Sei sulla pagina 1di 79

POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Chapter I

The Problem and Its Background

Introduction

Leadership may vary according to the setting and every individual have different

type of leadership style according to their personality and cultural background but, a good

leader shows capability to adapt their leadership styles according to the situation and

needs of the members.

Teachers render a lot of services and one of them is being a leader. Teacher assumes the

responsibility of counseling and directing the energy, skills, and talents of co-teachers,

students, and parents in achieving common educational goals .The teachers initiate the

schools capacity to develop because teachers are capable of leading in a variety of ways .

Achieving the educational goals will not be possible if the teachers cannot regulate their

emotions and behavior to the type of leadership they have in order to maintain the

harmony and the communion of teacher and the students.

The educators role as a leader is associated with proper behavior and emotion

incorporated to the varying personality of the students. Just as the teacher wants to build

harmonious relationship with the students. The students also want a closer relations in

order for them to have enough support when they need it.

Philippine Insurance1|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Background of the study

Edward Thorndike (1930), defined Emotional Intelligence in relation to a form of

social intelligence which includes self-consciousness of others' feelings and emotions, to

differentiate them and used them as guide of managing one selfs thoughts and actions. It

was a newly-proposed form of intelligence that talked about one's capability of

understanding one's feelings and emotions. David Wechsler (1944) suggested that

affective domain maybe important to succeed in life. He also added, Intelligence is the

aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and

to deal effectively with his environment. Abraham Maslow (1950) described how people

can establish emotional strength using his model Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow used terms

such as; psychological, safety, belonging, love, esteem, self-actualization and self-

transcendence. His theory further discussed that if the levels in the hierarchywere not

fully meet, the emotional strength of a person may be affected. Howard Gardner (1975)

introduced the concept of Multiple Intelligence specifically, Interpersonal and

Intrapersonal Intelligences which serve as the key components for Emotional

Intelligence. These specific intelligences discussed the different dimensions of emotion

of a person. A person who notice and respond to others feelings and as the same time can

work with them easily was classified under the interpersonal intelligence. However, a

person who sets goals, assesses his personal abilities and liabilities and monitors his own

thinking and is expected to meditate, reflect, exhibit self-discipline and maintain

composure was classified under intrapersonal intelligence. Then, Wayne Payne (1985)

finally introduced the term Emotional Intelligence in his dissertation entitled "A study of

Philippine Insurance2|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and

desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, tuning

in/coming out/letting go)."Keith Beasly and Reuven Bar-On (1987) used the term

Emotional Quotient (EQ) in a magazine article and graduate thesis. Peter Salovey & John

Mayer (1990) published their famous article in Emotional Intelligence in a journal

Imagination, Cognition and Personality. After that, Daniel Goleman (1995) popularized

and elaborated the concept of Emotional Intelligence featured in his book Emotional

Intelligence; Why it Matters More than IQ?Lastly, Consortium for Research on

Emotional Intelligence in Organization conducted a research to identify emotional and

social factors needed to be successful in job and workplace. Since its popularization,

Emotional Intelligence has been associated with leadership. Why is it so?

As William Arthur Ward once said, "The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher

explains. A superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires".

One of the problems students encounter in a classroom is the teacher itself. It is a

case wherein a teacher lacks the qualities of becoming a competent teacher. A teacher

supposedly guides or lead the class to direct them in accomplishing their tasks

successfully however, there are teachers who are dominating, overpowering, lacking

initiative, failing to motivate their students, recognizing only failure not success, avoiding

conflicts neither exerting effort to solve it, running over students etc., resulting to the

unfinished works and projects and breakdown of a student. Anchored to the theory of

Daniel Goleman, being an effective leader was not predicted by Intelligence Quotient

(IQ) itself, well in fact, its Emotional Intelligence that do so. Based on the findings of

Philippine Insurance3|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Golemans Emotional Intelligence, leaders with high IQ alone fail to manage an

enterprise yet people who have high Emotional Intelligence got promoted into higher

position. He also quoted that "outstanding intelligence quotient level makes you an

English teacher yet high Emotional Intelligence makes you the head of the English

Department" which summarizes his insight about Emotional Intelligence as an important

intelligence that qualifies an individual to be an efficient leader.

Theoretical Framework

Emotional Intelligence is the core level of Intelligent Quotient. Davis, Stanker and

Roberts said that emotional intelligence is an elusive concept. It appears to be more

allegorical than logical. Emotional Intelligence is the capacity to enhance oneself, to

accurately perceive emotions of others and to take cognizance of what is happening.

Mayer and Mitchell (1998)said Emotional Intelligence is an aspect of class of

intelligences including the social, practical and personal intelligence or HOTS

intelligence.

According to Daniel Goleman, there are five areas of Emotional Intelligence;

1. Self-awareness - knowing ones emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives, values and

goals and recognize their impact on others while using common sense to guide decisions.

2. Interpersonal - it is the ability to maintain harmonious relationship with other people.

3. Stress-management - managing or redirecting ones descriptive emotions and impulses

and adapting to changing circumstances.

4. Flexibility - it is the ability to adapt to new environment and know how to make a

Philippine Insurance4|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

better decision in a situation.

5. Disposition - It is recognizing general mood in a given situation.

Goleman (1995) said that emotional competencies are not innate talents but rather

learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve an

outstanding performance. He believes that individuals are born with general emotional

intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies.

Salovey and Mayer(1990) claimed that Emotional Intelligence is the ability to

monitor ones own and others emotions, to discriminate among them and to use the

information to guide thinking and actions.

Freedman (2007) stated that Emotional Intelligence is the way of recognizing,

understanding and choosing how we think, feel and act. It shapes our interactions with

others and our understanding of ourselves. It defines how and what we learn. It allows us

to set priorities; it determines the majority of our daily actions. Research suggests it is

responsible for as much as 80% of the success in our lives.

Goleman (1995) declared that great leadership works through emotions. Leaders

are the one who drives organization to their success and empower their social,

intellectual, emotional and other skill to be a good leader. These are the six leadership

styles:

1. Democratic Leadership - encouraging the member to be active and participate in

achieving the goals of the organization. Leaders allow his /her members to decide for

Philippine Insurance5|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

their vision in performing for the success. Communication is the key to this model. It

produces a working environment that members feel that they are more committed to

achieve the goals and objectives of the organization through their suggestions and

opinions.

2. Affiliative Leadership - it is used with new organization which leader and members are

creating communication with each other. Members are given great deals of praises and

feedback in their performance to boost their confidence. It builds emotional bonds and

harmonious relationship among members.

3. Empowering Leadership - the leader focuses on stirring positive emotions by purely

helping its member in their personal development to accomplish their desired goals. The

leader recognizes every individual work and their significance in the organization.

4.Moral Leadership - the leader guides his/her members by giving them values, ethics,

principles and standards. The leader respects each of the members.

5. Charismatic Leadership - leader set as a role model to his/her member. It leads through

magnetic personality where leaders influence his/her members to perform well.

6. Transformational Leadership - a leader who inspires his/her members. It promotes

positive change among its members where they set high performing standards for one,

others, group and organization.

7.Commanding Leadership - The leaders leads members by giving strict instruction of the

certain activity. The leaders implements rules and regulations which discipline members.

8.Pace-setting Leadership-The leadership style that drives the best out of every

memberby their constructive criticisms. The leaders truthfully speak of consequences the

Philippine Insurance6|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

members must be amenable to do.

Conceptual Framework

Input Process Output

Emotional
Intelligence
Self
awareness
Interpersonal
Stress- Survey
management Through
Questionna
Flexibility ire
Proposed
intervention
Disposition Previous programs to
Theories enhance the
Leadership Style Emotional
Democratic and Studies
Intelligence
Leadership Statistics of and
Data Leadership
Affiliative
skills of
Leadership
student
Empowering teachers.
Leadership
Moral
Leadership
Charismatic
Leadership
Transformatio
nal
Leadership
Commanding
Leadership
Pacesetting
Leadership
Figure I.

Philippine Insurance7|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

In Input, includes Emotional Intelligence such as; self awareness, interpersonal,

stress- management, flexibility, disposition and Leadership Styles such as democratic

Leadership, affiliative Leadership, empowering Leadership, moral Leadership,

charismatic Leadership, transformational Leadership, commanding Leadership,

pacesetting Leadership.

In the Process, includes survey through questionnaire, previous theories and studies, and

statistics of data.

In the Output, includes proposed intervention programs to enhance the Emotional

Intelligence and Leadership skills of student leaders.

Statement of the Problem

This study will determine the level of Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style of the

student leaders.

Specifically, it will answer the following questions:

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of the following?

1.1 Age

1.2 Gender

1.3 Major

2. What is the level of Emotional Intelligence of the respondents in terms of the

following?

Philippine Insurance8|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

2.1 Self-awareness

2.2 Interpersonal

2.3 Self - management

2.4 Flexibility

2.5 Disposition

3. What is the Leadership Styles of the respondents in terms of the following:

3.1 Democratic

3.2 Affiliative

3.3. Empowering

3.4 Moral

3.5 Charismatic

3.6 Transformational

3.7 Commanding

3.8 Pacesetting

4. Is there a significant difference between the Emotional Intelligence and Leadership

Styles of the respondents when they are grouped by profile?

5. Based on the findings of the study, what leadership enhancement program may be

Philippine Insurance9|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

proposed?

Hypothesis

Ho - There is no significant difference on the respondents Emotional Intelligence

level and Leadership styles when they are grouped by profile

Scope and Limitations of the study

This study was conducted to determine the Emotional Intelligence and Leadership

Styles of Polytechnic University of the Philippines San Pedro Campus student teachers.

This includes the student teachers from English and Math Majors.

The survey questionnaire was adapted from the study Emotional Intelligence and

Leadership Styles of Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasig Student Leaders: Bases for an

Enhancement Program , a study by Josefa Advincula Dimalanta (2008). The survey

questionnaire was contextualized and validated by Mr. and Mrs. Solayao.

