 Radio Configuration

6 Quasi-Orthogonal functions (QOF)

7 6 Sectorization

8 Antenna diversity

9 4th Generation Vocoder (4GV)

10 Network Optimization

o 10.1 Ec/Io optimization

o 10.2 Forward and reverse link imbalance

o 10.3 Excessive soft handoff areas

o 10.4 Improper RF parameters settings

o 10.5 Use repeaters for low utilized sectors

11 See also

12 References
[edit]CDMA based standards

Examples of DS-CDMA based cellular systems are:

the 3GPP/UMTS 3G radio interfaces WCDMA, HSDPA and HSUPA used globally.
the 3GPP2 2G standard cdmaOne (IS-95) and 3G standards CDMA2000 1x and 1xEV-DO, used especially in
the U.S. and South Korea
the Chinese TD-SCDMA system.
The terminology used in this article is firstly based on 3GPP2 standards.
CDMA is not expected to be used in 4G systems, and is not used in pre-4G systems such as LTE and WiMAX, but is
about to be supplemented by more spectral efficient frequency-domain equalization (FDE) techniques such
as OFDMA.
[edit]Introduction to radio resource management

The aim of improving the system spectral efficiency is to utilize the limited radio spectrum resources and radio
network infrastructure as efficiently as possible. The objective of radio-resource management is typically to maximize
the system spectral efficiency under constraint that the grade of service should be above a certain level. The latter
involves covering a certain area and avoiding outage due to co-channel interference, noise, attenuation caused by
long distances, fading caused by shadowing and multipath, Doppler shift and other forms of distortion. The grade of
service is also affected by blocking due to admission control, scheduling starvation or inability to guarantee quality of
service that is requested by the users.
There are many ways of increasing the system spectral efficiency. These includes techniques to be implemented at
the handset level or at the network level. These techniques include the network optimization, vocoder rate
encapsulation and other important techniques. The wide issues faced while deploying these techniques are the cost,
up-gradation requirements, hardware and software changes (which includes cell phone compatibility corresponding to
the changes) to be made and the agreements to be approved from the telecommunication department.
[edit]Quasi-Linear Interference Cancellation (QLIC)

Due to its large transmission power, the Common pilot channel (CPICH) probably consumes 15 to 20 percentage of
the forward as well as the reverse link capacity[citation needed]. Co-channel interference is obvious. It is hence important
to initialize interference cancellation techniques such as pilot interference cancellation (PIC) and forward link
interference cancellation (FLIC) together in the network. Quasi-linear interference cancellation (QLIC) is a technique
used for both FLIC and PIC.
Along with the forward link, reverse link interference cancellation is also important. Interference will be reduced and
the mobiles will have to transmit less power to get the line of sight[clarification needed] with the base station which will in
turn increase the battery life of the mobile.
[edit]1/8 rate gating on R-FCH (Reverse fundamental channel)

The 1/8 rate gating on the reverse fundamental channel (R-FCH) is the method used for gated transmission in a
CDMA communication system. A mobile station (mobile phone) in the CDMA communication system transmits a
reverse pilot signal at a reverse gating rate which is different from a forward gating rate in a gated mode, and a base
station transmits a forward pilot signal at the forward gating rate different from the forward gating rate in a gated
mode.
When the duty cycle is 1/8, only 1/8 of the whole power control groups in one frame are transmitted. This behavior is
not present in any other CDMA modes.
Another CDMA invention to provide a device and technique for improving a downlink phone capacity and receiving
performance by gating an uplink DPCCH signal in a partial period of the power control group in a mobile
communication system. The test set's support for the R-FCH gating mode is disabled (off) by default.
If the test set's R-FCH gating mode is enabled (on) and the mobile station (MS) supports the gating mode, the MS will
gate the R-FCH/R-Pilot Channel when transmitting at 1/8 rate. This will save around 75% [citation needed] of the power on
an average on reverse channels.
[edit]Radio Configuration

The CDMA radio configuration is defined as a combination of forward and reverse traffic channel transmission
formats that are characterized by physical layer parameters such as data rates, error-correction
codes, modulation characteristics, and spreading factors. The traffic channel may consist of one or more code
channels such as fundamental channels and supplemental channels.
Radio Configuration Table for TIA/EIA-98-E and C.S0002-A standards
[clarification needed]

