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ESL stends far 'English es e Second Lenguege' end this infogrephic presents e historicel
overview of the most prominent methods end epproeches used in teeching English es e
second or foreign lenguege!
Tbe Rading Method {Situltional language Teaching)

A Brief History of ESL Methods Audio-Lingual Army Method


and Approaches Total Physlcal Response

1965- 9&1
lllustrated by Mustafa Polat with Timeline 30 for Mac

Natur1l A_pproach

Communicative Approach/Communicatlve language Teachlng

Grammar Translatlon Mettlod
Tbe Oirect Method (Bertz) SilentWay TPR StoryteDlng
181Ml-1930 1963-191) 1900-2(0)
AUlll-LINGUAL Alt.tT METHll \ 19't0s>1960s
through 1970s

Suggestopedia was developed by Bulgarian psychiatrist--educator Georgi Lozanov ( 1982),
who wanted to eliminate the psychological txmers that people hove to learning and claimed students can learn a language
appro><lmately three to flve times as quickly as through conventional teaching methods.
independence, autonomy, and
responsibility for learning student-centered srudents ere not
disc9very learning, problem use of vsucls chaUenged
solvrng approacn getting rudents to no direct teaching
produce(QnguQge not Quthentic,r'1ther
teacher as a stimulator does awkward
not talk!
cusinere rods and wall charts
to introduce language
The natural approach was originally created in 1977 by Terrell, a Spanish teacher in California.
Mer the original formulation, Terrell worked with Krashen to further develop the theoretical aspects of the method. Terrell and Krashen
published the results of their collaboration in the 1983 book The Natural Approach.
Sauvignon ( 1983, 1997, 2002) suggests designing the curriculum to include language arts,
language-for-a-purpose (content-based and immersion) acNviNes, personalized lan~uage use, theatre arts ~including simula- Nons,
role-plays, and social interaction games), and language use beyond the classroom .
(Pleese copy the individual link you went to visit end peste in your browser eddress
ESL METNOD ~ D APPlOACAES 1. ESL Methods timeline (PrezD
http:/ /
2. Methods/ epproeches of teeching ESOL: Historicel Overview (Book Chepter)
http:/ /

3 Ouotes ebout methods from Wikipedie

imustafapolat. -mpolat