Significance of the Study

This study benefited the following:

Administrators

The findings of the study help the administrator to make this a basis for the enhancement

of Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles of their future Student Teachers.

Coordinating Teachers

Philippine Insurance10|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

The findings of the study helps the coordinating teachers to determine the

strengths and weaknesses of their student teachers when it comes to emotional

intelligence and leadership styles so they can provide proper guidance.

Student Teachers

The student teachers improve their emotional intelligence and leadership styles

through the proposed output so they can become effective teachers in the future.

Future Researchers

The data contained in this research serve as a reference for future researchers who

will continue this study.

Teachers

The findings of the study help teachers determine the ideal leadership style

depending on their level of emotional intelligence and the situation they are in.

Definitions of terms

As used in this study, the following terms were defined:

Affiliative Leadership -Students are given great deals of praises and feedback in

their performance to boost their confidence. It emotionally and harmoniously

builds bonds to the teacher-students relationship.

BSEd-English- Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education major in English.

Philippine Insurance11|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

BSEd 4E-Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education Fourth Year English.

BSEd 4M-Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education Fourth Year Math.

BSEd-Math-Bachelor of Science in Secondary Education major in Math.

Charismatic Leadership- Teachers set as a role model to its member. It leads

through magnetic personality where teachers influence its members to perform

well.

Commanding Leadership - The teacher leads students by giving strict

instruction of the certain activity. The teacher implements rules and regulations

which discipline students.

Democratic leadership - The students are allowed to have active participation

and involvement in their learning process. Teachers allow his /her students to

decide for their vision in performing for the success. It produces a productive

environment that students feel that they are more committed to achieve the goals

and objectives of the lesson through their suggestions and opinions.

Disposition - It is recognizing general mood in a given situation.

Emotion- instinctive feeling as distinguished from reasoning or knowledge.

Emotional Intelligence- is the capacity to enhance oneself, to accurately perceive

emotions of others and to take cognizance of what is happening.

Empowering Leadership -The teachers focuses on stirring positive emotions by

purely helping its students in their personal development to accomplish their

desired goals. The students recognize every individual work and their significance

inside the classroom.

Philippine Insurance12|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Flexibility - It is adjustment to new situations, changes in choices and selecting

appropriate decision - making process.

Interpersonal - It is the ability to maintain satisfying relationships characterized

by harmony in ideas and doing task with others.

Leadership- The action of leading a group of students and co-teachers.

Leadership Style- The teachers style of providing direction, implementing plans

and motivating the students.

Moral Leadership - The teachers guide his/her members by giving them values,

ethics, principles, standards. The teachers respect each of the students.

Pace-setting Leadership- The leadership style that drives the best out of every

student by their constructive criticisms. The teachers truthfully speak of

consequences the students must be amenable to do.

PUPSPC- Polytechnic University of the Philippines San Pedro City.

Self-awareness - Knowing ones emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives values

and goals and recognizes their impact on others while using gut feelings to guide

decisions.

Stress- management - Managing or redirecting ones descriptive emotions

andimpulses and adapting to changing circumstances .It is the ability to cope with

situations even under pressures.

Transformational The teacher promotes positive change among its members

by setting high performing standards for students.

Philippine Insurance13|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Chapter II

The Review of Related Literature and Studies

Foreign Literature

Emotion was derived from a Latin verb 'movare' meaning to stir up, agitate, upset

or move which was accompanied by behavioral and physiological events. Psychologists

have lots of definitions of emotion yet they still give a single meaning depending on a

person's reaction towards a certain situation. Historically, there was no single theory that

directly discusses what emotion truly was but some psychologists attempted to produce

its theory like James Lange and his theory of emotion which states that a person needs an

appropriate emotion that enables him or her to adjust based on his perception on a given

situation. Also, Walter Cannons Theory of Emotion studied the portion of the brain that

manipulates the human emotion.

Thorndike (1930) proposed a newly-formed intelligence called Emotional

Intelligence. He stated that emotion leads to the management of thoughts and emotions of

one person through the awareness of the person's environment. Emotion was also

identified as the individual response in a condition whether it was internal and external

response.

Gardner (1975) proposed a Theory of Multiple Intelligence which acknowledges

the principle of Interpersonal Intelligence ' which is the existing relationship of a two

person and 'Intrapersonal Intelligence' or the ability to handle ones self. It requires the

person to notify the feelings and emotions of others, to have an insight on the reason of

their actions and to behave based on the appropriate objective, standards or beliefs. Then,

Philippine Insurance14|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Salovey and Mayer (1997) published an article Imagination, Cognition and Personality

". This article discussed strictly the framework of Emotional Intelligence that emotion is

a mean to solve problems. This article also discusses abilities of Emotional Intelligence

such as; accurate appraisal and expression of emotions, assimilation of emotional

experience into cognition, recognition and comprehension. They view emotion as a

systematize response that cross limit a lot of psychological subsystems like physiological,

motivational, experiential and cognitive aspects.

They distinguished four discrete cognitive domain that comprise emotional

intelligence namely; perspective of emotion, use of emotion to accommodate mental

ability, knowledge about emotions, handling emotion. These four abilities are arrange

orderly to build bases to the psychological process of an individual.

Firstly, the perspective of emotion, it is the fundamental aspect of ability because

it is the skill of a person to compare similarities and differences of emotion of the person

in a society. This ability discloses the emotion of a person that enables him or her to

know between the truth and falsehood.

Secondly,the use of emotion to accommodate the mental ability. It is the ability of

a person to use mental capabilities to facilitate a certain mood. The person state of mind

is advance in this level because they generate their emotion through the use of 'schema' or

perception in life.

Thirdly, the knowledge about emotion. It includes understanding and synthesizing

emotion which a person can construct their own meaning of emotion. It also enables the

person to interpret complicated situations.

Philippine Insurance15|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Fourthly, handling of emotion. This branch provides wide range of experiences to

stimulate emotional responses to a given situation or person.

Emotional Intelligence is the basis for thoughts and action of one person. It is the

human consciousness of reality and his sensitivity of choices of alternatives that leads to

success. Emotional Intelligence does not differ on cognitive skills well in fact they are

dynamically interact with each other. A person should have cognitive, social and

emotional skills that enable him or her to be sufficient and comprehensive individual. As

a matter of fact, Emotional Intelligence was operated by cognitive aspect which utilize

through the affective domain of an individual. This affective domain was improved by

the experiences.

Goleman (1995) argues that there are points when Emotional Intelligence

achieves success without the measured Intelligent Quotient. He identified abilities of

Emotional Intelligence which pertains to the ability to motivate oneself, to cope with

frustrations, to manage distress, to manipulate impulses and to regulate ones mood.

Emotional Intelligence is somewhat related to personal and social factors of an

individual. It involves administration of the emotion and feelings of ones self for the

individual actions as an outcome.

The study of Goleman opens an opportunity to the people who do not excel in the

field of cognitive competencies. He stated that emotional Intelligence is as powerful and

times more powerful than the Intelligence Quotient. From this moment on, many

psychologists, philosophers, scientist and educators consider Emotional Intelligence as

their preference in acquiring personal awareness, self-confidence and conscientiousness

Philippine Insurance16|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

rather than to focus on intellectual aspect.

During the first publication of his book Emotional Intelligence there is an

increasing attempt of psychologist to discover emotional intelligence and its application

to human condition. They decided to introduce this in different level of schools and

studies like in pre-school, state university and such. And through this, psychologists and

experts determine the meaning of emotion. Goleman (1995) identified emotion as the

ability to recognize and regulate emotion of others. While Salovey (1990) write

emotional intelligence as a form of intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one's

own and other's feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this

information to guide ones thinking and actions. But then,he revised the definition into

the ability to perceive emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thoughts, understand

emotions, and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth.Another noticeable

research of the emotional intelligence is from Reuven Bar-On (1987), the person who

produces the term ' Emotional Quotient'. He identified emotional intelligence as far

deeper than understanding oneself and others. It also includes sensitivity to the situation

to be able to act according to appropriate emotion. He focuses to the five-major

dimension of emotional quotient like interpersonal, intrapersonal, adaptability, stress

management and general mood. It includes self-regulation, motivation, empathy and

social skills.

Leadership is synonymous to guidance, management, supervision, direct

instructing on how to attain an objective. It is a task or responsibility. It has

beenidentified in many numbers of theories and studies but an effective leadership styles

Philippine Insurance17|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

should be based on the readiness of the individual in a certain situation and their

willingness to accept responsibilities. Leaders are characterized to be the center of change

and influence members to accomplish set of objectives and goals of the organization or

group. They must be able to improve their leadership styles based on the condition of the

group. According to Turner and Muller, (2005) there are five functions of leadership that

leaders should consider, namely; making visions of the group and focusing on it,

establishing a high performing-team, motivating the team, maintaining harmonious

relationship between leader and members and give them satisfying feedback to their

performance.

Boulding (1985) described leadership as the process by which a person in a

certain group demonstrates influence to others in achieving a common goal and directs

the group into coordination and coherence. It includes the application of leadership

attributes such as values, beliefs, ethics, character, knowledge and skills. However,

leadership is different from bossing around people. Being overpowering is exercising

authority in performing certain tasks and accomplishing objectives because leaders are

described as trustworthy and they must communicate a vision and organizational future to

give an overview where the group needs to go.

A teacher affects eternity; he can never tell where his influence stops (Adams).

The way one influences, he leads. Being a teacher is being a leader as well, because as

long as one teaches, motivates and inspire, he is a leader.

Teachers are leaders inside the classroom because they are the one who facilitate

students to achieve learning. Harrison and Killion (2007) stated that teachers are leaders

Philippine Insurance18|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

in various ways and are capable of leading within or beyond classroom setting. They

perceived that teachers as leaders should be the source and materials provider,

instructional specialist, curricularist, learning facilitator, mentor, school leader, data

coach, must have strong commitment and must never get weary of learning more things

to improve their craft.