[edit]Quasi-Orthogonal functions (QOF)

The forward link of a 3G code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system may become a limiting factor when the
number of users increases maximal capacity.
The conventional channelization code, Walsh code does not have enough available bits to cope with maximal use.
Therefore, the quasi-orthogonal function (QOF), which can process optimal cross-correlation with Walsh code has
been used as a method to get around the limitations of the Walsh Codes.
To enhance the overall capacity in such scenarios, alternative sets of orthogonal functions called the quasi-
orthogonal functions (QOF), which possess optimal minimax cross correlation with Walsh code sets of variable
length, have been incorporated in IS-2000.
This method uses aggregation of multiple quasi-orthogonal functions with a smaller constellation alphabet size for a
single user with a joint multi-channel detector. This method is compared with the alternative method for enhancing the
maximum throughput using aggregation of a smaller number of Walsh functions, but with a higher constellation
alphabet size (multi-level modulation).
There have been many industrial and academic discussions on the trade-offs with respect to better methods for
increasing capacity in IS-2000/3G systems. QOF introduces high amount of interference in the network channels,
thus limiting its benefits.
[edit]6 Sectorization

6 sector site in CDMA

There are some places where the utilization of the site is very high and excess softer handoffs occur. For such sites,
a 6-sector antenna is one of the solutions, as it provides greater coverage granularity than the traditional 3-sector
antenna. Instead of 1 BTS, 2 BTS are used and hence the antennas can be separated from each other by 60
degrees instead of 120 degrees.
[edit]Antenna diversity

Antenna diversity, also known as space diversity (micro-diversity as well as macro-diversity, i.e. soft handover, see
below), is any one of several wireless diversity schemes that use two or more antennas to improve the quality and
reliability of a wireless link.
Often, especially in urban and indoor environments, there is not a clear line-of-sight (LOS) between transmitter and
receiver. Instead the signal is reflected along multiple paths before finally being received. Each of these bounces can
introduce phase shifts, time delays, attenuations, and even distortions that can destructively interfere with one
another at the aperture of the receiving antenna.
Antenna diversity is especially effective at mitigating these multipath propagation situations. This is because multiple
antennas afford a receiver several observations of the same signal. Each antenna will experience a different
interference environment. Thus, if one antenna is experiencing a deep fade, it is likely that another has a sufficient
signal.
Collectively such a system can provide a robust link. While this is primarily seen in receiving systems (diversity
reception), the analog has also proven valuable for transmitting systems (transmit diversity) as well.
Inherently an antenna diversity scheme requires additional hardware and integration versus a single antenna system
but due to the commonality of the signal paths a fair amount of circuitry can be shared.
With multiple signals there is a greater processing demand placed on the receiver, which can lead to tighter design
requirements of the base station. Typically, however, signal reliability is paramount and using multiple antennas is an
effective way to decrease the number of drop-outs and lost connections.
[edit]4th Generation Vocoder (4GV)

Qualcomms fourth generation vocoder (4GV) is a suite of voice speech codecs expected to be used in future 4G
networks as well CDMA networks, that allows the network operators to dynamically prioritize voice quality to increase
network capacity while maintaining voice quality. Currently, the 4GV suite offers EVRC-B and EVRC-WB.
Enhanced Variable Rate Codec B (EVRC-B) is a speech codec used by CDMA networks. EVRC-B is an
enhancement to EVRC and compresses each 20 milliseconds of 8000 Hz, 16-bit sampled speech input into output
frames of one of the four different sizes: Rate 1 - 171 bits, Rate 1/2 - 80 bits, Rate 1/4 - 40 bits, Rate 1/8 - 16 bits.
In addition, there are two zero bit codec frame types: null frames and erasure frames, similar to EVRC. One
significant enhancement in EVRC-B is the use of 1/4 rate frames that were not used in EVRC. This provides lower
average data rates (ADRs) compared to EVRC, for a given voice quality. The new 4GV Codecs used in CDMA2000
are based on EVRC-B. 4GV is designed to allow service providers to dynamically prioritize voice capacity on their
network as required.
The Enhanced Variable Rate Codec (EVRC) is a speech codec used for cellular telephony in cdma2000 systems.
EVRC provides excellent[citation needed] speech quality using variable rate coding with 3 possible rates, 8.55, 4.0 and 0.8
kbit/s. However, the Quality of Service (QoS) in cdma2000 systems can significantly benefit from a codec which
allows tradeoffs between voice quality and network capacity, which cannot be achieved efficiently with the EVRC.
[edit]Network Optimization

