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APERTURE AND HORN

ANTENNA
OUTLINE

1) Aperture Antenna 2) Horn Antenna


a) Huygens Principle a) E Plane Sectoral Horn
b) Radiation Pattern b) H Plane Sectoral Horn
c) Directivity c) Pyramidal Horn
d) Rectangular Apertures d) Conical Horn
e) Circular Apertures e) Other types of Horn Antenna
3) Application
APERTURE ANTENNA
Most common at microwave frequencies (300MHz-
300GHz)
They may take the form of a waveguide or a horn
whose aperture may be square, rectangular, circular,
elliptical, or any other configuration.
We will analyze radiation characteristics at far field
Rectangular Aperture
Circular Aperture
FIELD EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE:
HUYGENS PRINCIPLE

Introduced in1936 by A. Schelkunoff, which is a more


rigorous formulation of Huygens Principle which states that
Every point on a wave-front may be considered a source of
secondary spherical wavelets which spread out in the
forward direction at the speed of light. The new wave-front
is the tangential surface to all of these secondary wavelets.
A principle by which actual sources, such as antenna and
transmitter, are replaced by equivalent source.
FIELD EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE:
HUYGENS PRINCIPLE
FIELD EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE:
HUYGENS PRINCIPLE

The Huygens principle is based on the uniqueness theorem


which states that a field in a lossy region is uniquely
specified by the sources within the region plus the
tangential components of the electric field over the
boundary, or the tangential components of the magnetic
field over the boundary, or the former over part of the
boundary and the latter over the rest of the boundary.
FAR FIELD IS THE F OF THE NEAR FIELD

t
Fourier Transform for 1-D f
1
W (k x ) w( x)e w( x) W (k x )e jk x x dkx
jk x x
dx
2

For two-dimensions, x and y;


Ukx , ky u(x, y)e


jk x x jky y
dx dy


1

jk x x jk y y
u( x, y) U (k x , k y )e dkx dk y
4 2


PROPERTIES OF FOURIER TRANSFORM

ds(t )
Ft jF t s (t )
dt
u ( x, y )
Fx jk x F x u ( x, y )
x
u 2 ( x, y )
jk x F x u ( x, y )
2
Fx
x 2

u 2 ( x, y )
F yx k 2
x F yx u ( x, y )
x 2
2 E k o2 E 0
E 0
2 2 2
2 2 2 E ko2 E 0
x y z
E x ( x, y, z ) E y ( x, y, z ) E z ( x, y, z )
0
x y z
Taking the Fourier transform of the 2 equations above:

2
E ( k , k , z ) ( k 2
k 2
k y )E( k x , k y , z ) 0
2

z 2 x y o x

E z (k x , k y , z )
k x E x (k x , k y , z ) k y E y (k x , k y , z ) j 0
z
Now, we define, k k k k
2
z
2
o
2
x
2
y
And we obtain, 2E(k x , k y , z )
k z2E(k x , k y , z ) 0
z 2

jk z z
Which has a solution of E( k x , k y , z ) f ( k x , k y )e
Then we take the inverse transform

4 2
E( x, y, z ) f (k x , k y )e jk r dkx dk y


If z=0, then, we are at the aperture


1

jk x x jk y y
Ea ( x, y) Etan ( x, y,0) f (k x , k y )e dk x dk y
4 2

Which looks like:


1

jk x x jk y y
u( x, y) U (k x , k y )e dkx dk y
4 2

Which is the inverse of F


This is the Fourier transform for 2 dimensions, so:

Ukx , ky u(x, y)e


jk x x jky y
dx dy

ft (k x , k y ) Ea ( x, y)e
jk x x jk y y
dxdy
Sa

It can be shown that,


jk o cos jk o r
E(r ) e f t k o a cos cos , k o b sin sin
2r

Therefore, if we know the field at the aperture, we can


used these equations to find E(r).
=>First, well look at the case when the illumination at
the rectangular aperture its uniform.
UNIFORMLY ILLUMINATED
RECTANGULAR APERTURE
E a ( x, y ) Eo x for |x| a |y| b
0 elsewhere
a b
ft Eo x e
jk x x jk y y
dxdy
a b

sin k x a sin k y b
4abEo x
kxa k yb
sin ko a sin cos sin kob sin sin
4abEo x
ko a sin cos kob sin sin
sin u sin v
4abEo x
u v