Leadership is not only for a specific organization. It is present in almost every

situation an individual experiences. One is dominant and others are submissive and in this

case, teachers, as leaders are the one who implements regulations, provide grading

systems and the ones who are in charge of exhibiting positive attitude and adapting to

their students behaviors. Also, different leadership styles were observed in every

classroom setting where in traditional teachers can be commanding and strictly oppose

mediocrity while contemporary teachers are more facilitative, democratic and

transformational. However, whether teachers are traditional or contemporary, they are

expected to acquire high moral values and ethical standards.

According to Baldwin (2011), effective leadership begins from our character. He

cited in his book that positive results flourish from the good character of a leader. In

order to do so, leaders must set a reason to their subordinates to believe and to follow. He

also stated that a good leader must set the right example. It refers to the capacity of the

leader to do the job with excellence. Employees must seek that the leader has the capacity

to accomplish a goal. Though executive position does not require physical work much

still, it needs critical thinking. He added and declared that a leader must learn how to

communicate by example. They must act their part, must show authority and demonstrate

Philippine Insurance19|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

that they had what it takes. Leaders must know how to communicate and connect, handle

tough situations, and put their team first before anything else. Likewise with teachers,

since they are role models of their students, those qualities must emanate from them as

well..

Ward (2011) claimed thatleadership is the art of motivation needed to drive the

whole group in carrying out a certain goal. She defined leader as the director of an action;

leaders inspire others to follow because they possess mixed attributes of personality and

communication skills that leads them to do so. In addition, leaders must be coaches as

well; supervising their constituents to perform based on the need of the project.

Kahn (1978) stated that leadership is a social, collaborative, relational activity that

focuses on the competencies of the group rather that the capabilities of the leaders

themselves. It involves few numbers of people to be in a group, work together with leader

as a guide and example and perform according to what is being agreed upon. In the

classroom, teachers are expected to be more sociable, facilitative and morally bounded.

Munro (2012) stated that works or tasks create bonds between leaders and their

members; works that prolong their relationship and unite them as one. Therefore, to make

work an important key element in having harmonious relationship, the need for another

essential skill must be acquired and it is interaction skill which includes consultation,

negotiation, concession and conflict management. She also emphasized the significance

of shared work and power as an investment in collaborative learning, team-building and

forming organizational cultures. In addition to that, she characterized the qualities of a

leader to be acquired such as courage or the confidence to face challenges and accept

Philippine Insurance20|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

responsibility; diagnosis; adaptability to work and its environment and good relationship

to be maintained. Leaders, instead of fixing themselves into fulfilling takes and

accomplishing goals, they must focus on delivering values and change into their

organization. The priority must be on guiding the whole organization in the long run.

There are lot of leadership styles present in the field yet the researchers only chose what

they think are commonly observed such as:

Transformational leadership (Gill, 2011) empowers, motivates and develops

subordinates' capabilities and self-interest in order to perform beyond expected outcomes.

Leaders usually act as coaches, enthusiastically inspiring their members to transform a

simple job into a job well-done. However, this leadership style cannot be often used

especially for short-term goals. The leaders are open for a better change, holistically

builds their members abilities and act as their mentors.

Also, Gill (2011) listed other leadership styles such as:

Charismatic, which was viewed by German Sociologist, Max Weber as the

relationship by the leader and its member upheld by the leaders ability to persuade and

win their followers heart and loyalty to serve and commit themselves into working

effectively. Charismatic leadersattract and inspire followers. According to Weber (1913)

charisma is a process of influence and commitment to the followers which contrive a

spell that attract even the people outside the organization. They perform values like

favoring participation, security, and extrinsic rewards but if the charismatic leaders

havegone, the values will be gone also. It is leader-centered for the future of the

Philippine Insurance21|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

organization is in their hands. They tend to build organizational values and harmonious

participation however it tends to collapse especially when leaders have gone since the

subordinates depend themselves to them.

Commanding leadership is a style wherein the leaders give orders and demands for

immediate compliance. They are particular in accomplishing a certain task in short period

of time.Bullwinkle (2016) described commanding leaders as assertive, powerful,

egotistical and competitive. They are authoritarian or the leaders who frequently dictate

what their subordinates must do. Though the name implies negative impression, being a

commanding leader is effective at times of crisis where people need someone who can

drive their frustrations into accomplished goals. This type of leadership is often observed

in traditional teachers.

Democratic leadership pertains to building a council to help the leader in making

decisions. The ideas came from different heads, voted upon based on what is needed or

usually synthesized to form much better concept. Though may seem collaborative, still,

the final decision will come from the leader. This concept of leadership are not just

observed in the government but also in the classroom setting where existentialist teachers

are the one who let their students explore their own values, meanings and choices

(Ginny, 2012).

Pacesetting is a leadership style known for leaders who dominate, demand and

criticize performance of subordinates rather than giving praises to empower them. It is

standards-centered and the leaders are expected to remove members who do not meet

their qualifications. Unlike commanding leaders, pacesetting leaders do not give

Philippine Insurance22|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

ordersbut they lead through example. They let their subordinates have the initiative to do

something to accomplish the goals but the time leaders have noticed that their

subordinates does not comply to what was the situation need, immediate replacement for

mediocre constituents will take place. They are intolerant to poor performance

(Henson, 2013).

Affiliative Leadershipis the opposite of Pacesetting leadership. This leadership

promotes harmonious relationship among each other (Goleman, 2002) where leaders

help their members solves the conflict but sometimes the quality of work suffers. This

kind of leadership style is evident when teacher acts as a mentor and coach to their

students during tough situations.

Empowering Leadershipis enriching ones self efficacy, morality, ethical nature

and use it as tool to motivate subordinates to work well in accomplishing goals. It is

inculcating positivity in work to achieve positive results. This is a leadership style

essential in the teaching field because students are encourage to learn better when their

teachers brings out positive outlook of the inputs they provide in achieving learning.

Moral Leadership is leading to serve (Prabowo 2013). Being a servant leader is

leading selflessly and giving priority to the needs of others. Teaching is the noblest

profession. It is a vocation. Through passion, teachers lead beyond to what is expected to

learn inside the classroom. Being a teacher is taking risks and taking responsibilities

having the principle of others first before me. Also, being a teacher is possessing high

moral values and ethics.

Philippine Insurance23|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Bowkett and Percival (2011) suggested that the basis for developing emotional

intelligence to any certain degree include these two necessary elements: awareness of self

and awareness of others. In their book, they mentioned that it was Plato who said, know

thyself, an obsolete philosophy which lead to a lifetime lesson wherein, if one accept

ideas wholeheartedly, it will come up to greater awareness and having deeper

understanding with that, it will yield successful self-control of ones thoughts, feelings,

and behaviors.They also suggested that to boost the two key elements of emotional

intelligence, leaders should encourage the creativity of an individual.

Local Literature

Margareta Sjolund (2013) stated that mental ability is important but after this the

person need to collaborate with his or her members. As a matter of fact, Emotional

Intelligence has factor which is far more important than Intelligence Quotient. These are

motivation, creativity, drive, communication, relationship and energy or enthusiasm for a

manager or a leader. It is important to build harmonious relationship with the members to

be able to open avenues for improvement. The person should develop flexibility,

adaptability to change and coping stress. In Asia, we use specific measurement technique

which is called EQ-i 2.0, a model consist of 15 factors which forms blocks that builds

productivity of leadership competencies. Basically, it measures influencesuch as

perceiving and expressing ourselves, developing and maintaining social relationships,

coping with challenges and using emotional information in an effective and meaningful

way. In her article, she suggested to use emotional intelligence where in it is not an easy

Philippine Insurance24|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

task to do but it can be done.

Corpuz (2013) cited that there are three domains of learning; the cognitive,

psychomotor and affective domain. In three level approaches, teaching with affective is

more important which means using values. The affectivedomain enables to produce

students formation of intellectual giants which develop students awareness of attitude to

others, have values, control to behavior and manipulate emotions.

Dr. Chelo (2010) made a research about Emotional Intelligence having

adolescents as its respondents. She identified the factors that lead to the child higher level

of Emotional Intelligence. It is namely; influence of the parents, age level and peers. The

study identified that being emotionallyintelligent tend to acquire some of this ability

such as effectiveness to handle circumstances, cope with hassles in life and monitor

health.

Leadership is a fundamental component of instructing function of management.

The people gather to attain similar goal and the head of the group will conduct a style to

achieve organizational success. They should be equipped with active and spontaneous

attitude to inspire their members to perform well and to ensure that every member is

doing their job inside the group. The leader and the members should have a harmonious

relationship this need for the leader to understand the feelings and emotion of every

member in the group. There are wide varieties of studies that prove that emotional

intelligence has to do with handling a group of people. In the classroom setting, building

Philippine Insurance25|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

harmonious relationship between the teachers and students is quite challenging but it a

must for it is factor of achieving substantial goal plus, students look forward of having a

teacher who is democratic in nature and less traditional (Zakhareuski, 2007)

The rise of the leaders should be based on their qualities like charismatic,

deliberate, gifted and attractive qualities. Leaders should have the power to shape the

future of the organization by the way they act at the present, like what unknown

philosopher said "the shadow of the future cast on the present ". The leader will not

predict the future by fortunetelling or crystal gazing but rather visioning the foundations

of the organizations future based on the aspirations and hope.

The key words for new leaders in the millennial generation are vision, charisma

and transformation. In early 1970, the term 'transformational leadership ' arouse. It was

first known as a transactional leadership in which leaders and followers in history interact

and communicate to achieve the higher purpose of the organization thus rewarding the

good performance of the members. According to Burns (1978), transformational leaders

should address its peoples higher order thinking skills, self- esteem and self -

actualization.

Ciulla (2003), stated that Transformational Leadership concerns about the values

which has the morality means and morality ends. Morality means of an act talks about

responsibility, fairness, honesty and keeping promises while the morality ends talks about

liberty, justice and equality.

