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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN FINAL REPORT

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016

2016

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

1

LIST OF FIGURES

3

LIST OF TABLES

5

1.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

6

2

INTRODUCTION

15

3

VISION AND OBJECTIVES OF THE COMPREHENSIVE TRANSPORT

MANAGEMENT

STRATEGY

 

17

4 TRANSPORT ISSUES IN COLOMBO METROPOLITAN AREA

29

5 TRANSPORT SUB-COMMITTEE OF MEGAPOLIS PROJECT

39

6 PROPOSED SUB SECTORS FOR INTERVENTION

41

 

I.

Public Transport Improvement

41

II. Road Infrastructure Development

41

III. Transport Demand Management (TDM)

41

IV. Environmental Sustainable Transport

42

7 DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS

43

 

7.1

PUBLIC TRANSPORT IMPROVEMENT

43

7.1.1

Restructure and Revision of Public Bus Service

43

7.1.2.

Modernize and Improving the Quality of Buses and Services

45

7.1.3.

Railway Electrification & Modernization

47

7.1.4.

Introducing a Rapid Transit System (RTS)

52

7.1.5.

Introducing New Inland Water Transport System

60

7.1.6.

Develop Multimodal Transport Hub and Centres

63

7.1.7.

Regulate and Improvement of School Bus Services and Office Van Services

66

7.1.8.

Regulate and Improve Taxi Services

67

7.1.9.

Improvement of Facilities at Suburban Interchange Bus Terminals and

69

7.1.10.

Establishment of Transport Information Analysis and Dissemination Centre

70

7.2

ROAD INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

73

7.2.1.

Capacity Improvement of Existing Roads

73

7.2.2.

Improve the Capacity of Existing Expressway Network / Improve the Expressway

Network

75

7.2.3.

Construction of New Expressways

76

7.2.4

Policy on use of Road/Rail Right of Way / Policy of use of Road Right of Way

78

7.3

TRANSPORT DEMAND MANAGEMENT

82

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7.3.1 Flexible & Staggering Work Hours

82

7.3.2 Parking Management

83

7.3.3 Intersection Control

87

7.3.4 Traffic Flow Management and Capacity Increase

88

7.3.5 Road Pricing /Road pricing of entry roads to CBD

90

7.3.6 Traffic Enforcement Through CCTV Monitoring

91

7.4

ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT

95

7.4.1 Improvements to Non Motorized Transport (NMT)

95

7.4.2 Reduction of vehicle emission

98

7.4.3 Minimizing Fuel Usage

99

7.4.4 Supply of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Establish Electric Charging Facilities

for Buses and Other Vehicles

100

8 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

101

8.1 PROJECTS TO BE COMMENCED IMMEDIATELY (WITHIN 6 MONTHS)

102

8.2 PROJECTS TO BE COMMENCED IN SHORT TERM (6 MONTHS 3 YEARS)

104

8.3 PROJECTS TO BE COMMENCED IN MEDIUM TERM (3 5 YEARS)

106

8.4 PROJECTS TO BE COMMENCED LONG TERM (MORE THAN 5 YEARS)

107

9 ASSESSMENT OF TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN

109

9.1

TRANSPORT DEMAND MODELLING AND ANALYSIS

109

9.1.1 Model Outputs for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020

114

9.1.2 Model Outputs for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025

114

9.1.3 Model Outputs for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035

115

9.2

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

119

10

APPENDICES

124

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List of Figures

Figure 1: Western Province of Sri Lanka Figure 2: Proposed Mega City Structure Plan Figure 3: Planning Areas and Key Project Plan Figure 4: Population Forecast for 2020 by TAZ Figure 5: Population Forecast for 2025 by TAZ Figure 6: Population Forecast for 2035 by TAZ Figure 7: Employment Forecast for 2035 by TAZ Figure 8: Population Density in 2035 by TAZ Figure 9: Employment Density in 2035 by TAZ Figure 10: Difference of 2035 population between the Megapolis Plan and ComTrans Plan by TAZ Figure 11: Transport Corridors in Western Region Figure 12: Bus Origin Destination Patterns in Galle Road Figure 13: Desire Lines for 2035 Trips between TAZ Figure 14: Modern Technologies and its Capacities Figure 15: Proposed Railway Lines for Railway Electrification and Modernization Figure 16: Proposed RTS network in CBD area Figure 17: Proposed RTS network in CBD & suburbs Figure 18: Proposed Inland Water Transport System Figure 19: Proposed Public Transport Interventions in Western Region Figure 20: Proposed Public Transport Interventions in Core Area Figure 21: Proposed Road Improvements in Western Region Figure 22: Proposed Road Improvements in Core Area Figure 23: Proposed Interventions in Western Region Figure 24: Land Availability within Western Region Figure 25: Land Availability within CMC Region Figure 26: Public Transport Passenger Demand by Mode for Year 2020 Figure 27: Public Transport Passenger Demand by Mode for Year 2025 Figure 28: Public Transport Passenger Demand by Mode for Year 2035 Figure 29: Total Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020 Figure 30: Total Passenger Volumes within CMC for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020 Figure 31: Total Railway Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020 Figure 32: Total RTS Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020

15

19

21

23

24

25

26

27

28

30

32

33

34

38

51

58

59

63

71

72

79

80

81

85

86

116

117

118

177

178

179

180

Figure 33: Total Inland Water Transport Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020 .181

Figure 34: Total Private Vehicle Volumes for Project Case (Case A) for Year 2020

182

Figure 35: Total Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025

183

Figure 36: Total Passenger Volumes within CMC for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025

184

Figure 37: Total Railway Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025

185

Figure 38: Total RTS Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025

186

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Figure 39: Total Inland Water Transport Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025 .187

Figure 40: Total Private Vehicle Volumes for Project Case (Case B) for Year 2025

188

Figure 41: Total Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035

189

Figure 42: Total Passenger Volumes within CMC for Project Case (Case BD) for Year 2035

190

Figure 43: Total Railway Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035

191

Figure 44: Total RTS Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035

192

Figure 45: Total Inland Water Transport Passenger Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035 .193

194

Figure 46: Total Private Vehicle Volumes for Project Case (Case D) for Year 2035

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List of Tables

Table 1: Planning areas and Population Growth Table 2: Daily Passenger Flows at the CMC Boundary Both Directions Table 3: Financial Cost of Projects by Sector by Project Commencement Period Table 4: Project Scenarios for Transport Demand Analysis Table 5: Aggregate Outputs of Demand Model for Project scenarios Table 6: Operational Cost Estimates (Rs/hr, Rs/km) Table 7: Cost of Accidents (Rs) Table 8: Cost of Air Emissions (Rs/km) Table 9: Summary of Cost Savings for DNS and Project Cases Table 10: Capital Cost of Projects by Time Period Table 11: Benefit Cost Analysis - NPV, EIRR and BC Ratio Table 12: Demand Model Outputs for All Scenarios

20

35

108

111

113

120

120

121

121

121

122

175

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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Western Region Megapolis Plan has been developed encompassing all aspects of transportation to provide a framework for urban transport development in Western Region up to 2035. The development plan priorities have been prepared based on the urgency of the developments to resolve the critical urban transport problems, and based on a logical sequence of implementation in order to maximize the outcomes in achieving the urban mobility objectives. Megapolis will be implemented as an integrated transport development project, incorporating all modes of transport as well as ensuring sustainability and ease of integration to existing operating conditions and infrastructure.

To assist the authorities, implement it in the most effective manner, the development plan is set out with 4 categories 1

i. Public Transport Improvements,

ii. Road Infrastructure Development,

iii. Transport Demand Management,

iv. Environment Sustainable Transport.

Public Transport Improvement

Project

Action

Duration

to

Responsibility

commence

the project

Restructure

of

Develop Institutional Reforms for Public Bus Service

Immediate

WPTA, NTC

Public

Bus

Service

Develop the revised bus route network for Western Province.

Immediate

WPTA

Identify the new bus

route

Immediate

WPTA

requirement for Western province

Introducing Shuttle or feeder bus services connecting railway stations

Immediate

WPTA, NTC,

MOTWP

Redesign the public transport system on expressways.

immediate

NTC

1 Some of the additional suggestions received from key ministries after final draft was made is included in Appendix 06

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Project

 

Action

Duration

to

Responsibility

commence

 

the project

Modernize and

Low floor buses to be introduced

Medium

to

WPTA, NTC

Improving the

when replacing the old buses. DMT

Long Term

quality of buses

act to be reviewed on passenger

and services

transport vehicles.

IT based Smart Bus Service

Long Term

WPTA, NTC

Provide adequate terminal facilities

Medium

to

WPTA, NTC,

and modernized bus shelters.

Long Term

MOTWP, CGR

Study the provisions to provide

Short Term to

WPTA, NTC,

separate Bus lane on major

Medium Term

MOTWP

corridors and bus priority.

Improvement

To form regulatory mechanism for

Immediate

MOTWP

of

office

and

office and school services

school services

To form separate bodies to operate

Immediate

MOTWP

school services in parallel to existing

public school service

Improve the reliability and extend

Immediate

MOTWP, WPTA

the services of existing public school

buses

Regulate

and

Introduce a common identification

Immediate

WPTA, NTC

Improve

Taxi

system for all taxies.