[edit]Ec/Io optimization
Higher combined Ec/Io, lower traffic channel Ec/Io is required and more BTS power is conserved. Ec/Io is a notation
used to represent a dimensionless ratio of the average power of a channel, typically the pilot channel, to the total
signal power. It is expressed in dB.
[edit]Forward and reverse link imbalance
There are some remote places where BTS signal penetrates but reverse link of mobile cannot reach back to the base
station.Solution is like reducing base station antenna height, down tilt, select lower gains, etc.
[edit]Excessive soft handoff areas
There are some areas with more soft handoff than necessary. The handoff parameters has to be reduced to save the
base station power.Set higher values of T_ADD and T_DROP, and check the sector coverage should not be too high
or too low.
[edit]Improper RF parameters settings
For best quality decrease the FPCH (Forward Pilot Channel) and FER (Frame Error Rate) settings to 1% and for
increase the capacity of highly loaded sites, increase the settings of these parameters to more than 3%.
[edit]Use repeaters for low utilized sectors
Some sites have very low utilization and due to coverage issue, a new site is required in nearby areas. Instead of a
new site, a Cellular repeater can be used effectively to provide coverage solutions.
CDMA SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY
CDMA spectral efficiency refers to the system spectral efficiency in bit/s/Hz/site or Erlang/MHz/site that can be
achieved in a certain CDMA based wireless communication system. CDMA techniques (also known as spread
spectrum) are characterized by a very low link spectral efficiency in (bit/s)/Hz as compared to non-spread spectrum
systems, but a comparable system spectral efficiency.
The system spectral efficiency can be improved by radio resource management techniques, resulting in that a higher
number of simultaneous calls and higher data rates can be achieved without adding more radio spectrum or more
base station sites. This article is about radio resource management specifically for direct-sequence spread
spectrum (DS-CDMA) based cellular systems.

Contents
[hide]
1 CDMA based standards

2 Introduction to radio resource management

3 Quasi-Linear Interference Cancellation (QLIC)

4 1/8 rate gating on R-FCH (Reverse fundamental channel)

5 Radio Configuration

6 Quasi-Orthogonal functions (QOF)

7 6 Sectorization

8 Antenna diversity

9 4th Generation Vocoder (4GV)

10 Network Optimization

o 10.1 Ec/Io optimization

o 10.2 Forward and reverse link imbalance

o 10.3 Excessive soft handoff areas

o 10.4 Improper RF parameters settings

o 10.5 Use repeaters for low utilized sectors

11 See also

12 References
[edit]CDMA based standards

Examples of DS-CDMA based cellular systems are:

the 3GPP/UMTS 3G radio interfaces WCDMA, HSDPA and HSUPA used globally.
the 3GPP2 2G standard cdmaOne (IS-95) and 3G standards CDMA2000 1x and 1xEV-DO, used especially in
the U.S. and South Korea
the Chinese TD-SCDMA system.
The terminology used in this article is firstly based on 3GPP2 standards.
CDMA is not expected to be used in 4G systems, and is not used in pre-4G systems such as LTE and WiMAX, but is
about to be supplemented by more spectral efficient frequency-domain equalization (FDE) techniques such
as OFDMA.
[edit]Introduction to radio resource management