Transformational Leadership expects performance beyond expectations which

concerns with the Is; the individualized deliberation, intellectual stimulation,

Philippine Insurance26|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

inspirational momentum and idealized effect.

Rafferty and Griffin (2004) enumerate the five dimensions of Transformational

Leadership; the vision, inspirational communication, intellectual stimulation, supportive

leadership and personal recognition.

Visionary Leadership concerns with the future of the organization. The leader

prepares and lays activitiesthat will lead to the organizations development. Sashkin and

Robert (2003) suggest three personal characteristics that guide leaders behavioral

strategies; self - efficacy, power orientation and cognitive capability.

Soriano (2008) studied the different level of the student leaders and non-student

leaders in terms of the way they think of Emotional Intelligence and Transformational

Leadership. Using the different and more advanced survey questionnaire like Sixteen

Factor questionnaire, Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and Multifactor

Leadership Questionnaire they come up with the conclusion that student leaders are more

introduce to reasoning, emotional stability, social boldness and openness to change.

Baumann (2006) identified effectiveness of Leadership and Emotional

Competence in a group. He concluded that the leader will be the emotional laden that is

the source of eagerness in accomplishing the goal.

The study from the Center for Creative Leadership (2003) entitled Leadership

Skills and Emotional Intelligence reveals that advance level of leadership style is

associated with emotional intelligence. These will be further revealed in these following

areas like collaborative management, self-awareness, balancing personal life from work,

straightforwardness and composure, harmonious relationship to the members. These

Philippine Insurance27|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

factors are the things that a person may acquire to find in what they are doing and when

they compassionate about their work performance, it is easy for them to achieve the

group task and objectives.

Foreign Studies

Ahmad bin Esa et al (2013) stated in his study The relationship of Emotional

Intelligence and Leadership Styles of the final year level from Faculty of Technical and

Vocational Education at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). that most of

the professional individuals rate Intellectual intelligence as 20 percent while Emotional

Intelligence as 80 percent. It shows that teachers must take full attention in developing

their self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management

elements. The respondents of the study are the final year level from Faculty of Technical

and Vocational Education at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). So, into this

study, the researcher want to know if the final year students in the education field have

already prepared themselves with emotional intelligent, leadership style and knowledge

to become teachers.

The findings of the study show that the main foundation of the students to decide if they

need to continue their journey on becoming a license teacher is their emotional

intelligence. This is because EQ can help teachers to maintain their emotion towards

facing challenges as a teacher especially about the new changes made by Ministry

Education. From Fletcher (2007), says that the EQ has a relationship with teachers

stress. It also emphasizes the contribution of leadership styles to aspiring teachers

Philippine Insurance28|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

because it improves the School a good leader can leading the students with different

background and level to become successful students where they will improve the school

quality and standard.

There is relationship between Emotional Intelligence with Democratic Style where there

is a significant relationship between social awareness and self-management elements.

This is because from the level of emotional intelligence the students are in the moderate

level. So, it shows that the students did not have a high confident level to make decisions

but can be develop if they have enough experiences through team building and seminars.

Malikova (2014) stated in her study Teachers Trait Emotional Intelligence and

Leadership Style: do they depend on educational attainment and teaching experience?

that there is positive relationship between teachers Emotional Intelligence to the

Leadership Style of the Teacher more specifically the Democratic Leadership Styles.As

Singh and her colleagues (2012) posit, Emotional 2 Intelligence is important for a leader

because their Leadership Style has a big influence on the climate of the organization and

performance of subordinates

The study focuses on the relationship between teachers Trait Emotional Intelligence

(Trait EI), Leadership Style, educational Attainment and Teaching Experience within six

state secondary schools of Astana (Kazakhstan). The findings of the study shows that

there is a small correlation between length of service to the Emotional Intelligence of the

teacher yet the experience in teaching of the teacher is a factor why teachers have high

Emotional Intelligence. On the other hand the Leadership Style of the teacher affects the

personal values and beliefs, national cultures, or emotional intelligence. George(2000)

Philippine Insurance29|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

stated that One of such factors is a level of Emotional Intelligence (EI), which is regarded

as the key to effective Teacher Leadership

Local Studies

Castanada (2001) in her studyEmotional Quotient and Teaching Competencies

of Elementary Teachers revealed that teaching experiences change the attitude of the

teacher towards the curriculum and environmental adjustments. Her study reveals that

teachers with years of experience have the capability to cope with the changing situation

when it comes to their emotions than those teachers who have more years in teaching.

Barron (1997) explained that emotional intelligence is an array of skills, abilities,

competencies and capabilities needed to success in coping with environmental demands

and pressure and directly affect ones overall psychological well-being. He also

conducted a study showing that there is no significant difference between males and

females with their cognitive aspects. However, changes occur in their emotional

intelligences. Females are more aware of their feelings, relate better interpersonally and

act more responsibly. While, men seem to be more self-regard, independent and more

flexible and cope better.

Medley (2002) expressed that competency in teaching includes teachers

techniques, abilities, and skills in the provision of learning experiences that are expected

to bring about the desired learning outcomes among learners. Teaching competence

depends upon the teachers academic preparations, professional development and

Philippine Insurance30|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

achievement as well as his knowledge of his approach, methods and techniques in

teaching.

Hansford (1999) stated that the teacher should have effective communications

with his students. Effective communications include; interacting and transmitting

appropriate knowledge through the use of communication and socialization with the

students.

Losaria(2013) stated in her study Emotional Intelligence (EI) skills its

relationship to the teaching performance of teachers in Mlang East District that the

topic emotional intelligence is still relatively new; Therefore, It is critical to implement

effective EQ training into university curricula in order to prepare prospective teachers for

thriving teaching careers and successful personal relationships. To develop emotionally

intelligent teachers, It is important that the preparation and transfer-and maintenance

phases of their training process must be considered well. Yet too often these phases are

neglected in practice.

The study emphasizes the relationship of self-awareness, self-regulation,

motivation, empathy and social skills with the levels of Teaching Performance of

Teachers in Mlang East District. In the findings, the data reveals that the respondents

have the ability to identify, assess, and control their emotions; Also the teachers

experience teaching performance which is high with knowledge, skills and attitudes, but

needed further enhancement through attending seminars and training development.

Naraja (1997) stated in his study The leadership Styles of Public Secondary

School Teachers in the district of Placer and Gigaquit, division of Surigao Del Norte.

Philippine Insurance31|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

that the school administration and the supervisors are the source provider of the

leadership of the school teachers to be more effective in teaching as well as learning.

Leadership is the most potent good virus at the mean time the most dramatic activity

inside the school. It calls a larger responsibility for both students and teachers to achieve

the desired aim of education. Naraja study emphasizes the Leadership Styles of School

teachers when grouped by communication skills, classroom management, skills in

questioning, evaluation, remedial procedure and planning. This shows that the eighty

secondary school teachers which is fifty percent of the total universe of the study have

significant difference with their Leadership Style to their communication skills,

classroom management, skills in questioning, evaluation, remedial procedure and

planning.

Najara also accentuate Teaching job is a toxic job which requires an individual to

accommodate demanding Education System, Administrators, Supervisors, Co-Teachers,

Parents and Students and sometimes would be the cause of a downfall. That is the main

reason why a teacher should have a high Emotional Intelligence to handle difficult

situations and overload of works.

According to Singh quoted by Chechi(2012) different professions require

different Emotional Quotient and Teaching is one of the profession that requires high

level of Emotional Intelligence. Unrealistic expectations between teacher training and

reality of teaching and a lack of clear performance standards results into negative

outcome. The teacher must learn how to balance aspects in their life which may fall under

Emotional Intelligence.

Philippine Insurance32|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Synthesis

Dimalanta (2009) determined the relationship between the emotional intelligence

and leadership styles of student leaders. In her study, she found out that the level of the

respondents emotional intelligence is high and Interpersonal competency was highly

manifested among them while stress-management, self-awareness and flexibility must be

improved. In terms of leadership, Democratic Leadership is highly evident among the

respondents which indicate that the respondents are open to their subordinates

suggestions and opinions in making decisions while moral, transformational and

charismatic leadership must be enhanced. Her study became the basis for the researchers

study.

Kamatchi et. al (2015) revealed that there is a significant relationship between the

emotional intelligence and leadership style among the secondary school teachers in their

region. Also, their research found out that there is a significant difference exhibit in

emotional intelligence and leadership styles variables with respect to different

demographic variables such as type of school and experience (emotional intelligence),

field of specialization and gender (leadership styles).

On the other hand, Strickland (2008) affirmed that significant relationship

between emotional intelligence and leadership styles is tenuous even in their different

components. Using the alumni of Wedgworth Leadership Institute for Agriculture and

Natural Resources as her respondents in the study, she identified that their dominant

leadership style is transformational leadership. The respondents acquired high level of

Philippine Insurance33|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

emotional intelligence and among its components, intrapersonal abilities are highly

manifested.

Philippine Insurance34|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Chapter III

THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research design; the methodology used which includes

the respondents of the study, samples and sampling techniques, data gathering procedure,

instruments of the study and statistical treatment of the study.

A. Research Design

This study utilized descriptive method of the research which could support the data

that have collected relevant to the problem. The fundamental aimed in using the method

is to describe the nature of the situation as it existed in the time of the study. It assessed

the data to test hypothesis and answer questions to the problem concerning to the

leadership styles and emotional intelligence of the student leaders in Polytechnic

University of the Philippines San Pedro Campus

B. Respondents of the study

The respondents of the study were student teachers from Polytechnic University

of the Philippines San Pedro Campus with the total of 71 student teachers including

Bachelor in Secondary Education major in Math and English. The Polytechnic University

of the Philippines San Pedro Campus is an institution that produces students enrich with

excellence and skills. It is an epistemic community and passion-oriented individuals

supported by the city government of San Pedro City, Laguna and produces Filipino

Philippine Insurance35|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

citizens who are God-fearing, exhibit love for humanity and democracy, exercise

collegiality, practice integrity and credibility, shows transparency and accountability,

demonstrate passion for learning and Humanist internationalism. The research was

started during the School Year 2016 2017 in the Polytechnic University of the

Philippines.