Services

Promote and supply adequate

Immediate

WPTA, NTC, UDA

 

parking space for taxies at major

transit node

Review charging regulations

   

Develop IT based Smart Taxi Service

Immediate

WPTA, NTC,

Develop a regulatory authority and

Medium Term

MOT

policy document for taxi operations

Develop

 

Develop detailed designs for Fort /

Immediate

to

UDA, MOT

Multimodal

Pettah Transport Hub(MMTH)

Medium Term

Transport

Carryout the feasibility study for Multimodal transport centres

(MMC)

Immediate

to

WRMP, UDA

Hubs

and

Medium Term

 

Proposed locations are:

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Centres

 

Kaduwela

   

Kadawatha

Kottawa

Horana

Panadura

Negambo

Gampaha

Ragama

Moratuwa

Meerigama

Awissawella

Railway

 

Electrification

of

following

Immediate

CGR, MOT

Electrification

existing railway lines

1. Panadura - Veyangoda -

&

Polgahawela (RL-M1)

110km

Modernization

2. Ragama - Negombo with airport Access (RL-M2)-

26km

3. Kelani Valley (KV) line (RL- M3) -60km

 

Medium

 

Electrification of following new railway lines

Term

4. Kottawa to Horana (RL-NR1) 22km

5. Kelaniya to Kosgama via Biyagama, and Dompe (RL- NR2)- 30km

Long Term

Upgrading of railway infrastructure.

Immediate

CGR , MOT

 

1. Stations

2. Ticketing system

 

3. Signal system

4. Telecommunication System

5. Track Improvements

 

Identify the park and Ride demands.

Immediate

CGR, UDA, Local

Identify the facilities such as drop off

Authorities

areas for three wheelers and taxies

Develop feeder bus services for

Immediate

CGR, WPTA

identified major stations.

 

Introducing

CBD RTS system connecting

Short

WPMPP, UDA

identified main nodes. This is a complete elevated system.

Term

-

new

Rapid

Medium

Transit

System

1.

Green Line (RTS1) -15km Fort

term

(RTS)

Kollupitiya-Bambalapitiya- Borella-

Union Place- Maradana)

 

2.

Yellow Line (RTS2)-11.5km Fort-

Maradana- Mattakkuliya/Peliyagoda

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3.

Red

Line

(RTS3)

10km

   

Dematagoda-Borella-Kirulapone-

Havelock City- Bambalapitiya

 

Outer core area RTS system

Short

WPMPP, UDA

Term-

connecting identified main nodes.

Medium

term

 

1. Purple Line (RTS4) - Borella Malabe10km

2. Pink Line (RTS5) - Malabe Kottawa9.6km

3. Olive Line (RTS6) - Malabe - Kaduwela 6km

4. Ash Line (RTS7) Peliyagoda Kadawatha

13km

 

Introducing

Introducing new inland water

Immediate

-

UDA, SLLRDC,

New

Water

transport system

 

Medium term

MOT

Transit System

1.

Wellawatte and Battaramulla

(IW1)

 

2. Fort - Union Place (IW2)

 

3. Mattakkuliya - Hanwella on Kelani

River (IW3)

 

Road Infrastructure Development

 

Project

Action

 

Duration

to

Responsibility

 

commence

the project

Capacity

RDA to identify the required links

Immediate

RDA

improvement

within each district to maintaining

by

average speed of 40 km/h

 

Development of

Develop the High Mobility road

Immediate

RDA

road links

network connecting districts with an

average speed of 60 km/h which has

developed by RDA for next 10 years

Horana to Meerigama via Paddukka

Medium Term

RDA

and Kirindiwela

 

Negombo- Divlapitiya - Mirigama (4

Medium Term

RDA

lane road, to cater mainly future

industrial and business tourism

traffic)

 

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Ja-ela to Divlapitiya via Ekala and

Medium Term

RDA

Minuwangoda (4 lane road, to cater

mainly future industrial and business

tourism traffic)

 

Identification of missing links and

Medium Term

RDA, CMC

improvement of selected sections of

road network as appropriate to

Western Region Megapolis Plan

 

a) Marine drive extension to Galle Face, Dehiwela and Panadura

b) Baseline Extension up to Maliban junction

c) Duplication road extension up to Kalubowila Hospital Road.

Improve

the

Analyse

the

new

demand

on

the

Immediate

RDA

Capacity

of

highways

Existing

Review existing toll

 

Immediate

RDA

Expressway

Introduce

electronic

toll

collection

Medium term

RDA

Network

system

Use real time information systems

 

Medium term

RDA

Construction of

1.) Ruwanpura Expressway

 

Immediate

RDA

new

     

Expressways

2.) Central expressway

 

3.) New Kelaniya Bridge and

Immediate

RDA

elevated road to Colombo Port &

Fort area (CKE extension)

 

4.) Elevated urban Expressway from

Immediate/

RDA

New Kelani Bridge to Outer Circular

Long Term

Highway (OCH) via Battaramulla.

(feasibility to be completed

immediately)

 

Policy on use of

Relocation

of unauthorized

Immediate

RDA, UDA

Road/Rail

occupants of railway/ road right of

Right of Way

ways,

provide adequate space for

pedestrian walkways

 

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Transport Demand Management

   

Duration to

 

Project

 

Action

commence

Responsibility

 

the project

Flexible

Work

Develop policy plans to promote flexible work hours in selected institutes

Short Term

Ministry

of

Hours

Public

Administration

Flexi hours to be introduced

 

Medium Term

Chamber

of

 

Commerce

Develop policy plans to promote staggering work hours in selected institutes

Short Term to Medium Term

Parking

Develop

a

Pricing

mechanism

for

Immediate

Local Authorities

Management

Parking

Implement ‘parking metering system’ to Colombo district as a preliminary stage.

Immediate

CMC

Time limited parking enforced at identified roadside parking lots (e.g. 30 min Maximum).

Immediate

Traffic Police, RDA, UDA, Local Authorities

Provide overflow parking facility for long distance private buses.

Immediate

UDA, NTC

Outsource

the

Towing

of

Medium Term

Traffic Police

unauthorized parking.

 

Provision of off-street parking facilities in required locations.

Immediate

RDA, UDA, Local Authorities, CMC, WRMP

Provision of off street parking facilities for 3-wheel parking.

Immediate

Traffic Police, RDA, CMC, Local Authorities

Implement

strict

compliance

of

Short Term

Traffic Police, RDA, UDA, Local Authorities, CMC

Parking restrictions

 

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Duration to

 

Project

 

Action

 

commence

Responsibility

 

the project

Intersection

Minor improvements to signalized intersections (capacity improvements) and signal timing updates

Immediate

RDA, CMC

Control

Upgrading signal lights system along with traffic flow detection. Develop Specifications for all signal lights.

Immediate

RDA, CMC

New

traffic

signals

to

major

Immediate

RDA, CMC

intersections

 

Installation of Traffic control centre with traffic flow detection (CCTV, Magnetic loop, Infar red) and real time traffic management

Short Term

RDA, Police, CMC,

Synchronize signal lights along main corridors

Short Term

RDA, Police, CMC,

Traffic

Flow

Converting two-way streets to one- way operation where technically feasible

Immediate

RDA, Police

Management

Roadway and intersection widening and reconstructions

Immediate

to

RDA, UDA, Local Authorities

Medium Term

Priority

for

HOV

(high

occupancy

Long Term

RDA, CMC

vehicles).

Relocation of bus stops/pedestrian crossings to minimize unnecessary conflicts and delays

Immediate

RDA,

WRMPP,

Police

Reductions of Traffic Density closer to Schools

Medium Term

City

Schools,

WRMPP

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Duration to

 

Project

 

Action

 

commence

Responsibility

 

the project

Traffic

Identify

the

Camera

instalment

Immediate

RDA, Police, CMC, UDA

Enforcement

locations.

through

CCTV

 

monitoring

Implement Traffic Enforcement

Immediate

RDA, Police, CMC, UDA

Road pricing of entry roads to CBD

Identify toll gates, Corridors needed to be controlled,

Long Term

UDA, RDA

Develop the Pricing Structure

Long Term

RDA, UDA, Local Authorities

Environmental Sustainable Transport

 

Project

Action

Duration

to

Responsibility

commence

the project

Improve

Provide

appropriate

Immediate

Local

Authority,

Facilities

for

vegetation/concrete cover & adequate lighting along the roads

RDA, UDA

pedestrian

Improve the quality of walk ways by providing continuous and interconnected sidewalks accessible by everyone by designing it

Immediate

Local

Authority,

RDA, UDA

Separate sidewalks from the road way using suitable buffer by appropriate curb or by landscaping between the sidewalk and the roadway

Immediate

Local

Authority,

RDA, UDA

Ensure safety of pedestrians at intersections through clearly marked crosswalks, overhead bridges /underpass and fences

Immediate

Local

Authority,

RDA, UDA

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Provide pedestrian signals to increase the safety of pedestrians at the crosswalk. Conduct awareness programs on how to use pedestrian crossings at signalized intersections,

Immediate

Local

Authority,

RDA, UDA

Relocate vendors from pedestrian areas to alternative locations

Immediate

Local

Authority,

RDA, UDA

Provision of pedestrian facilities for disable people

 

Local

Authority,

RDA, UDA

Encourage

Provide appropriate vegetation cover or paved area at either side of the roads

Immediate

Local

Authority,

Bicycle Use

RDA, UDA

Provide separate bicycle/Motor Cycle use.

lane

for

Medium Term

Local

Authority,

 

RDA, UDA

Reduce

vehicle

Introduction of higher quality fuel for vehicles

Immediate

DMT

emission

Introduction of catalytic convertors

Immediate

DMT

The vehicle emission standards to be reviewed yearly.

