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11/18/2017

What is Vortex Motion (Free and Forced)? Short & Conceptual Notes

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Vortex Motion
Contents [hide]
1 Vortex Motion
1.1 Free Vortex Flow
1.2 Forced Vortex Flow
1.3 Variation of Pressure
1.4 Equation of Free Vortex Flow
1.5 Equation of Forced Vortex Flow
1.6 Differences between Free and Forced Vortex Flow
A whirling or rotating mass of fluid is called vortex flow.
The flow of the fluid in a curved path.
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11/18/2017

What is Vortex Motion (Free and Forced)? Short & Conceptual Notes

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Free Vortex Flow
In this flow fluid mass rotates due to the conservation of angular momentum. The velocity profile is inversely
v
× r = constant
The point at the centre of rotation is called singular point, where velocity approaches to infinite. An example of free
vortex motion is whirling mass of liquid in a wash basin, whirlpool in the river etc.
1
Points to remember:
No external torque or energy is required.
In free vortex flow, Bernoulli’s equation can be applied.
Forced Vortex Flow
When a fluid is rotated about a vertical axis at a constant speed, such every particle of it has the same angular velocity,
the motion is known as the forced vortex.
v
= r × ω
2
2
h
= ω r /2g
Fig. 1- Forced Vortex Motion
Where ‘h’ is a height of paraboloid, and r is the radius of the cylinder.
2
Volume of paraboloid = 1/2 π × r h
= 1/2 of volume of circumscribing cylinder
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11/18/2017

What is Vortex Motion (Free and Forced)? Short & Conceptual Notes

Points to Remember
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The surface profile of a forced vortex flow is parabolic.
Forced vortex requires a constant supply of external energy or torque.
An example of forced vortex flow is rotating cylinder and flow inside the centrifugal pump.
Variation of Pressure
1
Fig. 2- Pressure Variation
2
dp = (ρv /r) × dr – ρg dz
z is in the upward direction
Equation of Free Vortex Flow
We know for free vortex v × r = constant = k
2
and dp = (ρv /r) × dr – ρg dz
2
2
dp
= [{(ρ × k )/r×r }× dr] + ρg dz (putting v = k/r)
On Integration for point 1 to point 2
2
3
∫dp = ∫[{(ρ×k )/r }× dr] – ρg ∫dz
2
P
– P
= ρ/2 (v
– v
) – ρg(z – z ) (Again putting value of k )
2
1
1 2
2
2
1
P
+ ½ ρv
+ ρgz
= P
+ ½ ρv
+ ρgz (Bernoulli’s Equation is applicable in Free Vortex)
1
1 2
1
2
2 2
2
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11/18/2017

What is Vortex Motion (Free and Forced)? Short & Conceptual Notes

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Equation of Forced Vortex Flow
2
2
dp
= [(ρ×ω r )/r] × dr + ρg dz
On Integration for point 1 to point 2
1
2
∫dp = ρ×ω
∫r × dr + ρg ∫dz
2
2
2
= ρω /2 (r
– r
) – ρg(z
– z )
2
1
2
1
On Putting v = ω × r
2
P
– P
= ρ/2 (v
– v
) – ρg(z
– z )
2 2
1
2
1
+ ρgh
= P
– ½ ρv
+ ρgz (Bernoulli’s Equation Not Applicable)
1
2
2 2
2
Differences between Free and Forced Vortex Flow
Free Vortex Flow
Forced Vortex Flow
No external torque i.e. torque required to rotate is
zero.
External torque is required to rotate the fluid mass.
We know T = d (mvr)/dt
and since T = 0,So, mvr = constantor v × r = constant
(mass is constant)
ω = constant
v/r = constant
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11/18/2017

What is Vortex Motion (Free and Forced)? Short & Conceptual Notes

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Working of Centrifugal Pump
Notes on Dimensional Analysis

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11/18/2017

What is Vortex Motion (Free and Forced)? Short & Conceptual Notes

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