C. Samples and Sampling Techniques

The research used purposive method. It is the data gathering procedure that chose

selected respondents based on the purpose of the study. The selected respondents were

student teachers from Bachelor of Secondary Education major in Math and English.

TABLE I

Major Student Teachers Population

English 32

Math 30

TOTAL 62

D. Data Gathering Procedure

In order to collect data, the researchers wrote a letter to the head of student affairs,

Joanne Faller-Antonio to seek approval to conduct the study among Polytechnic

University of the Philippines student leaders. The researchers personally distributed the

Philippine Insurance36|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

survey questionnaires, and the student teachers answered it. After retrieving it to the

presidents of different organizations, interpreting of gathered data followed.

E. Instrument of the Study

The researchers adapted the instrument from the offshoot which was utilized to

discover the level of Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles of the selected

respondents. The findings enacted as a basis for the preparation of the PUP Student

Leadership Program.

The researcher involved the Emotional Intelligence competencies in the study,

namely; self- awareness, interpersonal, stress-management, flexibility and disposition.

Out of the various Leadership Styles, the researchers only selected among Democratic,

Affiliative, Empowering, Moral, Charismatic, Transformational, Commanding and Pace-

setting Leadership that the researchers believed Polytechnic University of the Philippines

San Pedro Campus student teachers should acquire. The questionnaire will be adapted

from an expert in the field of education and psychology. To ensure the efficiency of the

questionnaire, this was piloted by the study of Josefa Advincula-Dimalanta, The

Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasig

Student Leaders: Bases for an Enhancement Program. The questionnaire was divided

into three parts: demographic profile of the students, the questionnaire on Emotional

Intelligence which composes the following competencies namely: self-awareness,

interpersonal, stress-management, flexibility and disposition and a questionnaire on

Leadership Styles which composes of the following elements: democratic leadership,

Philippine Insurance37|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

affiliative leadership, empowering leadership, moral leadership, charismatic leadership,

transformational leadership, commanding leadership and pacesetting leadership.

The questionnaire was validated by Dr. Carmen D. Solayao, an Ethics and

Principles of Nutrition and Wellness instructor, and Dr. Danilo B. Solayao, a special

lecturer of the course subject Child and Adolescent Development. In addition, items in

part two and three of the questionnaire are in the four-point Likert scale where four is the

highest and one is the lowest. This was explained using the adjective ratings as follows;

TABLE II

1.00-1.49 Never

1.50-2.49 Rarely

2.50-3.49 Often

3.50-4.00 Always

F. Statistical Treatment of Data

The researchers accumulated the data in answering the problems of the study. All the

data were based on the response of the respondents through the use of survey

questionnaire. The data assessed and tabulated using the following formula;

Frequency distribution and percentage to describe Demographic Profile of the

respondents.


%=
n x 100

Philippine Insurance38|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Where: % - Percentage

f- Frequency

n- no. of cases or total sample

Questions number 1-2 computed Weighted Means and interpreted using the scale

below.

TABLE III.

1 1.49 Never

1.5 2.49 Seldom

2.5 3.49 Often

3.5 4 Always

1 1.49 Never

1.5 2.49 Seldom

Sum

TABLE IV

Range of Sum Verbal Interpretation

5 9 Not Dominant

10 15 Fair

16 20 Dominant

Philippine Insurance39|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test for normality

Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check the normality of the data. Having

difference in this table implies that the data is not normal. Otherwise, it is normal.

Based on the table above, the p-values of interpersonal, democratic, affiliative,

empowering, and moral were less than 0.05, hence those data were not normally

distributed. In this case, non-parametric tests will be applied. Parametric tests will

be utilized for the rest of the variables.

t-test of independent means

Mann-Whitneys Test

Analysis of Variance I (ANOVA I)

Kruskal-Wallis Test

Philippine Insurance40|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

.TABLE V

Philippine Insurance41|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

ANOVA or the F-test.

This statistical tool was used for the researchers to determine the difference

between the respondents age to their TPACK domains {[Technological

Knowledge (TK), Content Knowledge (CK), Pedagogical Knowledge (PK),

Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technological Content Knowledge

(TCK), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) and Technological

Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK).

1 2
=
(1 )3 (2 )2
+
1 2

Where:

t = one sample t-test value

1 = mean of the first group



2 = mean of the second group

1 = standard deviation of the first group

2 =standard deviation of the second group

1 = number of the cases in the first group

2 = number of the cases in the second group

Philippine Insurance42|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Quality Assurance Guide Given the Mean

TABLE VI
Mean range Descriptive evaluation action to be done

3.35-4.00 Greatest strengths Maintain for organizing


Reached total quality system excellence
assurance status

2.68-3.34 Strengths Continue self-system


Not reached but evaluation
moving to total Maintain but must be
quality assurance given attention on
indicators to meet the
total quality assurance
status
Continue search and
action for improvement

2.01-2.67 Strengths Further enhancement /


Not reached total Improvement/Enrichme
quality assurance nt of indicators to meet
the total quality
assurance

Below 2.00 Weaknesses Components and


Very far from total indicators must be given
quality assurance further attention.
Cooperative measures in
keeping with the theory
of total quality
assurance ( to attain
total quality standard
and stirring up to total
quality assurance )

Philippine Insurance43|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Based on the table 6, if the mean score is less than 2.00 than the description is

considered as weakness or threat, otherwise, it is considered as strengths or

opportunity. If the mean score is between 3.35 to 4.00 then it is considered as

greatest strengths or opportunity which needs to maintain. From 2.68 to 3.34 are

strength but not fully attained the total assurance status which requires continue

search and improvement. From 2.01 to 2.67 are also strengths but not reached the

total quality assurance status which requires further enhancement. This table was

adopted from the work of De Castro (2014).

Philippine Insurance44|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Chapter IV

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data

This chapter presents the findings of the study, the analyses and interpretation of data

gathered on the student teachers emotional intelligence and leadership styles as

evaluated through survey questionnaire in the Polytechnic University of the Philippines

San Pedro Campus.

Table VII

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents by Age

AGE FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE


18 1 1.6 %
19-20 45 72.6%
21-22 9 14.5%
23-24 4 6.5%
25 and above 3 4.8%
Total 62 100%

Table VII shows the total number of respondents according to their age from which out

of 62 students, there are 45 students who aged between 19-20 years old (72.6%), 9

students who aged 21-22 years old (14.5%), 4 students who aged between 23-24 years

old (6.5%), 3 students who aged 25 years old and above (4.8%) and only one student who

aged 18 years old.

Philippine Insurance45|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

AGE
4.80% 1.60%

6.50%

18
14.50% 19-20
21-22
23-24
25 and above
72.60%

FIGURE II.

Table VIII

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents by Gender

Gender Frequency Percent


Male 20 32.3%
Female 42 67.7%
Total 62 100.0

Table VIII shows the total number of the respondents who are the student teachers from

BSEd-4E and BSEd-4M of PUPSPC from which out of 62 respondents there are 42 or

67.7% females and 20 or 32.3% males. This implies that majority of the respondents are

female.

Philippine Insurance46|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Gender
Female Male

32%

68%

FIGURE III

Table IX

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents by Major

Major Frequency Percent


Mathematics 30 48.4%
English 32 51.6%
Total 62 100%

Table IX shows 32 or 51.6% of the respondents are English Major while the remaining

30 or 48.4% are Math Majors. This implies that most of the respondents are student

teachers from BSEd-English.

Philippine Insurance47|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Major
Math English

48%
52%

FIGURE IV

Philippine Insurance48|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Table X

Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of Student Teachers Self-Awareness

Competency

Self-Awareness
Description Mathematics English Combined
Weighted Verbal Weighted Verbal Weighted Verbal
Mean Interpretation Mean Interpretation Mean Interpretation
1. I am 3.03 Often 3.44 Often 3.24 Often
sensitive to
the feelings of
the students.
6. I am aware 3.00 Often 3.38 Often 3.19 Often
of the
consequences
of my
decisions.
11. I can 3.00 Often 3.16 Often 3.08 Often
identify my
strengths and
weaknesses.
16. I feel good 2.80 Often 2.91 Often 2.85 Often
about myself.
21. I can 2.77 Often 3.13 Often 2.95 Often
easily identify
the things that
make me
happy, sad or
angry.
Mean 2.92 Often 3.20 Often 3.06 Often

The table shows the weighted mean in the emotional intelligence of self-awareness. The

English majors gained 3.20 or verbally interpreted as often and the Math majors gained

2.92 verbally interpreted as often. The weighted mean of all the student teachers is 3.06

verbally interpreted as often. This implies that though both majors often manifest self-

awareness, their emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives, values, goals and recognizing

their impact on others while using their common sense to make decisions (Goleman,

1995), English majors are more aware of their personality.

Philippine Insurance49|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

TABLE XI

Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of the Student Teachers Interpersonal

Competency

Interpersonal
Description Mathematics English Combined
Weighted Verbal Weighted Verbal Weighted Verbal
Mean Interpretation Mean Interpretation Mean Interpretation
2. I respect
my
students 3.20 Often 3.47 Often 3.33 Often
suggestions
and ideas.
7. I am
pleased to
help other
people 3.27 Often 3.63 Always 3.45 Often
especially
my
students.
12. I show
concern for
the
3.40 Often 3.34 Often 3.37 Often
problem of
the
students.
17. I get
along well
3.13 Often 3.38 Often 3.25 Often
with the
students.
22. I am
careful
with the
effect of
3.20 Often 3.22 Often 3.21 Often
my
behaviour
to the
students.
Mean 3.24 Often 3.41 Often 3.32 Often

The table shows the emotional intelligence of Interpersonal with English majors

weighted mean of 3.41 or often, 3.24 weighted mean of the Math majors or often and

Philippine Insurance50|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

3.32 or verbally interpreted as often in both majors. This implies that both majors have

the ability to maintain harmonious relationship with other people and they have good

listening skills and so they were good in interpersonal skills but English majors manifest

more of these characteristics.