Immediate

CEA, DMT

Facilitate LNG use for three wheelers and taxies

Medium Term

DMT

Introduce monitoring system

 

Immediate

DMT

Minimize

Fuel

Reduce taxes for electric and hybrid vehicles while increase taxes for other cars

Immediate

 

Usage

Discourage

vehicles

having

poor

Immediate

DMT

emission standards

 

Introduce a policy to remove poor conditioned vehicles from the roads

Medium Term

DMT

Encourage

walkways

and

bicycle

Medium Term

RDA, Local

users

Authorities

Megapolis will become a centre for comprehensive monitoring of all the sectors that will manage the Transport and Land use development together in a totally integrated manner.

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2

INTRODUCTION

Sri Lanka, which currently stands in middle-income category 2 , is focusing on long-term strategic and structural development challenges as it strives to transition to an upper middle- income country. One of the key initiatives with respect to this is the proposed Western Region Megapolis Planning Project (WRMPP). The Western Region Megapolis Project is expected to initiate integrated development in the region, to make Western Region (WR) the economic hub of the country, facilitating geographic concentration and economic integration, while ensuring more uniform basic living standards across the country.

Colombo and other cities especially in the Western Region has witnessed a rapid change in the urban transport in the past decade. The continual degradation of traffic congestion of urban roads and the deterioration of quality of public transport service has escalated to such an extent that it has major negative impact on the economic performance of the region, the environmental quality and liveability.

of the region, the environmental quality and liveability. Figure 1: Western Province of Sri Lanka 2

Figure 1: Western Province of Sri Lanka

2 World Bank- Sri Lanka, http://data.worldbank.org/country/sri-lanka

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Western Province(WP) also identified as Western Region (WR) in Sri Lanka is the main economic hub of the country as its share of the country’s GDP is nearly 42% (3643.2 Billion Rupees out of 8674.2 Billion Rupees in 2013) 3 and nearly 60% attributed to the service sector and more than 30% to the industry sector. It also has recorded the highest per capita income of Rs. 372,814 (approx. USD 2,922) in 2012. It has three administrative districts; Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara and 33 divisional secretariat divisions. Colombo district accounts for the highest urban population in Sri Lanka with 54.6% while Gampaha and Kalutara account for 14.6% and 10.6% respectively.

The population of Western Region was 5.8 million in 2012 spread over a 3,684 sq.km of land area. It is estimated that the total population of the Region will increase to 7.8 million by 2025 with the development anticipated under the Megapolis Structure Plan and it is projected to further increase to 9.1 million in year 2035, with the planned economic growth targets. This development would further increase the transport demand. As the nation’s busiest international seaport and airport are located within the area, and expansion of such facilities are also in the pipeline, introduction of structural changes to the transport system is of paramount importance to make the metropolitan area a modern, liveable, environment and investor friendly area.

The first cut of transport master plan as a part of Megapolis Development plan has been formulated with due consideration to propose land use plan proposed thereon. This plan has been completed by June 2016 and was available in website of the Ministry of Megapolis and Western Development. Since then it was presented to many gatherings here and abroad. The comments received has been accommodated and changed versions V.1, V.2, V2.1, V2.2 etc. during November 2016 it was decided to circulate to organizations responsible for implementation of the same.

In this background the three major Ministries on the subject were consulted to finalize the master plan. During the process the comments received and the actions proposed/taken against each comment are included in Appendix 06.In principle, the findings of transport master plan is essential to modify collectively according to a plan every day. Hence extensions were not considered to the master plan at this stage. However these plans need to be revisited at least in 3 year intervals to update/improve with additional data.

3 Central Bank of Sri Lanka,

http://www.cbsl.gov.lk/pics_n_docs/10_pub/_docs/efr/annual_report/AR2014/English/17_Appendix.p

df

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3

VISION

MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

AND

OBJECTIVES

OF

THE

COMPREHENSIVE

TRANSPORT

The Government of Sri Lanka (GOSL) believes that the current policy direction is insufficient to manage and regulate the mobility needs in Western Region, and therefore a vision that will progressively take the urban transport development into a new direction is required. The existing public transport system, which serves as an important mode of travel currently has serious issues with respect to service quality, capacity and the operating mechanism and is unable to meet the mobility needs of the population. Strict application of transport demand management (TDM) measures such as parking restrictions, road pricing and vehicle taxation policies, to reduce traffic levels are deemed inappropriate without viable alternative ways to travel. Any attempt at a strict application of TDM initiatives may cause unwelcome social issues and adversely burden the economic activities in the area.

The Government has therefore decided to adopt urban mobility solutions as the most appropriate way forward. This approach will focus on facilitating the mobility needs for people, not vehicles, by encouraging and maximizing the use of sustainable transport modes, such as public transport and non-motorized transport (NMT).

A tag line Promoting/inclusive and Sustainable Urban Mobility which agreed by the NPD as a policy, has therefore been chosen by WRMP as the key policy statement that will drive the urban mobility development in Colombo. This initiative will promote greater accessibility and connectivity within Western Region for all modes of transport and in the same time will transform the capital city into a vibrant and liveable urban environment that supports inclusive economic growth and environmental sustainability.

The modern concept, as well as the commonly adopted model of Megapolis, is based on the premise that, if the cities in adjacent region work together can create a new urban form that will increase economic opportunity and global competitiveness for each individual city and for the nation as a whole.

The proposed Megapolis plan is aimed at transforming the whole Western Region as the most vibrant and liveable cosmopolitan Smart City Region in South Asia- creating opportunities for all its inhabitants and investors, achieving the highest environmental standard and quality of life, ensuring socio-cultural harmony, and expanding its position as the preferred location for

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business and industry, to accommodate about 9.1 million people by 2035 with the Colombo as the core. To achieve this vision, the Megapolis plan promotes the polycentric & multi centric spatial structure by directing the developments towards Eastern, Southern and Northern segments of the Western region and thus spreading the development away from the Colombo core area. The Megapolis plan proposes new major growth areas such as shown in Figure 2.

i. Aviation Hub Aero City Zone in Katunayake,

ii. Industrial townships in Mirigama and Horana,

iii. Free Port and Logistics corridor between Katunayake and Colombo,

iv. Science & Technology city corridor between Kaduwela to Homogama,

v. Plantation City in Avissawella,

vi. Plantation & Forest City in Matugama & Baduraliya area,

vii. Tourism resort areas

viii. Eco-tourism in Negombo &Muthurajwela and Airport city in Rathmalana,

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 2: Proposed Mega City Structure Plan 19

Figure 2: Proposed Mega City Structure Plan

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These growth areas are located in the Northern, Eastern and Southern parts of the Western region and will be developed with necessary infrastructure and more land supply to create new living environment for its people.

In order to support proposed growth pattern, a poly-centric and multi centric spatial structure will be established connecting the important urban centres such as Kaduwela, Kottawa, Moratuwa, Panadura, Horana, Matugama, Aluthgama, Avissawella, Gampaha, Ja-Ela, Mirigama, Pugoda, Diulapitiya, Katunayake and Negombo, to facilitate better living environment for the residents and the commuting population in the new growth areas.

Twelve (12) planning areas were defined as shown in Figure 3 where the population growth has been forecasted for year 2020, 2025 and 2030 to achieve the expected growth for the Megapolis. The forecasted population by each planning areas are shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Planning areas and Population Growth

in Table 1. Table 1: Planning areas and Population Growth The Western Region is divided in

The Western Region is divided in to 467 Transport Analysis Zones (TAZ) for transport planning purposes and Population forecasts for 2020, 2025 and 2035 are shown in Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6. The employment forecast for 2035 is shown in Figure 7. The densities are shown in Figure 8 and Figure 9.

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 3: Planning Areas and Key Project Plan

Figure 3: Planning Areas and Key Project Plan

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The transport master plan provides an efficient connectivity system for its people to have easy access to facilities and at the same time avoid overcrowding in the Colombo core area. Employment opportunities in manufacturing and service sectors will be distributed to proposed growth areas or townships to ensure that there will be jobs available near home. It is anticipated that well-planned essential facilities such as health, education and basic recreational facilities like public spaces; parks, public pool and sport facilities will be provided in easily accessible distances.

In this context, transportation sector plays a key role to support the envisaged rapid development in the Western Region. The need to take an integrated approach which covers all modes of transport when making planning decisions on road development, public transport services and rail transport system as a part of the Megapolis planning process have been well recognized as essential aspect to ensure the efficient connectivity and mobility systems for the movement of people and goods within the region and the rest of the country.

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 4: Population Forecast for 2020 by TAZ

Figure 4: Population Forecast for 2020 by TAZ

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 5: Population Forecast for 2025 by TAZ

Figure 5: Population Forecast for 2025 by TAZ

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 6: Population Forecast for 2035 by TAZ

Figure 6: Population Forecast for 2035 by TAZ

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 7: Employment Forecast for 2035 by TAZ

Figure 7: Employment Forecast for 2035 by TAZ

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 8: Population Density in 2035 by TAZ

Figure 8: Population Density in 2035 by TAZ

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 9: Employment Density in 2035 by TAZ

Figure 9: Employment Density in 2035 by TAZ

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4 Transport Issues in Colombo Metropolitan Area

Numerous studies have been undertaken to assess the urban transport in Colombo Metropolitan area, and its issues with the objective of finding solutions. Any transportation master plan needs urban structure plan to forecast the transportation trends for the future. The following two of more recent master plan studies are considered as significant efforts carried out in order to propose comprehensive transport plan for the Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR).