The aim of improving the system spectral efficiency is to utilize the limited radio spectrum resources and radio
network infrastructure as efficiently as possible. The objective of radio-resource management is typically to maximize
the system spectral efficiency under constraint that the grade of service should be above a certain level. The latter
involves covering a certain area and avoiding outage due to co-channel interference, noise, attenuation caused by
long distances, fading caused by shadowing and multipath, Doppler shift and other forms of distortion. The grade of
service is also affected by blocking due to admission control, scheduling starvation or inability to guarantee quality of
service that is requested by the users.
There are many ways of increasing the system spectral efficiency. These includes techniques to be implemented at
the handset level or at the network level. These techniques include the network optimization, vocoder rate
encapsulation and other important techniques. The wide issues faced while deploying these techniques are the cost,
up-gradation requirements, hardware and software changes (which includes cell phone compatibility corresponding to
the changes) to be made and the agreements to be approved from the telecommunication department.
[edit]Quasi-Linear Interference Cancellation (QLIC)

Due to its large transmission power, the Common pilot channel (CPICH) probably consumes 15 to 20 percentage of
the forward as well as the reverse link capacity[citation needed]. Co-channel interference is obvious. It is hence important
to initialize interference cancellation techniques such as pilot interference cancellation (PIC) and forward link
interference cancellation (FLIC) together in the network. Quasi-linear interference cancellation (QLIC) is a technique
used for both FLIC and PIC.
Along with the forward link, reverse link interference cancellation is also important. Interference will be reduced and
the mobiles will have to transmit less power to get the line of sight[clarification needed] with the base station which will in
turn increase the battery life of the mobile.
[edit]1/8 rate gating on R-FCH (Reverse fundamental channel)

The 1/8 rate gating on the reverse fundamental channel (R-FCH) is the method used for gated transmission in a
CDMA communication system. A mobile station (mobile phone) in the CDMA communication system transmits a
reverse pilot signal at a reverse gating rate which is different from a forward gating rate in a gated mode, and a base
station transmits a forward pilot signal at the forward gating rate different from the forward gating rate in a gated
mode.
When the duty cycle is 1/8, only 1/8 of the whole power control groups in one frame are transmitted. This behavior is
not present in any other CDMA modes.
Another CDMA invention to provide a device and technique for improving a downlink phone capacity and receiving
performance by gating an uplink DPCCH signal in a partial period of the power control group in a mobile
communication system. The test set's support for the R-FCH gating mode is disabled (off) by default.
If the test set's R-FCH gating mode is enabled (on) and the mobile station (MS) supports the gating mode, the MS will
gate the R-FCH/R-Pilot Channel when transmitting at 1/8 rate. This will save around 75% [citation needed] of the power on
an average on reverse channels.
[edit]Radio Configuration

The CDMA radio configuration is defined as a combination of forward and reverse traffic channel transmission
formats that are characterized by physical layer parameters such as data rates, error-correction
codes, modulation characteristics, and spreading factors. The traffic channel may consist of one or more code
channels such as fundamental channels and supplemental channels.
Radio Configuration Table for TIA/EIA-98-E and C.S0002-A standards
[clarification needed]

[edit]Quasi-Orthogonal functions (QOF)

The forward link of a 3G code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system may become a limiting factor when the
number of users increases maximal capacity.
The conventional channelization code, Walsh code does not have enough available bits to cope with maximal use.
Therefore, the quasi-orthogonal function (QOF), which can process optimal cross-correlation with Walsh code has
been used as a method to get around the limitations of the Walsh Codes.
To enhance the overall capacity in such scenarios, alternative sets of orthogonal functions called the quasi-
orthogonal functions (QOF), which possess optimal minimax cross correlation with Walsh code sets of variable
length, have been incorporated in IS-2000.
This method uses aggregation of multiple quasi-orthogonal functions with a smaller constellation alphabet size for a
single user with a joint multi-channel detector. This method is compared with the alternative method for enhancing the
maximum throughput using aggregation of a smaller number of Walsh functions, but with a higher constellation
alphabet size (multi-level modulation).
There have been many industrial and academic discussions on the trade-offs with respect to better methods for
increasing capacity in IS-2000/3G systems. QOF introduces high amount of interference in the network channels,
thus limiting its benefits.
[edit]6 Sectorization

6 sector site in CDMA

There are some places where the utilization of the site is very high and excess softer handoffs occur. For such sites,
a 6-sector antenna is one of the solutions, as it provides greater coverage granularity than the traditional 3-sector
antenna. Instead of 1 BTS, 2 BTS are used and hence the antennas can be separated from each other by 60
degrees instead of 120 degrees.
[edit]Antenna diversity