Philippine Insurance51|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Table XII
Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of the Student Teachers Stress-
Management Competency

Stress Management
Description Mathematics English Combined
Weighted Verbal Weighted Verbal Weighted Verbal
Mean Interpretation Mean Interpretation Mean Interpretation
3. I show
patience to my
students during 3.23 Often 3.13 Often 3.18 Often
disappointing
situations.
8. I confide to
my close co-
student
3.37 Often 3.06 Often 3.21 Often
teachers about
persisting
problems.
13. I show
composure to
my students 3.23 Often 3.13 Often 3.18 Often
even under
pressure.
18. I divert my
worries and
anxieties by
doing
3.20 Often 3.00 Often 3.10 Often
something
worthwhile
together with
my students.
23. I indulge in
enjoyable
activities with
my students/
3.33 Often 3.25 Often 3.29 Often
co-student
teachers to
reduce or
eliminate stress.
Mean 3.27 Often 3.11 Often 3.19 Often
The table shows the emotional intelligence of stress management. Math majors gained a
weighted mean 3.27 or often, than the English majors, 3.11 or often. This implies that
both majors have the ability of managing or redirecting ones descriptive emotions and
impulses and adapting to changing circumstances but Math majors manifest it more
often.

Philippine Insurance52|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Table XIII

Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of the Student Teachers Flexibility


Competency

Flexibility
Description Mathematics English Combined
Weighted Verbal Weighted Verbal Weighted Verbal
Mean Interpretation Mean Interpretation Mean Interpretation
4. I make
lots of pros
and cons as
routine
3.20 Often 2.88 Often 3.04 Often
before
solving a
conflict with
my students.
9. I revise
certain
plans to
3.43 Often 3.16 Often 3.29 Often
align these
to the goals
of the class.
14. I consult
to the
opinions of
my
3.37 Often 3.34 Often 3.36 Often
coordinating
teacher
before doing
the choices.
19. I include
all the
possible
details and
adjustments 3.17 Often 3.22 Often 3.19 Often
in planning
an activity
with my
students.
24. I easily
adapt to
new
classroom 3.30 Often 3.16 Often 3.23 Often
conditions
as
necessary.
Mean 3.29 Often 3.15 Often 3.22 Often

Philippine Insurance53|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

The table shows the emotional intelligence of flexibility of Math and English majors.

Math majors often manifest flexibility with 3.29 the same goes with English majors with

3.15. Combined, the weighted mean is 3.22 which imply that both majors often have the

ability to adapt to new environment and know how to make a better decision in a given

situation. They can also perform differentiated tasks depending on what the situation

need. It is just that Math majors manifest it more often.

Philippine Insurance54|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Table XIV

Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of the Student Teachers Disposition


Competency

Disposition
Description Mathematics English Combined
Weighted Verbal Weighted Verbal Weighted Verbal
Mean Interpretation Mean Interpretation Mean Interpretation
5. I look for 3.17 Often 3.38 Often 3.27 Often
something
positive in
every student.
10. I am in 2.83 Often 2.97 Often 2.90 Often
full control of
myself and of
the classroom
in every
situation.
15. I can 2.73 Often 2.97 Often 2.85 Often
handle even
the most
upsetting
problems
inside and
outside the
classroom
(lesson plan,
co-teachers,
students, etc.).
20. I smile 2.73 Often 3.28 Often 3.01 Often
inside and
outside the
classroom to
inspire my
students.
25. I entertain 2.80 Often 3.47 Often 3.13 Often
things/
questions
according to
my priorities
in relevance
with the
lesson.
Mean 2.85 Often 3.21 Often 3.03 Often

Philippine Insurance55|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

The table shows the emotional intelligence of disposition of both majors is 3.03, verbally

interpreted as often. The Math majors gained a weighted mean of 2.85 or verbally

interpreted as often while the English gained a weighted mean of 3.21. This implies that

English majors have more awareness of the condition in a place or situation than Math

majors.

Philippine Insurance56|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Table XV
Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of the Student Teachers Democratic
Leadership
Democratic Mathematics English Combined
Weighted Verbal Weighted Verbal Weighted Verbal
Mean Interpretation Mean Interpretation Mean Interpretation
26. I
encourage
students to
3.17 Often 3.63 Always 3.40 Often
voice out their
feelings, ideas
and opinions.
34. I consult
my students
before
3.03 Often 3.03 Often 3.03 Often
deciding and
acting on
certain issues.
42. I listen to
both parties
when there
are
arguments 3.07 Often 3.47 Often 3.27 Often
and
disagreements
between
students.
50. I consider
the rights of
the students
2.93 Often 3.34 Often 3.14 Often
even when
Im greatly
disappointed.
58. I discuss
the
consequences
and let them
3.03 Often 3.22 Often 3.13 Often
be
accountable
of their
actions.
Mean 3.05 Often 3.34 Often 3.19 Often
The table shows that both majors often manifest democratic leadership with the weighted

mean of 3.19. The Math majors get a weighted mean of 3.05, verbally interpreted as often

and the English majors get a weighted mean of 3.34, verbally interpreted as often. This

implies that both majors encourage their students to participate actively in the classroom

Philippine Insurance57|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

actively like decision making but English majors use more of these collaborative

suggestions in making decisions than the Math majors.

Table XVI

Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of the Student Teachers Affiliative

Leadership

Affiliative Mathematics English Combined


27. I give
assistance to the
students who are
3.17 Often 3.53 Always 3.35 Often
having difficulties
understanding my
lesson.
35. I give rewards
and incentives to 2.90 Often 3.13 Often 3.01 Often
my students.
43. I give morale
support to the
students who have 2.93 Often 3.41 Often 3.17 Often
personal
problems.
51. I am very
sensitive to the
things that Im
2.93 Often 3.41 Often 3.17 Often
going to say in
front of my
students.
59. I show
confidence in 3.40 Often 3.44 Often 3.42 Often
teaching.
Mean 3.07 Often 3.38 Often 3.22 Often
The table shows the weighted mean of the Student Teachers affiliative leadership. It is

shown that Math majors have 3.07, verbally interpreted as often while the English majors

have 3.38, verbally interpreted as often. Combined, the weighted mean is 3.22, verbally

interpreted as often. This implies that both majors are open to communication and love

giving praises but English majors manifest it more.

Philippine Insurance58|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Table XVII

Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of the Student Teachers Empowering

Leadership

Empowering Mathematics English Combined


28. I encourage 3.20 Often 3.34 Often 3.27 Often
sense of
responsibility and
initiative to my
students.
36. I give my 3.23 Often 3.34 Often 3.29 Often
students simple
activities yet
stimulating and
challenging.
44. I recognize 3.37 Often 3.63 Always 3.50 Often
individual efforts
of my students.
52. I motivate my 3.23 Often 3.22 Often 3.23 Often
students to feel
comfortable with
their group mates
or partner.
60. I motivate my 3.33 Often 3.44 Often 3.39 Often
students to make
quality outputs.
Mean 3.27 Often 3.39 Often 3.33 Often

The table shows that Math majors gained a weighted mean of 3.27 or verbally interpreted

as often when it comes to empowering leadership, the same goes with the English majors

with the weighted mean of 3.39. The weighted mean of the two majors combined is 3.33

or often. This implies that the student teachers leader recognizes every individual work

and their significance especially the English majors.

Philippine Insurance59|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Table XVIII

Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of the Student Teachers Moral

Leadership

Moral Mathematics English Combined


29. I withstand
opposition
because of 3.23 Often 2.97 Often 3.10 Often
unstained track
record.
37. I try to
preserve my
integrity and good 3.55 Always 3.44 Often 3.49 Often
image as an
educator.
45. I am careful
with my choice of 3.30 Often 3.34 Often 3.32 Often
words.
53. I use
optimistic and
encouraging
3.17 Often 3.38 Often 3.27 Often
words to get the
attention of my
students
61. I encourage
discipline and 3.23 Often 3.44 Often 3.34 Often
proper decorum.
Mean 3.30 Often 3.31 Often 3.30 Often

The table shows Math majors have the weighted mean of 3.30, verbally interpreted as

often when it comes to empowering leadership; the English majors have 3.31, verbally

interpreted as often; and the combined have 3.30, verbally interpreted as often. This

implies that both majors are cultural oriented and bounded by ethical standards just that

English manifest it more often.

Philippine Insurance60|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Table XIX

Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of the Student Leaders Charismatic

Leadership

Charismatic Mathematics English Combined


30. I can inspire 3.17 Often 3.38 Often 3.27 Often
and influence my
students to work
with dedication.
38. I encourage 3.23 Often 3.53 Always 3.38 Often
my students to
clarify questions
that may lead to
better decision
and action.
46. I am 3.10 Often 3.38 Often 3.24 Often
courageous and
tough person
during
frustrations
especially when
handling
misbehaved
students.
54. I use 3.27 Often 3.44 Often 3.35 Often
optimistic and
encouraging
words to get the
attention of my
students
62. I assume 3.30 Often 3.53 Always 3.42 Often
responsibility for
my actions and
decisions.
Mean 3.21 Often 3.45 Often 3.33 Often

The table shows that Math majors weighted mean is 3.21, verbally interpreted as often;

English majors is 3.45, verbally interpreted as often; and when combined is 3.33,

verbally interpreted as often. This implies that both majors have magnetic personalities

and they serve as a role model to their students especially the English Majors.