1. JICA CoMTrans Master Plan Study undertaken by JICA in 2013/2014 formulated a comprehensive urban transport master plan for the Colombo Metropolitan Region and selected six transport corridors to implement projects in short-term, medium-term and long-term.

2. The Strategic Plan for Traffic Management in Colombo Metropolitan Region (Master Plan Review) by Ministry of Transport in 2015 prepared a transport master plan covering next 20 years up to 2035, which includes reviewing the master plan proposed by the CoMTrans study.

Department of National Planning has made an initiative by drafting a policy paper on Urban Transport Strategy in Colombo by 2020/2035 in order to promote inclusive and sustainable urban mobility in Colombo. The draft policy paper has recognized that the JICA study has identified a number of public transport related issues in CMA and forms the basis of the said report and a basis for the prioritizing the investments. However, both of the above transport plans have used the 1998 CMRSP structure plan with updates to accommodate potential growth centres which is contrastingly different from the proposed Megapolis Structure Plan. The JICA CoMTrans was planned with a population forecast of 7.8 Million people in 2035 with a CAGR of 1.4% while The Megapolis Structure Plan has a population forecast of 9.1 million by 2035 with CAGR 2.1%.

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 10: Difference of 2035 population between the

Figure 10: Difference of 2035 population between the Megapolis Plan and ComTrans Plan by TAZ

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Although the future growth percentages in both above studies and Megapolis are not considerably different, the spatial distribution of the growth are significantly different. The Figure 10 shows the difference of 2035 population between the Megapolis Plan and CoMTrans Plan at Transport Analysis Zones (TAZ). The blue coloured areas have a higher population and green coloured areas have a lower population in Megapolis Structure Plan in contrast to CoMTrans Plan. These show a forecasted population difference up to 100% in the Megapolis Structure Plan in areas such as Divulapitiya and Mirigama. A similar variation is forecasted for employment for the Megapolis Plan. Higher population centres are expected to generate more trips than the previous studies forecasted, while the higher employment centres are expected to attract the trips generated from the population centres. These changes in population and employment in Megapolis Plan is expected to change the trip patterns within the region.

Therefore, it was required to reconsider the transportation solutions by the two previous studies with updated population and employment, taking the scenario under Megapolis development in to account. The both studies have used the JICA STRADA travel demand model to forecast for the future demand of transport needs and the analysis of the options.

The two previous studies discuss in depth the current transportation issues, current demands and current transport supply in the region. Therefore this study does not intend to replicate the work but acknowledge the work that has been done and incorporates the information for development of the master plan for the Megapolis. The above studies have highlighted that 10 million daily passenger trips are generated within CMR, out of which 7.8 million are motorized trips. Therefore 2.2 million are non-motorized trips such as walking and bicycle trips. The motorized trips are carried by different modes comprising Car 14%, Rail 3.4 %, Bus 48.1%, Motor Cycle 17.9%, Three Wheelers 16.3% and Taxis 0.3%, which shows that almost 52% is still carried by public transport modes in 2012. There are 1.9 million daily passenger entering Colombo Municipality (CMC) limits from 7 main corridors shown in Figure 11. The average trip length for trips within CMC is 4km while 6 km for trips made outside from CMC which is a measurement of distance people need to travel for the daily needs. The Average trip length with CMR is 12km. The average travel speeds within CMR is 17km/h which drops to 12km/h when within CMC limits which outlines the current problem within the CMR.

The Megapolis transport master plan was also developed using the same JICA STRADA model with necessary improvements and corrections. The modelling was carried out to check the

suitability of proposed transport interventions for planning horizon year 2020, 2025 and

2035.

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 11: Transport Corridors in Western Region The

Figure 11: Transport Corridors in Western Region

The seven transport corridors shown in Figure 11 are radial connections to the CBD from major urban centres of CMA. The practice had been providing solution for each corridor; however, people not necessarily travel just on corridors but between corridors as well. This is further highlighted by Figure 12 showing the origin destination of bus passengers on Galle Road. It reflects that only around 50% of the passengers originating from Panadura, Moratuwa Katubedda, Rathmalana and Dehiwela continue beyond the CMC boundary at Wellawatte. This means that the 50% of the passengers have moved out of the corridor by the time the bus is reached at Wellawatte. It also reflects that only around 10% of the passengers originating at above locations are continuing to the Fort as their final destination.

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 12: Bus Origin Destination Patterns in Galle

Figure 12: Bus Origin Destination Patterns in Galle Road 4

The Origin Destination (OD) desire lines as shown in Figure 13 shows the pattern of trips within region forecasted for 2035. This explains where people would like to travel from their trip origin. The desire lines further explain that people do not necessarily travel on corridors and actually travel between corridors as well. Therefore, it is paramount important that the technology that is selected has to evolve beyond single corridors and connects multiple corridors and provide mobility for the total trip since people consider the total trip when they make a choice of selecting the mode of travel and is vital to achieve the mode shift from private vehicles to public transport.

The desire lines further show that a concentration of trips towards Colombo CBD with a cluster of lines merging to CBD still exists. However, it also shows patterns of short trips around Mega cities shown in circles in line with the envisaged structure plan of providing employment and necessary services around the city itself providing shorter trip lengths within the CMR.

4 Study of Implementation of Bus Rapid Transit on Galle Road, MoT, 2015

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 13: Desire Lines for 2035 Trips between

Figure 13: Desire Lines for 2035 Trips between TAZ

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Table 2: Daily Passenger Flows at the CMC Boundary Both Directions

Passenger Flows at the CMC Boundary – Both Directions Table 2 shows the number of daily

Table 2 shows the number of daily passengers entering the CMC boundary in 2013 and 2035. The 2013 numbers are based on ComTrans Study while the 2035 projected values are based on Megapolis Transport Plan forecasted values for do nothing scenario. It shows that current 1.9 million passengers will increase to around 4.4 million by 2035 doubling the current passenger flows to CMC. It should be noted that the 2035 numbers are based on do nothing scenario and does change and tends to increase in some corridors with improved mobility provided.

It was highlighted in both JICA study and the subsequent master plan review that public transport improvements are required and should be the priority. The Megapolis Transport Plan also share the same view of improvement to public transport, however it focus on providing mobility solution of all sectors as well including the road users. The focus is to use the scientific approach to determine the demand for transport for the full study period until 2035 selecting suitable technologies that are sustainable for the study period and provide the supply to meet the demand.

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There are different urban transport technologies available to provide solution for the current transport problems. As depicted in Figure 14, the identified technologies can be categorized based on cost of the technology in million US$ per kilometre and the capacity of the technology based on passengers per hour per direction (PPHPD) for a single lane/track. While the cost plays a role in economics of the intervention, the capacity plays a role in the sustainability of the intervention. An intervention with under capacity to cater for the project planning horizon is detrimental similar to intervention with a high cost. It is vital that technologies that can cater for the total project duration is selected.

The Figure 14 shows the 2013 bus passenger per hour per direction for selected corridors which shows that some of the technologies are almost at capacity even at current stage and some are beyond providing a solution for these corridors. Trams shown in light green in the figure which has about 5,000 PPHPD is beyond providing any solution for the current problem even at 2013. Convention buses can carry around 10,000 PPHPD while technologies such as BRT could increase the capacity to about 13,000 PPHPD per one lane of service. The current demand in 2013 on Galle Road and Negombo corridor are almost at capacity level of BRT technology if only one lane of BRT is provided per direction and is beyond its capacity for Kandy and Malabe corridors even at current state. Elevated or underground Metro have a significant costs associated with the technology although they can provide a high capacity. A viable solution was to consider electrified urban rail and Rapid Transit Systems (LRT, Monorail) which could provide 30,000 PPHPD per line. Another solution might be to provide two technologies to supply for the demand of each corridor which are over the capacity for individual technology. However, the potential of providing a solution with one rail based technology complimented by commuter buses that have enough capacity has to be considered as a priority.

The capital cost shown in Figure 14 is for infrastructure cost without considering and acquisition costs, therefore when implementing in an urban context where land is a scarce and costly, some of the land based options could have a considerable cost added to the intervention.

Figure 14 further shows the public transport demand for 2035 based on forecasted values for each corridor which confirms that technology such as BRT is unable to meet the demand as a single technology unless supported by another new technology which confirms the findings on

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BRT study 5 that BRT on Galle Road which found that it will meet its capacity by 2025 and that it would be required to be supported by a system such as LRT at that time. It should be noted that the BRT study projections are based on lower population growth rates considered and further confirmed through the Megapolis transport analysis that the capacity will be reached on Galle Road between 2020 and 2025.

Therefore, the Megapolis transport plan focus on providing a solution with incorporating the existing buses with bus modernization to provide a bus with high level of service with necessary institutional and infrastructure development, develop commuter rail to a improved and modernized service utilization of existing rail network along with extensions to new areas, introduction of a Rapid Transit Systems (RTS) such as Light Rapid Transit (LRT) or Monorail to areas where the railway cannot be extended to and introduction of new transport modes such as inland water transport.

5 Study of Implementation of Bus Rapid Transit on Galle Road, MoT, 2015

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 14: Modern Technologies and its Capacities 38

Figure 14: Modern Technologies and its Capacities

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5 TRANSPORT SUB-COMMITTEE OF MEGAPOLIS PROJECT

The Western Region Megapolis Project appointed following Transport Sub-Committee consists of Transport professionals, relevant stakeholders representing various agencies to propose a transport strategy for Megapolis area considering recent changes. The committee comprises of a core team that developed the transport plan with contributions from the invited members who attended planned weekly meetings from key stakeholder agencies. The WRMPP wishes to acknowledge the contribution of all teams for preparing the Transport plan for the Megapolis.

