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Emily Ledermann
First Year Engineering Design Day
WATER & SEAMS Harshith Aileni
E101 Section 10
North Carolina State University
Relynne Wolf

Problem Statement FEDD PROJECT DEVELOPMENT Budget Breakdown

Our project is the "portable textile bucket to
Supplies Cost
carry water". The goal is to create a bucket out of Brainstorming
fabric that is easy to transport. Fabric and thread $12.00
We had many different ideas for the shape of the bucket, including cylindrical and cone shaped, but we
The bucket must: decided on a circular drawstring bag, so that it could be worn as a backpack. For our fabric laminate, we Beeswax (#1) $3.00
Hold at least one gallon of water without looked into both beeswax and pectin, but after testing, we decided on using beeswax. Pectin $3.05
leaking for one minute Beeswax (#2) $10.39
Hang from a hook Paintbrushes $2.00
Be less than 30" in height (including handle)
Total $30.44
Fit (while collapsed) into a 6x 6x 6 box
Be made with a $40 budget
Summary of Research Conclusions
Water Resistant Materials The bucket holds a gallon of water, but begins to
Design Process Iterations slowly drip before the minute is up. After each
We went into the prototyping phase with doubts about our structure holding enough water, so we made collapse/folding of the bucket, the beeswax
Beeswax has a melting point of 60o C (140o F) two prototypes: one that was a rectangular drawstring bag (image 1) with side seams and one that was a weakened and cracked a little. The backpack
Consists of long-chain carbon components circular drawstring bag (image 2). After looking at these prototypes, we decided that adding handles to component was a success because it can still be
There are alkane, acid, and ester carbon chains the top of the bag would make it easier to hang on a hook for testing. We also tested the beeswax vs. carried with handles or worn via the straps. Even
making up beeswax. These nonpolar molecules pectin coating the pectin was not at all waterproofing (image 4), but the beeswax-coated fabric held though it drips, we are still proud of this
do not react with water, a polar molecule, so water (image 5). accomplishment because it is a simple backpack
beeswax is hydrophobic (Kameda 2004) that can hold water.
Paraffin Wax
Made up of solid straight-chain hydrocarbons Reflection
Melting point: 48 to 66 C (120 to 150 F) If we were to re-do this project, we would modify
Is a nonpolar, hydrophobic molecule (Britannica the laminate and add paraffin wax since paraffin
2008) has a more flexible structure, benefitting the
Pectin collapse of our bucket. We would also look at
Any of a group of water-soluble carbohydrate other ways of waterproofing the fabric. The
substances that are found in the cell walls and straps could be widened to help distribute weight
Final Design on the shoulders. We could also work with the
intercellular tissues of certain plants.
(Britannica 2007) Our final bucket is created from one 36 diameter circle of our shape of the bag so it would be easier to close at
Strength of hydrophobic interactions can be duck cloth. We created a casing to put a drawstring through, the top.
modified by adding different sugars or by and sewed two handles directly across from each other. We References
changing the temperature (Oakenfull 1984) attached triangles of fabric with grommets to the bottom; the
drawstrings get threaded through the grommets to become Doe, Sarina. Fabric Dictionary - 200+ Fabric Names. Sew
Calcium helps strengthen bonds within pectin Guide, Sew Guide, 20 Feb. 2017,
straps like a backpack. Then we coated it in beeswax, and later, glossary/.
Fabric and Collapsible Bucket Patent we completely re-melted the beeswax with a hairdryer so that
The Editors of Encyclopdia Britannica. Paraffin Wax.
Duck cloth is a durable, heavy it permeated the fibers for waterproofing. Lastly, we strung Encyclopdia Britannica,
weight fabric (Doe 2008) paracord through the casing to make it into a drawstring bag. The Editors of Encyclopdia Britannica. Pectin.
Looped finger pieces applied to Encyclopdia Britannica, Encyclopdia Britannica, Inc.,
the bottom of bucket assist in Materials List: duck cloth, thread, beeswax, hot glue, grommets 27 Oct. 2007
using the bucket when it is full and drawstring; the beeswax was applied with a paintbrush Kameda, Tsunenori. Molecular Structure of Crude Beeswax
When collapsed, there are loops Studied by Solid-State 13C NMR. Journal of Insect
Science 4 (2004): 29. Print.
to latch to ensure the bucket stays
Oakenfull, David, and Alan Scott. "Hydrophobic interaction
collapsed (Parker 1917)
in the gelation of high methoxyl pectins." Journal of
Food Science 49.4 (1984): 1093-1098.
Scan the QR code to visit our blog or
Parker, Henry M. Patent US1233117 - Collapsible Fabric
go to
Bucket. Google Patents, Google, 10 July 1917