Philippine Insurance61|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Table XIV

Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of the Student Teachers

Transformational Leadership

Transformational Mathematics English Combined


31. I fulfil my
commitment to
3.23 Often 3.44 Often 3.34 Often
myself, to others
and to class.
39. I implement
activities leading
to the
enhancement of 3.23 Often 3.41 Often 3.32 Often
talents and
potentials of my
students.
47. I initiate
projects that build
3.00
harmonious and
Often 3.41 Often 3.20 Often
satisfying
relationships
among students.
55. I encourage
my students to 3.47 Often 3.38 Often 3.42 Often
lead.
63. I am
concerned with
the development
3.43 Often 3.59 Always 3.51 Alwayxs
of the students
self-esteem and
self-actualization
Mean 3.27 Often 3.44 Often 3.36 Often

The table shows that the weighted mean of the Math majors for their transformational

leadership is 3.27, verbally interpreted as often; the English majors is 3.44, verbally

interpreted as often; and when combined is 3.36, verbally interpreted as often. This

implies that the student teachers, especially the English majors promote positive change.

Philippine Insurance62|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Table XX

Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of the Student Teachers Commanding

Leadership

Commanding Mathematics English Combined


32. I tell my
students what to
3.43 Often 3.53 Always 3.48 Often
do so they wont
get lost.
40. I make sure I
have the authority
among the
3.53 Always 3.56 Always 3.55 Always
students inside
and outside the
classroom.
48. I strictly
implement rules 3.47 Often 3.28 Often 3.37 Often
and regulations.
56. I dont allow
my students to do
a certain activity 3.30 Often 3.22 Often 3.26 Often
without my
permission.
64. I direct my
students of what to 3.57 Always 3.66 Always 3.61 Always
do in the activity.
Mean 3.46 Often 3.45 Often 3.46 Often

The table shows the Math majors weighted mean in commanding leadership is 3.46,

verbally interpreted as often; the English majors is 3.45, verbally interpreted as often;

and combined is 3.46, verbally interpreted as often. This implies that both majors,

especially the math majors, tend to be a disciplinarian and leads through authorities

bounded by rules and regulations.

Philippine Insurance63|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Table XXI

Weighted Mean and Verbal Interpretation of the Student Teachers Pace-Setting

Leadership

Pace-setting Mathematics English Combined


33. I give
constructive
criticisms to
3.13 Often 3.38 Often 3.25 Often
empower my
students to do
better.
41. I give
appropriate
sanctions for any 2.80 Often 3.06 Often 2.93 Often
violation.
49. I frankly tell
my students what
is wrong and what 2.63 Often 3.31 Often 2.97 Often
is needed.
57. I tell my
students my
expectations and 2.50 Often 3.13 Often 2.81 Often
standards.
65. I tell my
students what is
wrong so they can 2.93 Often 3.50 Always 3.22 Often
improve.
Mean 2.80 Often 3.28 Often 3.04 Often

The table shows that the pace-setting leaderships weighted mean is 2.8, verbally

interpreted as often; the English majors is 3.28, verbally interpreted as often; and

combined is 3.04, verbally interpreted as often. This implies that both majors often

improve ones work by giving constructive criticisms and more often observed in the

English majors.

Philippine Insurance64|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents

TABLE XXII

DEMOCRATIC

Math English Total


Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Dominant 17 57% 25 78% 42 68%
Fair 13 43% 6 19% 19 31%
Not
0 0% 1 3% 1 2%
Dominant
Total 30 100% 32 100% 62 100%

The table shows that both respondents are dominant to Democratic Leadership with the

total percentage of 68%.This implies that English and Math Majors are Democratic

Leaders.

TABLE XXIII

AFFILIATIVE

Math English Total


Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Dominant 18 60% 27 84% 45 73%
Fair 12 40% 4 13% 16 26%
Not 0 0% 1 3% 1 2%
Dominant
30 100% 32 100% 62 100%

The table shows that both respondents are dominant to Affiliative Leadership with the

total percentage of 73%.This implies that English and Math majors are Affiliative

Leaders.

Philippine Insurance65|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

TABLE XXIV

EMPOWERING

Math English Total


Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Dominant 21 70% 24 75% 45 73%
Fair 9 30% 7 22% 16 26%
Not 0 0% 1 3% 1 2%
Dominant
30 100% 32 100% 62 100%

The table shows that both respondents are dominant to Empowering Leadership with the

total percentage of 73%.This implies that English and Math majors are Empowering

Leaders.

TABLE XXV

MORAL

Math English Total


Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Dominant 22 73% 22 69% 44 71%
Fair 8 27% 9 28% 17 27%
Not 0 0% 1 3% 1 2%
Dominant
30 100% 32 100% 62 100%

The table shows that both respondents are dominant to Moral Leadership with the total

percentage of 71%. This implies that English and Math majors are Moral Leaders.

Philippine Insurance66|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

TABLE XXVI

CHARISMATIC
Math English Total
Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Dominant 21 70% 26 81% 47 76%
Fair 9 30% 5 16% 14 23%
Not 0 0% 1 3% 1 2%
Dominant
30 100% 32 100% 62 100%

The table shows that both respondents are dominant to Charismatic Leadership with the

total percentage of 76%. This implies that English and Math majors are Charismatic

Leaders.

TABLE XXVII

TRANSFORMATIONAL
Math English Total
Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Dominant 20 67% 27 84% 47 76%
Fair 10 33% 4 13% 14 23%
Not 0 0% 1 3% 1 2%
Dominant
30 100% 32 100% 62 100%

The table shows that both respondents are dominant to Affiliative Leadership with the

total percentage of 73%.This implies that the respondents are Affiliative Leaders.

Philippine Insurance67|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

TABLE XXVIII

COMMANDING

Math English Total


Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Dominant 23 77% 27 84% 50 81%
Fair 7 23% 4 13% 11 18%
Not 0 0% 1 3% 1 2%
Dominant
30 100% 32 100% 62 100%

The table shows that both respondents are dominant to Commanding Leadership with the

total percentage of 81%.This implies that the respondents are Commanding Leaders.

TABLE XXIX

PACE-SETTING
Math English Total
Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage
Dominant 11 37% 22 69% 33 53%
Fair 17 57% 9 28% 26 42%
Not 2 7% 1 3% 3 5%
Dominant
30 100% 32 100% 62 100%

This table shows that Math Majors were considered fair to Pace-Setting Leadership

with the percentage of 57% and English Majors are dominant to Pace-Setting Leadership

with the percentage of 53%.This implies that English Majors are Pace-Setting Leaders.

Philippine Insurance68|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

P-Values of Emotional Intelligence

Self- Interpersonal** Stress Flexibility* Disposition*

Awareness* Management*

Gender 0.969 0.345 0.222 0.367 0.991

Age 2.557 1.603 3.298 3.301 3.316

Major 0.073 0.093 0.194 0.245 0.024r

Differences between the variables were measured and represented by p-values

above. If the p-value less than 0.05, it implies that difference exists, otherwise the

difference is weak. There is no significant difference between self-awareness (t = -

1.824, p > 0.05), interpersonal (U = 0.3455, p > 0.05), stress management (t = 1.312, p

> 0.05), flexibility (t = 1.175, p > 0.05), disposition (t = -2.318, p > 0.05) and gender.

There is no significant difference between self-awareness (H = 2.557, p > 0.05),

interpersonal (F(4,57) = 1.603, p > 0.05), stress management (H = 3.298, p > 0.05),

flexibility (H = 3.301, p > 0.05), disposition (H = 3.316, p > 0.05) and age. There is no

significant difference between self-awareness (t = -0.400, p > 0.05), interpersonal (U =

0.093, p > 0.05), stress-management (t = 1.234, p > 0.05), flexibility (t = 0.909, p >

0.05) and specialization/major. On the other hand, there is a significant difference

between disposition (t = 0.011, p < 0.05) and major. English majors responded the

highest mean in this category. This implies English majors have the emotional ability to

know where to stand in different situation. Also, English majors recognize the way of

adaptability in different scenarios.

Philippine Insurance69|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

P-Values of Leadership Styles

Transformational

Commanding
Empowering

Charismatic

Pace-setting
Democratic

Affiliative

Moral
Gender 0.767 0.808 0.479 0.675 0.808 0.848 0.963 0.906
Age 0.635 1.088 1.170 0.937 1.777 1.485 3.276 5.586
Major 0.006r 0.007r 0.264 0.318 0.086 0.204 0.944 0.003r

There is no significant difference between being democratic (U = 400.500, p > 0.05),

affiliative (U = 404.000, p > 0.05), empowering (U = 373.500, p > 0.05), moral (U =

392.500, p > 0.05), charismatic (t = -1.744, p > 0.05), transformational (t = -1.285, p >

0.05), commanding (t = 0.071, p > 0.05), pacemaker (t = -3.105, p > 0.05) and gender.

There is also no significant difference between being democratic (F(4,57) = 0.635, p >

0.05), affiliative (F(4,57) = 1.088, p > 0.05), empowering (F(4,57) = 1.170, p > 0.05),

moral (F(4,57) = 0.937, p > 0.05), charismatic (H = 1.777, p > 0.05), transformational (H

= 1.485, p > 0.05), commanding (H = 3.276, p > 0.05), pacemaker (H = 5.586, p > 0.05)

and age. There is no significant difference between being empowering (U = 401.500, p >

0.05), moral (U = 410.000, p > 0.05), charismatic (t = 0.243, p > 0.05), transformational

(t = 0.192, p > 0.05), commanding (t = -0.470, p > 0.05) and their major. There is a

significant difference between being democratic (U = 287.500, p < 0.05), affiliative (U =

289.500, p < 0.05), pacesetting (t = - 0.379, p < 0.05) and their major. English majors

respond the highest mean for being democratic and being affiliative than Math majors.

Otherwise, Math majors respond positively than English major in being pacesetting. This

Philippine Insurance70|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

implies that English majors tend to be Democratic and Affiliative while Mathematics

majors are Pace-setting leaders. This implies that English majors are open to suggestions

and opinions of others in decision-making and enhance others works through giving

positive feedback and praises while Math majors are bound to standards to criticize ones

work to enhance it.