Core Team

1. Dr. Dimantha De Silva (WRMPP Consultant, Team Leader, Transport Planner/Modeller)

2. Prof. J.M.S.J. Bandara, (WRMPP Consultant, Transport Planner, Traffic Engineer)

3. Dr. Namali Sirisoma (WRMPP Consultant, Public Transport Specialist)

4. Mr. Kaushan Devasurendra (WRMPP Transport Engineer)

5. Ms. Wanuji Abewickrema (WRMPP Transport Engineer)

6. Mrs. I.K. Wijeratne (WRMPP Transport System Analyst)

Members Participated in Weekly Meetings

1. Prof. P.K.S. Mahanama (WRMPP Advisor)

2. Eng. Lal Premanath (WRMPP Consultant)

3. Mr. Avanthi Jayathilake (WRMPP Consultant)

4. Prof. Amal Kumarage (University of Moratuwa)

5. Eng. Namalie Siyambalapitiya (Road Development Authority)

6. Mr. W.W. Harrison, (Ministry of Transport)

7. Eng. Nihal Wickramarathna, (Colombo Municipal Council)

8. Mr. Amarasiri Senarathna, (DIG Police, Traffic)

9. Mr. T.P. Gamalath (CCTV Division, Police Traffic Department)

10. Mr. G. Wanniarachchi, (Western Province Transport Authority)

11. Mr. H.W. Wipulasena, (National Transport Commission)

12. Mr. Janak Ranaweera (UDA)

13. Mrs. Hemanthi Mapitigama (UDA)

14. Mr. Sanjaya Ranaweera (UDA)

15. Mr. J.M. Thilakarathna Banda (MOT)

16. Eng. R.A. Sudath (RDA)

17. Mr. S.A.L. Subasinghe (Colombo Municipal Council)

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18. Mr. B.A.P. Ariyarathne (MOT)

19. Mr. A.W.M. Sarathchandra (MOT)

20. Mr. I. Biyanwila (UDA)

21. Mr. J.I.D. Jayasundara (SLR)

22. Mr. J.A.D.R. Pushpakumara (SLR)

23. Mr. G. Wanniarachchi (WPTA)

24. Eng. E. Wickramarachchi (CMC)

25. Eng. S.A.K. Subasinghe (CMC)

26. Eng. Mangala Karunarathne (CMC)

27. Eng. Manjula Kularathne (CMC)

28. Mr. B.M. Ifthikar (NTC)

29. Ms. Pushpa R. Soyza (CSPA)

30. Mr. M.M. Anura Prasanne (UDA)

31. Mr. S.C. Diddeniya (MoMWD)

32. Ms. Aloka Karunarathne (NTC)

33. Mr. Kumar Rathnayake (Western Province Transport Authority)

34. Mr. Vishvajith Peiris (WRMPP Urban & Regional Planner)

35. Mr. Dilan Sampath Kumara (WRMPP Research Associate)

36. Mr. Dineth Jewanka Perera (WRMPP Research Associate)

The Committee, after a number of deliberations and consultation with the relevant stakeholders and with due consideration of the previous studies has identified four sub- sectors under transport sector, with the view to address identified issues.

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6 PROPOSED SUB SECTORS FOR INTERVENTION

It is planned to intervene at the following subsector level with the view to address the transport issues that are identified under JICA study and the Megapolis Development within the region. Proposals are identified under the following transport sub sectors.

I.

Public Transport Improvement (PTI)

II.

Road Infrastructure Development (RID)

III.

Transport Demand Management (TDM)

IV.

Environmental Sustainable Transport (EST)

I. Public Transport Improvement

Public transport system development is seen as the most sustainable solution for to meet the ever increasing transport demand thereby reducing road congestion and minimizing environmental pollution. A public transport system should be reliable and safety and comfortable to the user. At the same time, it should have good accessibility to all the demand centres, with adequate operating frequencies the different demand levels at peak and off peak periods. An efficient public transport system contributes to having more productive employees whilst ensuring minimum usage of resources.

II. Road Infrastructure Development

Road infrastructure development will ensure the capacity improvements of roads, connectivity of main cities and improvement of mobility in the system, whilst ensuring the safety standards are improved as well. Infrastructure requirement should be identified in separate street hierarchy as expressways, roads belongs to RDA and access roads.

III. Transport Demand Management (TDM)

Transport Demand Management essentially managing the transport demand with the available infrastructure by implementing schemes that changes road user behaviour. A major component of TDM is to understand the user behaviour in order to assess what will be most effective method to alter it. Identifying the travel demand, trip purposes, travel times and travel modes it is required to define TDM strategies for the system. The areas of interventions are such as service designs, enforcement, control and land use planning. Ultimate goals of TDM should make the travel options more affordable, reliable and convenient to the travellers. Several measures that can be introduced under the Western Region Development plan have been identified.

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IV. Environmental Sustainable Transport

Environmental sustainable transport is a very important factor to be considered in regional planning. Use of energy efficient transport modes, reduction of vehicle emissions, air pollution, and noise pollution will improve the health condition of the residents in the region in addition to the road users who are directly affected. A development of this scale needs to pay careful attention to the environmental impact, due to the long term implications it can pose.

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7 DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS

In formulation of the proposals under the above sub sector, the committee with due consideration to the cost factor, has agreed that the lands required for implementation of the proposals to be made available by the Megapolis Plan. In order to bridge the cost revenue gap in investment in the transport sector projects, part of the revenue that will be derived from commercial utilization of land for other than transport projects, should be utilized for implementation of transport projects or to compensate the revenue gap in operation, as provision of transport facilities would eventually improve the land utilization. Identification of lands available for development in Western Region is carried out separately by the project.

Following Interventions are proposed under the 4 sub sectors identified. Also it is identified when the intervention has to commence along with estimated cost and the project duration.

7.1 Public Transport Improvement

7.1.1 Restructure and Revision of Public Bus Service

Some of the existing bus routes do not cover important areas and some areas do not have adequate bus services. Bus route network has not been revised for about forty years. This will improve the accessibility to newly developed areas as well as support the Megapolis structure plan. Provision of bus services along identified important routes, that does not prevail, will minimize the number of transfers a passenger would undergo. Further, this revision will enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed transit systems and railway electrification by increasing the accessibility. Adjustment, extension or creation of bus routes will ensure the safe destination of a passenger and will reduce competition between bus operators by reducing overlapping routes. Restructuring of public bus service will promote a higher level of service for bus commuters while preserving and enhancing the mobility of the non-driving population. Further, it will minimize number of private vehicles engaging in Para transit modes especially three wheelers on roads. Moreover, reduction of the travel time and transfer time of passengers are added benefits while enhancing the connectivity between major generators and attractors. The restructuring and revision of the Bus service is intended for the whole western region.

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 The development of institutional reforms for public bus

The development of institutional reforms for public bus service is a crucial necessity that needs immediate action. The feasibility is sorted for creating cluster companies for private bus operators to ensure benchmark revue for all operators is. This will ensure that the all operators are provided revenue, based on vehicle km travelled rather than revenue earned from each trip which will eliminate the necessity for competition for peak hour period and competition on the providing the service. The operators have to be incorporated in to the cluster companies ensuring that the minimum number of buses required providing the service are deployed in the road. It will also ensure that the vehicle is run continuously with change of operating crew.

The revision of bus routes has to be considered for the whole western region and should come in to immediate action. This will enhance the connectivity of the system and minimize number of transfers. It will ensure that the operator can gain adequate revenue at the end of the day providing a satisfactory service to the commuter. It can commence with identification of new bus route requirement for Western province to provide a better accessibility. These new routes are meant to provide complimentary services to rail and RTS network by connecting railway and RTS stations. New routes are to be identified using expressways to connect cities within the province with higher mobility and also use of expressway interchange as touch and go systems so that passengers can board and alight at these nodes

Action Plan

Feasibility and implementation of Institutional reforms.

Identification of new routes on local roads and implementation using routes that have over supply of buses

Identifying express bus services using expressways connecting cities within the province

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Identifying pick and go locations along the expressway interchanges for out of province bus services using the expressways with feeder bus services to expressway interchanges

Route revisions along with connectivity to main transport nodes such as railway stations and RTS station to provide smooth transfer between modes.

Revision of time tables with completion of intuitional reforms so that both private and SLTB bus services run on single time table.

The project is planned to be commenced within 6 months and the duration of the project is estimated to be one year. The estimated cost is 0.2 million USD. The project will include restructure of bus route network, revision of time tables and development and implementation of institutional reforms.

Responsible agencies: WPTA/NTC/MOTWP

7.1.2. Modernize and Improving the Quality of Buses and Services

The intervention is intended to provide a bus with higher quality of service for the existing bus passengers thereby retaining them and also attracting private vehicle users to public transport. Public transport will be made more attractive through providing modernized bus service extended to the whole region. Better facilities for children and elderly passengers are to be provided by providing low floor buses with kneeling feature for easy and safe access together with facility for differently. Feasibility of converting the whole fleet to AC services should be considered providing a comfortable environment for passengers. It is intended for a regional bus system that will operate within a corporative environment that strikes a balance between service quality and cost. Under this project, less crowded service and more frequent service will be provided to the commuters with improved mobility and reliability thus enhancing the safety and security of passengers. It will not only provide better quality ridership for passengers but improve the driver performance to a higher level.