Antenna diversity, also known as space diversity (micro-diversity as well as macro-diversity, i.e. soft handover, see
below), is any one of several wireless diversity schemes that use two or more antennas to improve the quality and
reliability of a wireless link.
Often, especially in urban and indoor environments, there is not a clear line-of-sight (LOS) between transmitter and
receiver. Instead the signal is reflected along multiple paths before finally being received. Each of these bounces can
introduce phase shifts, time delays, attenuations, and even distortions that can destructively interfere with one
another at the aperture of the receiving antenna.
Antenna diversity is especially effective at mitigating these multipath propagation situations. This is because multiple
antennas afford a receiver several observations of the same signal. Each antenna will experience a different
interference environment. Thus, if one antenna is experiencing a deep fade, it is likely that another has a sufficient
signal.
Collectively such a system can provide a robust link. While this is primarily seen in receiving systems (diversity
reception), the analog has also proven valuable for transmitting systems (transmit diversity) as well.
Inherently an antenna diversity scheme requires additional hardware and integration versus a single antenna system
but due to the commonality of the signal paths a fair amount of circuitry can be shared.
With multiple signals there is a greater processing demand placed on the receiver, which can lead to tighter design
requirements of the base station. Typically, however, signal reliability is paramount and using multiple antennas is an
effective way to decrease the number of drop-outs and lost connections.
[edit]4th Generation Vocoder (4GV)

Qualcomms fourth generation vocoder (4GV) is a suite of voice speech codecs expected to be used in future 4G
networks as well CDMA networks, that allows the network operators to dynamically prioritize voice quality to increase
network capacity while maintaining voice quality. Currently, the 4GV suite offers EVRC-B and EVRC-WB.
Enhanced Variable Rate Codec B (EVRC-B) is a speech codec used by CDMA networks. EVRC-B is an
enhancement to EVRC and compresses each 20 milliseconds of 8000 Hz, 16-bit sampled speech input into output
frames of one of the four different sizes: Rate 1 - 171 bits, Rate 1/2 - 80 bits, Rate 1/4 - 40 bits, Rate 1/8 - 16 bits.
In addition, there are two zero bit codec frame types: null frames and erasure frames, similar to EVRC. One
significant enhancement in EVRC-B is the use of 1/4 rate frames that were not used in EVRC. This provides lower
average data rates (ADRs) compared to EVRC, for a given voice quality. The new 4GV Codecs used in CDMA2000
are based on EVRC-B. 4GV is designed to allow service providers to dynamically prioritize voice capacity on their
network as required.
The Enhanced Variable Rate Codec (EVRC) is a speech codec used for cellular telephony in cdma2000 systems.
EVRC provides excellent[citation needed] speech quality using variable rate coding with 3 possible rates, 8.55, 4.0 and 0.8
kbit/s. However, the Quality of Service (QoS) in cdma2000 systems can significantly benefit from a codec which
allows tradeoffs between voice quality and network capacity, which cannot be achieved efficiently with the EVRC.
[edit]Network Optimization

[edit]Ec/Io optimization
Higher combined Ec/Io, lower traffic channel Ec/Io is required and more BTS power is conserved. Ec/Io is a notation
used to represent a dimensionless ratio of the average power of a channel, typically the pilot channel, to the total
signal power. It is expressed in dB.
[edit]Forward and reverse link imbalance
There are some remote places where BTS signal penetrates but reverse link of mobile cannot reach back to the base
station.Solution is like reducing base station antenna height, down tilt, select lower gains, etc.
[edit]Excessive soft handoff areas
There are some areas with more soft handoff than necessary. The handoff parameters has to be reduced to save the
base station power.Set higher values of T_ADD and T_DROP, and check the sector coverage should not be too high
or too low.
[edit]Improper RF parameters settings
For best quality decrease the FPCH (Forward Pilot Channel) and FER (Frame Error Rate) settings to 1% and for
increase the capacity of highly loaded sites, increase the settings of these parameters to more than 3%.
[edit]Use repeaters for low utilized sectors
Some sites have very low utilization and due to coverage issue, a new site is required in nearby areas. Instead of a
new site, a Cellular repeater can be used effectively to provide coverage solutions.