Legend:

*p-values using parametric test (t-test of independent means or ANOVA I)

**p-values using non-parametric test (Mann-Whitneys or Kruskal-Wallis)

r there is a significant difference

Philippine Insurance71|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents the summary of the research findings, the conclusions

derived from the findings and recommendations.

Summary of Findings

The study revealed the following findings:

1. Profile of the Respondents

Out of the 62 respondents, 1 (1.6%) of the population were between 18 and

below, 45 (72.6 %) were 19 to 20 years old, 9 (14.5%) were 21 to 22 years old, 4

(6.5%) were 23-24 years old, 3 (4.8%) were 25 and above. In terms of gender, 20

(32.2%) of the respondents were male and 42 (67.7%) were female. With regards

to the major, 30 (48.4%) of the respondents were Mathematics Major and 32

(51.6%) were English Major.

2. The Level of Emotional intelligence and Leadership Styles of the

Respondents

2.1 The level of Emotional Intelligence of the Respondents

Based on the data, the level of Emotional Intelligence among Polytechnic University

of the Philippines San Pedro Campus Student Teachers was ranked as follows: 3.32 is

Philippine Insurance72|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

interpersonal, 3.22 is flexibility, 3.19 is stress management, 3.06 is self-awareness

and 3.03 is disposition.

2.2 The level of Leadership Styles of the Respondents

Based on the data, the level of Leadership styles among Polytechnic University of the

Philippines San Pedro Campus Student Teachers were ranked as follows: 3.51 is

transformational, 3.46 is commanding, 3.33 are empowering and charismatic, 3.30 is

moral, 3.22 is affiliative, 3.19 is democratic, 3.04 is pace-setting.

2.3 The level of Emotional Intelligence by Major

Based on the data, the level of Emotional intelligence is identified as follows; English

Majors with the means of 3.20 obtain the highest Self-Awareness and Math Majors

acquired the lowest with the means of 2.92. English Majors with the means of 3.41

obtain the highest Interpersonal and Math Majors acquired the lowest with the mean

of 3.24. Math Majors with the mean of 3.27 obtain the highest Stress Management

and English Majors acquired the lowest with the mean of 3.11. Math Majors with the

mean of 3.29 obtain the highest Flexibility and English Majors acquired the lowest

with the mean of 3.15. English Majors with the mean of 3.21 obtain the highest

Disposition and Math Majors acquired the lowest with the mean of 2.85.

2.4 The level of Leadership styles by Major

Based on the data, the level of Leadership Styles is identified as follows; English

Majors with the mean of 3.34 obtain the highest Democratic Leadership and Math

Majors acquired the lowest with the mean of 3.05. English Majors with the mean of

3.38 obtain the highest Affiliative Leadership and Math Majors acquired the lowest

Philippine Insurance73|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

with the mean of 3.07. English Majors with the mean of 3.39 obtain the highest

Empowering Leadership and Math Majors acquired the lowest with the mean of 3.27.

English Majors with the mean of 3.31 obtain the highest Moral Leadership and Math

Majors acquired the lowest with the mean of 3.30. English Majors with the mean of

3.45 obtain the highest Charismatic Leadership and Math Majors acquired the lowest

with the mean of 3.21. English Majors with the mean of 3.44 obtain the highest

Transformational Leadership and Math Majors acquired the lowest with the mean of

3.27. Math Majors with the mean of 3.46 obtain the highest Commanding Leadership

and English Majors acquired the lowest with the mean of 3.45. English Majors with

the mean of 3.04 obtain the highest Pace-Setting Leadership and Math Majors

acquired the lowest with the mean of 2.80.

3. The difference between Emotional Intelligence when grouped by profile

3.1 The difference between Emotional Intelligence when grouped by age

There no significant difference between self-awareness (H= -2.557, p > 0.05),

interpersonal

(F(4,57)=1.603, p > 0.05), stress-management (H= 3.298, p > 0.05), flexibility (H=

3.302, p > 0.05), disposition (H= 3.316, p > 0.05) , and age.

3.2 The difference between Emotional Intelligence when grouped by gender

The difference between the variables were measured and represented by p-value. If the p-

value less than 0.05, it implies that difference exists, otherwise the difference is weak.

Philippine Insurance74|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

There no significant difference between self-awareness (t= -1.824, p > 0.05),

interpersonal

(U= 0.3455, p > 0.05), stress-management (t= -2.318, p > 0.05), flexibility (t= 1.175, p >

0.05), disposition (t= -2318, p > 0.05) and gender.

3.3 The difference between Emotional Intelligence when grouped by Major

There no significant difference between self-awareness (t= -0.400, p > 0.05),

interpersonal

(U=0.093, p > 0.05), stress-management (t= 1.234, p > 0.05), flexibility (t= 0.909, p >

0.05), and age. However, there is a significant difference between disposition (t= 0.011 p

> 0.05) and major. The English major responded the highest mean in this category with

the *p-value of 0.024r .

4. The difference between Leadership Styles when grouped by profile.

4.1 The difference between Emotional Intelligence when grouped by gender.

There is no significant difference between being democratic (U= 400.500, p >

0.05), affiliative (U=404.000, p > 0.05), empowering (U= 373.500, p > 0.05), moral

(U=392.500, p > 0.05), charismatic (t= -1.744, p > 0.05), transformational (-1.285, p >

0.05), commanding (t=0.071, p > 0.05) , pace-setting ( t= -3.105, p > 0.05) and gender.

4.2 The difference between Leadership Styles when grouped by age.

There is no significant difference between being democratic (F(4,57)= 0.635, p >

0.05), affiliative (F(4,57)=1.088 , p > 0.05), empowering (F(4,57)=1.170 p > 0.05), moral

(F(4,57)=0.937 p > 0.05), charismatic (H= 1.777 ,p > 0.05), transformational ( H= 1.485

,p > 0.05), commanding (H= 3.276 ,p > 0.05), pace-setting (H= 5.586 ,p > 0.05) and age.

Philippine Insurance75|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

4.3 The difference between Leadership Styles when grouped by major.

There is no significant relationship between being empowering (U=401.500, p >

0.05), moral (U= 410,500, p > 0.05), charismatic (t= 0.243, p > 0.05), transformational

(t= 0.192, p > 0.05), commanding (t=-0.470, p > 0.05) and their major. However, There is

a significant difference of English majors and Math majors between their leadership

styles and major in terms of democratic leadership (U=287.500) with *p-value of 0.006r,

,affiliative leadership(U=289.500, p > 0.05) with the *p-value of 0.007r and pace-setting

(t= -0.379, p > 0.05) with the *p-value of 0.003r. . English majors responded the highest

mean of being democratic and affiliative while Math Majors responds positively in terms

of pace-setting.

Conclusions

Based on the finding revealed, the researcher carried out

1. The majority of the respondents were aged 19-20. It was found that

most of the respondents are female.

2. Majority of the levels of the Emotional Intelligence of the Student

Teachers in Polytechnic University of the Philippines were found to

agree that they are aware of their emotion and they have the ability to

assess, control, identify their emotions.

Philippine Insurance76|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

3. English Majors possess the Leadership Style of democratic, affiliative,

empowering, moral, charismatic and pace-setting on the other hand;

Math major possesses the Leadership Style of commanding.

4. There is no significant difference between Emotional Intelligence and

Leadership Style to their age and gender. However, Emotional

Intelligence has significant difference between their major in terms of

Disposition and Leadership Styles has significant difference between

their major. Math responded as a pace-setting while English responded

as democratic and affiliative.

Recommendations

In the light of the results, the recommendations are given;

1. Enhancement Program. This Enhancement Program is aimed to continuously

develop the Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles of both English and

Math majors. Also this program will help them to realize the essence of teaching

and to internalize their own characteristics and potentials as well as their

weaknesses.

2. Leadership Enhancement Program. The teachers are bound to give directions to

their students because they are instructors. As expected, they are more exposed in

socializing with the students and understanding their capabilities, however, the

heart of leading them is the proper way of planting them the knowledge is through

effective command which must be improved by the English majors. On the other

Philippine Insurance77|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

hand, the Math majors must continuously maintain their ability to command and

pay attention to the remaining Leadership Styles.

3. The school must endeavour to influence the Student Teachers and Coordinating

Teachers to attend Seminars and Enhancement Program that will help them to

progress in their profession of being a teacher.

4. Students Assessment. Aside from complying with Seminars and Enhancement

programs, teachers must also have all ears for the feedback of their students who

received the product of what a teacher gained in their studies and also the one

who can give an honest evaluation of their performance inside the classroom.

5. The teachers must continuously seek for further information and studies about

enhancing their Emotional Intelligence to be more knowledgeable in their chosen

field of expertise and dont just settle for their knowledge of todays nature of

teaching.

6. The teachers must acquire the different types of Leadership Styles and learn how

to maximize its use in adapting to different situations.

7. The Teachers should know how to build harmonious relationship towards their

students but also they must recognize the limits.

8. For the future researcher, they must try to use the students of Student Teachers as

their respondents because it may give fruitful evaluation to the level of Emotional

Intelligence and Leadership Styles of the Student Teachers.

Philippine Insurance78|P a g e
POLYTECHNICUNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

ABSTRACT

This study explores the difference of the Emotional Intelligence (EI) and

Leadership Style (LS) of the Student Teachers of Polytechnic University of the

Philippines San Pedro Campus in terms of the demographic profile provided (Age,

Gender and Major). High Emotional Intelligence and versatility in different Leadership

Style has a great effect on the outcome of the students learning. Teacher who has low

Emotional Intelligence and low Leadership Style tends to face problems negatively.

The information about the Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Style was

gathered with the use of test questionnaires. After the questionnaires were administered

and the data were formulated, the researchers arrived at the conclusion that there is a

significant difference in disposition when it comes to Emotional Intelligence while in

Leadership Style, there is a significant difference in Pace-Setting which is supporting the

hypothesis.

Philippine Insurance79|P a g e