The specification for buses with Low floor, AC and IT enabled systems with GPS technology and passenger information systems with cash less technologies have to be identified for different size categories as to cover the total network coverage. The new specification has to be formulated as a priori immediately so that new buses can be introduced as part of the 8 year bus replacement policy that is in function currently. DMT act to be reviewed on passenger transport vehicles to enable the change in bus specification.IT based Smart Bus Service to be adopted, with provisions for passengers to access information on bus arrival time, tracking bus

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availability on a given route. The necessary subsidies to be identified to keep the bus fare the same or acceptable level while bridging the gap between the cost of new and older specification if the buses. The replacement time from currently at 8 years can be considered to be increased with the better quality buses that are been proposed. The replacement of buses for the new specification can be commenced with SLTB within 6 months with private bus fleet to be replaced within 8 years or earlier. The provision of adequate terminal facilities and modernized bus shelters parallel to bus service upgrade has been considered as a separate project therefore not part of the current project.

Providing bus priority at intersections and separate bus lanes are to be explored. However, it is noted that the current volumes on roads makes it extremely difficult to introduce any bus lanes without addition of new road space that requires costly acquisition. Theoretically the bus lanes or bus priority is intended to shift private passengers to public modes. However, since mode shift takes considerable time even with prior marketing, finding corridors that will not have adverse effect to existing traffic on the first day of operation is a challenge. Therefore, careful technical evaluation of impacts has to be conducted prior to implementation of any bus lanes on any of the corridors.

Action Plan

Develop new specification for a smart bus service with low floor kneeling, AC, IT enabled smart bus services for the whole region under different categories with necessary subsidies to provide the service at the current fare structure.

Implement new specification for private buses with new routes identified under previous project 7.1.1

Implement the new specification for SLTB buses after 6 months.

The project is planned to be commenced within 6 months and the duration is estimated to be 2 8 years. The project cost is estimated to be 431 million USD. The cost estimation is based on replacing the SLTB buses and subsidies necessary to bridge the gap of new private buses.

Responsible Agencies: WPTA/NTC/MOTWP

the SLTB buses and subsidies necessary to bridge the gap of new private buses. Responsible Agencies:
the SLTB buses and subsidies necessary to bridge the gap of new private buses. Responsible Agencies:

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7.1.3. Railway Electrification & Modernization

2016 7.1.3. Railway Electrification & Modernization Rail based transport modes are proven around the world to

Rail based transport modes are proven around the world to provide the solution for urban transport problems along with proper access by bus services. Under the Western Region Megapolis development plan, entire railway system within Western Province will be upgraded, electrified and modernized to provide a quality and comfortable ride to passengers. The project will encourage the passengers shift to rail from other modes of transport, thereby reducing the demand on the congested road space. Passengers and the region in whole will get many benefits including travel time savings, reduction on road accidents and reduction on environmental emissions.

The modernization includes upgrade of a) stations, b) Signal System c) Communication system d) Rail Track e) Ticketing and f)new rolling stock to provide a complete new mode of travel for passengers. Better connectivity to rail stations has to be ensured through route revisions of bus services to either terminate or provide enough accessibility. The coordination of rail and bus time tables has to be ensured to provide better transfer time for passengers. Electrification of the railway with new signal and communication system will allow for higher frequencies up to 3-5 minute headway in peak period and new rolling stock will supplement faster acceleration and deceleration times to increase frequencies. The passengers will be benefited with greater service reliability, better user comfort, better station ambience, additional seating capacity and shorter journey time. Lesser emissions and noise will ensure a sustainable and eco-friendly transport service.

Secured Park and a ride facility in selected stations have to be provided as part of station upgrades to attract more passengers. More focus should be made for motor cycle and bicycle users along with adequate car parking facilities. Further drop off and pick up areas along with

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taxi parking areas have to be provided for better access to the stations. Relocation of station in some instances might be required to facilitate better connectivity between modes. One such instance is relocation of Wellawatte station toward the Wellwatte Canal so that better transfer facility can be provided for the Wellawatte Battaramulla Canal service. Other locations will have to be identified as part of the feasibility study. The 2-3 minute frequencies will require grade separation by fly overs at major roads to avoid delays for road users and such locations will have to be identified in the feasibility study.

The following railway lines have been identified for modernization and electrification. The first three lines are existing lines while the last two lines are new lines to be added to the railway network. The lines are illustrated in

1. Panadura - Veyangoda - Polgahawela (RL-M1) -110km (85 kms within WR)

2. Kelani Valley (KV) line (RL-M3) -60km

3. Ragama Negombo line with new airport Access (RL-M2) -26km

4. Kottawa to Horana (RL-NR1) 22km

5. Kelaniya to Kosgama via Biyagama, and Dompe (RL-NR2) - 30km

The feasibility study on Railway Electrification and Modernization of PanaduraVeyangoda line has been proposed under the Colombo Suburban Railway Project under ADB assistance. Ministry of Transport has commenced shortlisting the consultants as of April 2016 to commence the feasibility. It is proposed to be extended the scope of the feasibility to extend the study up to Polgahawela. The existing signalling and communication system along the existing line from Panadura to Polgahawela is up to 40 years old and needs upgrade. Therefore, leaving a part of old signal system between Veyangoda to Polgahawela have the potential to cause operational problems. Further the Megapolis structure plan has major developments proposed for Meerigama and Divulapitiya area which warrants the line to be extended at least up to Meerigama. Therefore the proposal is to extend the feasibility up Polgahawela. The feasibility to determine the possibility of phasing out the signal, communication and track upgrades from Meerigama to Polgahawela as an initial measure and electrification to follow subsequently.

and track upgrades from Meerigama to Polgahawela as an initial measure and electrification to follow subsequently.

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Kelani Valley (KV) line (RL-M3 -60km) connects major town centres such as Kottawa, Homagama, Nugegoda Dompe and Avissawella on High Level corridor and also it spans through Baseline road making it one of the potential connection to the city. The current single line with slow speeds due to tight curves has already reached its capacity at peak time. The KV line is proposed to be double tracked and alignment to be as a short term project which requires the feasibility study to be started immediately.

Electrification of Ragama Negombo line with an airport Access (RL-M2-26km) connecting the Bandaranayke International airport is to be carried out as a medium term intervention providing the connectivity to the Negambo corridor.

A new railway line from Kottawa to Horana (RL-NR122km) is proposed as a short term measure where the economic feasibility of the trace and EIA has been already completed. The detailed design and the implementation is and the full feasibility of the project is yet to be completed and it will have to consider the electrification of the line as well. The Kelaniya to Kosgama via Biyagama, and Dompe (RL-NR2- 30km) to be constructed which gives access to the proposed plantation city at Avissawella, and the proposed logistics zone. This project is to be commenced as a long term intervention. A feasibility study needs to identify the demand and finalise trace. This can be either electrified or use the locomotives that are taken out due to electrification on other lines. This line targets as a passenger line as well as for freight transportation. The line passes through the Sapugaskanda oil refinery making necessary connection for oil transportation as well.

Action Plan

Feasibility on railway electrification and modernization on Panadura-Veyangoda extended to Polgahawela (RL-M1-110km).

Feasibility study of railway electrification and modernization on;

o

Kelani Valley line (RL-M3)

o

Ragama Negambo Line (RL-M2)

o

New Kelaniya Kosgama Passenger/Freight line (RL-NR2)

Detail design and implementation of Panadura Polgahawela line (RL-M1)

Detail design and Implementation of Kelani Valley line (RL-M3)

Detail design and implementation of Kottawa Horana line (RL-NR1)

Detail design and implementation of Ragma Negambo line (RL-M2)

Detail design and implementation of Kelaniya Kosgama line (RL-NR2)

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 The feasibility of Panadura Polgahawela Line (RL –

The feasibility of Panadura Polgahawela Line (RL M1) is to be commenced immediately (within 6 months) where the duration is estimated to be 1 year and the cost is estimated to be 1.1 million USD. Implementation of this project (PanaduraPolgahawela Line) is planned to be commenced after 6 months (immediately after the completion of feasibility study) to be completed on or before 2020 and the total cost is estimated to be 1,540 million USD at 14 milllion USD/km. The effective cost for the Western Region for the 85 km railway line within the province is 1,190 million USD.

Feasibility studies of the electrification of Kelani Valley line (RL-M3), RagamaNegambo Line (RL-M2) and KelaniyaKosgama freight line (RL-NR2) are planned to be commenced after 6 months and before 3 years. Feasibility studies are estimated to be completed within a year after the commencement and the cost is estimated to be 2.5 million USD. Implementation of the railway electrification of Kelani Valley line (60km) is planned to be commenced within 3 years and the total duration is estimated to be 3 years where the cost is estimated to be 840 million USD.The KV line is recommended to be completed in two phases with first phase up to Kottawa to be completed on or before 2020 and the second phase from Kottawa to Avissawella to be completed on or before 2025. Implementation of the railway electrification of RagamaNegambo line with airport connection is planned to be commenced after 3 years but before 5 years and the cost is estimated to be 364 million USD. Project duration is estimated as 2 years. The rail line is phased out to be operational on or before 2025.

The detailed design and implementation of KottawaHorana new rail line (22km) is planned to be commenced after 6 months and before 3 years to be completed on or before 2020. The estimated project duration for the whole project is 3 years and the cost is estimated to be 309 million USD. Detailed design and implementation of KelaniyaKosgama line is planned to be commenced after 5 years where the project duration is estimated to be 3 years to be completed by 2025. This line can be either be electrified or used as normal line with rolling stock retired from other lines, which will be decided through the feasibility study. The cost is estimated to be 420 million USD (if electrified, the cost will be lower if electrification is not needed).

Responsible Agencies: MOT/CGR/WPTA

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 15: Proposed Railway Lines for Railway Electrification

Figure 15: Proposed Railway Lines for Railway Electrification and Modernization

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7.1.4. Introducing a Rapid Transit System (RTS)

2016 7.1.4. Introducing a Rapid Transit System (RTS) The existing road and public transport service has

The existing road and public transport service has virtually come to a standstill in the peak time especially within the Colombo CBD area, the existing passenger demand is almost exceeding the supply of transportation infrastructure. The average travel speeds is around 17km/h in the western region and even lesser at 12km/h in the CMC area. While road expansions have been the usual practice that has been adopted it has been proven that more expansion of roads will only attract more and more private vehicles. Further, CBD does not have the luxury of available land for expansion of the road the improvement of public transport has been long felt for decades which has been addressed by the Megapolis Transport Plan which gives the highest priority to public transport improvements. In line with the transport plan one of the public transport improvements proposed is a new Rapid Transit System to be introduced in the CBD and extended to the out of the CBD of Western Region. It will introduce the new transit mode and will provide easy access to the major attractions in the system. It will ensure a higher quality service for everyone in terms of cost, time and safety. Introducing a new mode will help the rider to choose most appropriate mode of transport based on his trip purpose and hence will increase the modal shift towards the public transportation reducing the traffic congestion significantly. All the major points in the CBD will be connected by the new system. The RTS has to be elevated within CBD since road space is not available for dedicated service while there are possibilities of going on ground where it is extended to the suburbs.

Following three technologies with the capacities in parenthesis were considered.

1. Light Rail Transit (LRT) or Light Metro (30,000 PPHPD)

2. Monorail (30,000 PPHPD)

3. Bus Rapid Transit (13,000 PPHPD)

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JICA study has identified monorail as the suitable system while the MoT study has been based on more road based system with BRT technology. The transport committee in its consultation has identified that introduction of a modern urban rail based public transport system gives the best option for offering the private vehicle users an alternative to consider change the mode of travel whilst experiencing reasonably high service quality and reliability. This eradicates the complexities with respect to operating time tables, red tape with the administrative processes, pressure from unions, political influences, and the general inefficiency, that are part and parcel of the current public transport options available that is preventing it from becoming a viable alternative for private vehicle users. Therefore LRT was selected as the most suitable technology with due consideration given to the previous studies that were conducted.

The transport committee identified that BRT was not sustainable to meet the demands for design period of next 20 years. BRT requiring at least 3 lanes in each direction with the number of vehicles plying on the roads in the western region and found that it does not have the capability of evolving as a network without considerable acquisition and road expansions. With only marginal increase in capacity from 10,000 PPHPD of a higher level bus service to 13,000 PPHPD for BRT, the increase in supply is marginal to the investment that has to be made. There were two main BRT lines that were proposed by the MoT review which were for Galle Road between Fort and Moratuwa and Fort and Kadawatha. Practical situation is that both cannot be implemented in short term. The feasibility study on Galle Road has identified that Galle Road BRT would require a 6km elevated road between Wellawatte and Maliban junction, which raises the question whether such elevated structure on the existing roadway feasible (not addressed in the study) and also questions the possibility construction of an elevated road in short term. Further, the cost estimated at 16.2 million USD/km, with the elevated road section the BRT on Galle road would be one of the most expensive or the most expensive BRT in the world surpassing 12.5 million USD/km for TransMileno in Bogota, Columbia. The Kadawatha expansion is a more a practical problem where the extra lane that is required for BRT would need additional acquisition from the section that was acquired in 2015. The people who have demolished their properties and rebuilding will be required to be given acquisition notice that is practically not possible. The remaining BRT lines have similar acquisition issues. The BRT lines proposed via expressways have limitation of passengers limited to the number of seats and technically do not need a BRT system but rather an express bus service. Further, It has been identified by the feasibility study itself that Galle Road BRT will reach capacity by 2025 even when running in parallel with the electrified rail network thus creating an under supply just after 5-6 of operation of the system. However it should be noted that the BRT study was conducted based on 1998 CMRSP plan which has lower growth

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scenario than the Megapolis plan and the Megapolis demand analysis has identified that the BRT will reach its capacity even sooner between 2020 and 2025. A detail description on why the BRT was not selected is given in separate technical document: The Reasons for not including BRT in the Megapolis Plan. http://www.megapolis.gov.lk/downloads.php

Main cause for the selection of LRT (Light Rail Transit) over monorail was its popularity corresponding to its versatility. Light rail can run on all possible types of alignment (elevated, at-grade, underground), depending on the particular situation in a given area of a given city, while monorail is limited to elevated only. Since the proposed Rapid Transit system spreads through suburbs such as Battaramulla, Kottawa, Malabe, Kaduwela and Kadawatha, as discussed later, approximately 17% can be accommodated at-ground level while blended facilities such as deports, yards and stations can be located at ground level irrespective to line been at-grade or elevated, significantly reducing the overall cost. LRT also have the advantage of lower operations costs and does not pose incurred higher costs on switching as in monorail. Monorail has been popular in cases of stand along lines connecting two places; however it has rarely evolved as a network especially with crossing that is limited with monorail. Proposal by JICA for monorail can be justified with the two lines that had been considered from Malabe to Fort and towards Mattakuliya since both of these lines will have to be elevated, however when considering a network evolving to the suburbs that can have ground operation the LRT is a better choice. Further the fact that LRT has more providers across the world enables to acquire a system at a competitive rate with the best technology. The modern LRT system technology permits slender contemporary structural supports ensuring the aesthetic beauty of the urban

context which could be enhanced with the involvement of an urban design

description on why the LRT was selected over monorail is given in a separate technical

A detail

document: Light Rail Transit (LRT) vs Monorail for Western Region Megapolis. http://www.megapolis.gov.lk/downloads.php

The RTS route and selection of stations were done according to a comprehensive methodology using major trip attraction, generation points and minimum spanning tree method. A detail description of the RTS route formulation methodology is given in Appendix 03.

The RTS lines that were identified are listed below and shown in Figure 16 and Figure 17.

1.

Green Line (RTS1) -15km FortKollupitiya-Bambalapitiya-Borella-Union Place- Maradana - Elevated

2.

Yellow Line (RTS2)-11.5km Fort- Maradana- Mattakkuliya/Peliyagoda- Elevated

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3. Red Line (RTS3) 10km Dematagoda-Borella-Narahenpita-Kirulapone-Havelock City-

Bambalapitiya - Elevated 4. Purple Line (RTS4) 10km -BorellaRajagiriyaBattramulla-Malabe Elevated/at Ground

5. Pink Line (RTS5) 9.6km - Malabe KottawaElevated/at Ground

6. Olive Line (RTS6) 6km - Malabe - Kaduwela - Elevated/at Ground

7. Ash Line (RTS7) 13km - Peliyagoda - Kadawatha - Elevated/at Ground

RTS1, RTS2 and RTS 3 are within CBD and are completely elevated systems. RTS1 supply for the demand with the inner CBD and is a circular route that connects the Fort MMH and inner city future high density residential complexes and economic centres. It connects to the railway lines at Fort, Kolupitiya and Bambalapitiya. RTS2 connects Mattakuliya/Kotahena area with the city starting beyond Kelani river at Hekitta at one end and at Peliyagoda at the other end. There are possibilities of having park and ride facilities at both of these locations so that number of vehicles entering across the river can be limited. RTS3 starting from Bambalapitiya and going across thunmulla and going down high level road to Kirulapone and coming along Baseline road to Dematagoda connects residential and institutional land use such as Havelock city, schools, hospitals and transferability from Rail at Bambalapitiya, Narahenpita and Dematagoda.

RTS4 from Borella to Malabe could have at ground stations but most likely to be elevated systems as well. This line connects to the RTS1 at Borella and goes along the centre island of the Parliament Road/Cotta Road towards Battaramulla and continue to Malabe. RTS5 starting from Malabe to Kottawa and RTS6 starting from Malabe to continue towards Kaduwela. However, RTS5, RTS6 and RTS7 have potential of a total 12.5 kms of at ground operation where RTS5 with 5kms, RTS6 with 2.5 kms and RTS7 having closer to 5kms of at ground operation.

Efficient transfer facilities between urban rail to RTS is critical that continuous mobility is ensured for the public transport users first to provide an efficient service to current users plus attract more passengers from other modes. Urban rail RTS transfers from Coastal line are provided at Bambalapitiya and Kollupitiya, from main line at Kelaniya, Dematagoda and Fort, from KV line at Kottawa, Narahenpita, Cotta road and Dematagoda as shown in Figure 17. The Kaduwela transfer facility is for transfer from Inland water transport mode as discussed in next section. Secured park and ride facilities for cars, motor cycles and also for non-motorized transport such a bicycles have to be identified and provided where land is available so that

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people are able to access the RTS stations. Further, park and ride facilities at Kadawatha, Peliyagoda and Kottawa to attract people arriving on expressways are to be provided.

As a result of Rapid Transit System with LRT technology proposed above, faster connectivity to their final destination for people brought in from urban railway is ensure. Further, it is an addition of new mode and increase of capacity to the total transit system that will avoid the overloading of existing transit systems, reduce the number of private vehicles especially motor cycles and three wheelers on roads, improve the quality of ridership with better travel time, safety and comfort, attract more investors and tourists to the country and it will reduce land acquisition problem for road widening.

it will reduce land acquisition problem for road widening. Action Plan  Feasibility Study of Rapid

Action Plan

Feasibility Study of Rapid Transit System with LRT technology for all identified lines in CBD and Suburbs:

o

Green Line (RTS1)

o

Yellow Line (RTS2)

o

Red Line (RTS3)

o

Puple Line (RTS4)

o

Pink Line (RTS5)

o

Olive Line (RTS6)

o

Ash Line (RTS 7)

Detail design and implementation of Rapid Transit System with LRT technology on;

o

Green Line (RTS1) -15km Fort Kollupitiya-Bambalapitiya- Borella-Union Place- Maradana

o

Purple Line (RTS4) 10km - Borella Rajagiriya Battramulla-Malabe

Detail design and implementation of Rapid Transit System with LRT technology on;

o Yellow Line (RTS2)-11.5km Fort- Maradana- Mattakkuliya/Peliyagoda

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o Pink Line (RTS5) 9.6km - Malabe Kottawa

Detail design and implementation of Rapid Transit System with LRT technology on;

o

Red Line (RTS3) 10km Dematagoda-Borella-Narahenpita - Kirulapone- Havelock City- Bambalapitiya

o

Olive Line (RTS6) 6km - Malabe - Kaduwela

Detail design and implementation of Rapid Transit System with LRT technology on;

o Ash Line (RTS7) 13km - Peliyagoda - Kadawatha

Feasibility study of the whole RTS network is planned to be commenced within 6 months. The duration for the feasibility is estimated as 1 year and the cost is estimated as 1 million USD. The feasibility of Green Line (RTS1) and Purple Line (RTS4) are to be expedited, so that detail design and construction could be started immediately.

The detail design and implementation of the RTS lines proposed above are in phases as described below. The detailed design and implementation of RTS1 and RTS4 are planned to be commenced after 6 months and within 3 years (as soon as the feasibility study completed) to be operational in year 2020. The duration of the project is estimated to be 3 years and the cost of RTS 1 and d RTS 4 are estimated to be 750 and 500 million USD respectively.

Detailed design and implementation of RTS2 and RTS5 are planned to be commenced after 3 years and within 5 years. The duration of the projects is estimated to be 3 years and the cost of RTS 2 and d RTS 5 are estimated to be 575 and 380 million USD respectively. Detailed design and implementation of RTS3, RTS6 and RTS7 are planned to be commenced after 5 years. The duration of the projects is estimated to be 3 years, 2 years and 3 years respectively and the cost is estimated for RTS3 as 500 million USD, RTS6 as 260 million USD and RTS7 as 550 million USD. The total cost of the RTS network of 75kms is 3.5 billion USD.

Responsible Agencies: WRMPP

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 16: Proposed RTS network in CBD area

Figure 16: Proposed RTS network in CBD area

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Kelaniya Fort MMH Dematagoda Kaduwela Cotta Rd Kollupitiya Narahenpita RTS5 Bambalapitiya Kottawa MMC
Kelaniya
Fort
MMH
Dematagoda
Kaduwela
Cotta Rd
Kollupitiya
Narahenpita
RTS5
Bambalapitiya
Kottawa MMC

Figure 17: Proposed RTS network in CBD & suburbs

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7.1.5. Introducing New Inland Water Transport System

Use of inland waterways has the potential to reduce the travel time drastically on certain travel corridors. Presently, there is no proper connecting mode in the East-West direction in the Colombo region unless the prevailing bus services cater that necessity. By using the existing canal systems, strong east-west transport connectivity can be generated for the commuters’ convenience. Comfortable air conditioned boats will ensure a smooth comfortable ride for passengers At the off peak periods, especially at night time this system can be used to promote ecotourism around the Colombo city making this city an active and an attractive area during night time as well. This will add a facet to the city’s transport infrastructure. Boat jetties will be placed at main linking points where the canals cross the main roads and in other places where necessary improving the accessibility and the inter connectivity between other modes.

Following three inland water transport lines were identified as shown in Figure 18;

Wellawatta Battaramulla Line (IW1)

Fort Union Place (along Beire Lake) (IW2)

Mattakkuliya Hanwella (along Kelani River) (IW3)

The Wellawatta-Battaramulla (IW1) has the most potential to provide an urban transport solution. It intersects 6 main road including Marine Drive, Galle Road, Highlevel Road, Baseline Road, Nawala Road and Parliament Road out of which 3 of them are main 7 corridors. This is one of interventions identified under the Megapolis plan that can come in to action immediately as a detail feasibility of the project was conducted in 2005 which needs update to current traffic condition.

The shuttle boat service proposed in the Beire Lake from Fort to Union Place (IW2) will save a considerable time for passengers who have to use bus service to connect these points especially during peak time. The feasibility of the line has to be conducted.

use bus service to connect these points especially during peak time. The feasibility of the line

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 The line along Kelani River from Mattakkuliya up

The line along Kelani River from Mattakkuliya up to Hanwella (IW3) has a high potential to provide an alternate mode for the low level corridor where the public transport is poor. Due consideration has to be made in regards to environmental impacts prior to implementation as the main water intake is from Kelani river for distribution of water Colombo. The feasibility of the mode with electrified or solar powered boards can be considered when the study on the route is done. Prior to the canal boat system, the cleaning and dredging of the canals should be done in addition. Parallel to the provision of boats, construction of boat stations, yards and access roads should come in to action. A proper type of boats should be used during this service and a proper regulatory mechanism should be established for the continuous monitoring and for the operation and maintenance processes. As this is connected with the environment much more, necessary studies must be carried out to identify the environmental problems and action to mitigate where possible.

Action Plan

Feasibility Study update and detail design on;

o Wellawatta Battaramulla Line (IW1)

Implementation of the service on;

o Wellawatta Battaramulla Line (IW1)

Feasibility Study and detail design on;

o

Fort Union Place (along Beire Lake) (IW2)

o

Mattakkuliya Hanwella (along Kelani River) (IW3)

Implementation of the service on;

o

Fort Union Place (along Beire Lake) (IW2)

o

Mattakkuliya Hanwella (along Kelani River) (IW3)

Since a prior feasibility study and a detailed design has been carried out for IW1 (Wellawatta Battaramulla line) in 2005 the commencement of this particular project is planned within 6 months where the duration is estimated to be 6 months and the cost is estimated to be 60 million USD.

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN FINAL REPORT

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016

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MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016

Feasibility studies in IW2 and IW3 are also planned to be commenced within 6 months where the projected duration is 6 months. The estimated cost for the feasibility study is 0.1 million USD. Detailed design and implementation of IW2 and IW3 are planned to be commenced after 3 years. The durations of the projects are estimated to be 1 year and 2 years respectively and the cost of IW2 and d IW3 are estimated to be 5 and 60 million USD respectively.

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN FINAL REPORT

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016

2016

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016
MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016 Figure 18: Proposed Inland Water Transport System 7.1.6.

Figure 18: Proposed Inland Water Transport System

7.1.6. Develop Multimodal Transport Hub and Centres

Development of an integrated transit system that provides satisfactory service coverage for people and freight transport as practically as possible by enhancing the connectivity will be achieved through construction of multimodal transport hubs and centres. The main trip

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN FINAL REPORT

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016

2016

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016

generation zones within the region will be connected by both railway and roads to ensure seamless travel especially for the public transport users. For this purpose, there needs to be integration of the modes via multi-modal hubs for smooth transitions for the users from one mode to the other. Ultimately, transport Hub and centres will provide a better connectivity and transfer facilities for passengers.

These benefits will not only be confined to passenger transport but would also be derived for goods transport. Improved logistic facilities for their goods could open up access to previously unreachable areas as well as link key economic centres to national markets. Such improved infrastructure facilities will attract more investors to the country improving business opportunities and also will increase the tourist demand in the country providing comfortable and safer transport system.

The main Transport Multimodal Hub is being proposed to construct at Fort/Pettah, in Colombo. Development of the detailed designs for Fort / Pettah transport hub (MMTH) should be done immediately.

/ Pettah transport hub (MMTH) should be done immediately. Source: ComTrans Feasibility Study Report In order

Source: ComTrans Feasibility Study Report

In order to support the proposal, conversion of OlcottMawatha/ Basitian Mawatha to one-way operation so that all buses can circulate should come in to action. Parallel actions such as re- routing of short distance buses, provision of Park & Ride facilities in order to accommodate the private vehicles must accommodate this implementation. Inter connectivity of transit modes should be achieved as well. Access to port by road and rail should be provided enhancing a better connectivity.

Several other transport terminal locations have been identified to be improved as Multi Modal Centres (MMC). These have been identified into two levels, major MMCs and minor MMCs.

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN FINAL REPORT

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016

2016

MEGAPOLIS TRANSPORT MASTER PLAN – FINAL REPORT 2016

The proposed major Multimodal Transport Centres are;

Kottawa

Horana

Kadawatha

Kaduwela

Panadura

Negombo/18 th Mile post

The minor Multi Modal Transport Centres (MMC) are;

Gampaha

Ragama

Moratuwa

Meerigama

Avissawella

Bus re-routing and related development activities have to be identified for each location separately to cater the passenger demand. Park & Ride facilities should be developed at respective areas. Develop ICD facilities if required. Need to carry out a feasibility study to identify the types of developments and land availability in selected locations.

Action Plan

Detailed design and construction of Multimodal Transport Hub (MMTH) at Fort/Pettah.

Detail design and construction of multimodal centres at 11 locations identified.