E(r )
jk o 4abEo jk o r sin u sin v
2r
e
u v

sin cos cos
HOW DOES THIS PATTERN LOOKS

u ko a sin cos
v kob sin sin
In this report we considered TE10 and TE11
mode for illuminated rectangular aperture.
TE10 ILLUMINATED RECTANGULAR
APERTURE
x' - a / 2 x' a / 2
E a ( x, y ) Eo cos y for
a - b / 2 y' b / 2
0 elsewhere
a b
x
ft Eo y cos(
jk x x jk y y
)e dxdy
a b
a
u
X u ko a sin cos
2
v
Y v kob sin sin
2

E(r )
jko abEo e jk o r cos X sin Y

sin cos cos
Y
2
4r
X
2

2
RECTANGULAR APERTURE:
DIRECTIVITY

4
Do ap ab 2

For TE10 illuminated Rectangular Aperture the aperture


efficiency is around 81%.
For the uniform illumination, is 100% but in practice
difficult to implement uniform illumination.
CIRCULAR
APERTURE

(Uniform illumination)
In this case we use cylindrical coordinates
a 2
ft Eo x e jk o sin cos( ') d ' d
0 0

J1 ko a sin
2a Eo x
2

ko a sin
CIRCULAR APERTURE W/ UNIFORM
ILLUMINATION

2
C
Do ap

For TE11 illuminated Circular Aperture the aperture


efficiency is around 84%.
For the uniform illumination, is 100% but in practice
difficult to implement uniformity
HORN ANTENNA

flared waveguides that produce a nearly uniform


phase front larger than the waveguide itself
constructed in a variety of shapes such as
sectoral E-plane, sectoral H-plane, pyramidal,
conical, etc.
RADIATION PATTERN
APPLICATION AREAS

used as a feed element for large radio astronomy,


satellite tracking and communication dishes
A common element of phased arrays
used in the calibration, other high-gain antennas
used for making electromagnetic interference
measurements
E-PLANE SECTORAL HORN
Fields expressions OVER THE horn are similar to the
fields of a TE10 mode for a rectangular waveguide with
the aperture dimensions of a and b1.
difference is in the complex exponential term,
parabolic phase error,.
j ky /( 2 )
E ( x , y ) E cos x e
2
1
y 1
a

H x ( x, y) 1 cos x e j ky
E 2
/( 2 1 )

a
j ky2 /( 2 1 )
H z ( x, y) jE1 sin x e
ka a
H-PLANE SECTORAL HORN

this is the plane containing the magnetic field vector


(sometimes called the H aperture) and the direction of
maximum radiation
PYRAMIDAL HORN

combination of the E-plane and H-plane


horns and as such is flared in both
directions
CONICAL HORN ANTENNA:

A horn in the shape of a cone , with a circular


cross section. They are used with cylindrical
waveguides.
E- and H-Plane Patterns of
the E-Plane Sectoral Horn

00
E-Plane
H-Plane 300 300

Relative power (dB down)


10

20

600 600
30

30 20 10
900 900

1200 1200

1500 1500

1800
E- and H-Plane Patterns of
the H-Plane Sectoral Horn

E-Plane 00

H-Plane 300 300

Relative power (dB down)


10

20

600 600
30

30 20 10
900 900

1200 1200

1500 1500

1800
E and H-Plane Patterns

00
E-Plane
300 300
H-Plane

Relative power (dB down)


10

20

600 600
30

30 20 10
900 900

1200 1200

1500 1500

1800
E- and H-Plane Patterns of
The Conical Horn Antenna
00
E-Plane 300 300

Relative power (dB down)


H-Plane 10

20

600 600
30

30 20 10
900 900

1200 1200

1500 1500

1800
DIRECTIVITY:
Directivity of an E-plane sectored horn is:
4 641
=

= 2 1 2 1
1 +
21 21

Directivity of an H-plane sectored horn is:


42 2 2
= +
1
where 1 = e cos
c(u),c(v),s(u) & s(v) are Fresnel integrals
a & b are dimensions of wave guide
DIRECTIVITY:

Directivity of a pyramidal horn antenna is:


2
=
32

where D = Directivity of an Hplane sectored horn


DE= Directivity of an E-plane sectored horn
a & b are dimensions of wave guide
OTHER HORN ANTENNA TYPES

Multimode Horns
Corrugated Horns
Hog Horns
Biconical Horns
Dielectric Loaded Horns

etc.
APPLICATIONS:

In satellite
communication
In TV base station

Large 177 ft. horn reflector


antenna at AT&T satellite
communication facility in
Andover, Maine, USA.
HORN ANTENNA IN A DISH ANTENNA:
HORN ANTENNA IN SHORT RANGE
RADARS: