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ISSN:2394-398X | Vol.

3 | Issue 3 | May - June 2017

Admissions open for PG Diploma and Certificate Courses in Aquaculture

Honorary Advisor Prof. K.R.S.Sambasiva Rao
Dr. S.Ayyappan Editor-in-Chief
Former Director-General
Indian Council of Agricultural Research Mr. V.Siva Prasad
New Delhi India Managing Editor

Advisory Board Prof. P.Hari Babu

Dr.Jim Wyban Technical Editor
H2A2 Prawns Ltd., USA Dr. B.S.Viswanatha

Dr. J. K. Jena Dr.P.Jaganmohan Rao

Deputy Director - General of Fisheries Executive Editors
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
New Delhi, India Members
Dr. W.S.Lakra
Former-Director Prof. S.V.Sharma, Vijayawada
Central Institute of Fisheries Education
Mumbai, India Dr. K.Veeraiah, Vijayawada

Dr. P. Jayasankar Dr. P.Padmavathi, Guntur

Former Director, Central Institute of Freshwater
Aquaculture Bhubaneswar, India Dr. P.V.Krishna, Guntur
Dr. Iddya Karunasagar
Senior Fishery Industry Officer Dr. K. Sumanth Kumar, Guntur
Food and Agricultural Organisation
Rome, Italy Dr. G.Simhachalam, Guntur

Dr. A. K .Singh Dr. K.Sunita, Guntur

Director, Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research
Nainital, India Dr. V.Venkata Ratnamma, Guntur
Dr. K.K.Vijayan
Director, Central Institute of Brackishwater Dr. M.Jagadesh Naik, Guntur
Aquaculture Chennai, India
Dr. A.S. Ninawe Dr. N.Gopala Rao, Guntur
Advisor, Department of Biotechnology
New Delhi, India
ISSN: 2394-398X
Vol. 3
Issue 3
May-June 2017

Pond Coloration,
Interpretation and
06 Possible Measures
of Rectification for
sustainable Aquaculture

Spirulina: A promising
super food to fight
10 against malnutrition

Chitin and Chitosan and

13 their Applications

Applications of
Glucosamine, Chondroitin
16 Sulphate from Marine
Sources for Bone

Artificial Reef: A
20 sustainable way of
managing Ecosystem

22 Technical Articles and


Pond Coloration, Interpretation

and Possible Measures of
Rectification for sustainable
Aquaculture practice
Atish M. Mane1, Sandeep S. Pattanaik1, Rakesh Jadhav2 and *Alok Kumar Jena3
Division of Aquaculture, CIFE, Mumbai, India
College of Fisheries, Ratnagiri, India
Department of Aquaculture, College of Fisheries, CAU, Lembucherra, India

Stress in farmed fish is considered significant to both animal Causes of Water Coloration
welfare and productivity and has been linked to reductions Several natural and artificial causes are responsible for an
in growth, physiological stress responses, abnormal behav- existing water color:-
iour, and immune-depression (Rahman et al., 2005). When
fish are subjected to these adverse environmental condi- The most favorable environments for high coloration in-
tions, some endocrine and physiological alterations occur, clude elevated organic activity with algal growth and pres-
often resulting in change in ability of the fish to survive, grow ence of soluble minerals in the vicinity of a water body.
and reproduce. As one of the important factor contributing The main reason that causes the change of water color is
stress to the farmer is pond colorations. Undesirable pond the variation and fluctuation of microorganisms, especially
coloration affects growth rate, size variation and mortality the phytoplankton.
as it directly or indirectly influences the productivity of the Suspended and dissolved particles in water influence color.
system. So, fish farmers should pay much attention towards Suspended material in water bodies may be a result of natural
the color of the pond water. As the pond color is associated causes or human activity.
with the promotion or abundance of desirable plankton spe- The homogeneous color intensity occurs when a few phy-
cies which plays a vital role in extensive and semi-intensive toplankton species have become dominant in the community
fish culture practices. In other words, they give great impor- and have started to propagate rapidly i.e. Algal bloom.
tance on the promotion of phytoplankton in pond water. Due to some dissolved matters and minerals, clay particles,
organic particles, pigments and suspended colloids etc.
Five following objectives associated with water color In larger water bodies the color changes with the time by
(Ayyappan, 2011) can be identified:- light source, absorption and scattering of light.
To increase dissolved oxygen and to decrease Co2, Milky clouds appear in the water column, water becomes
NH3, H2S and CH4 in pond water. sticky and scum and foam on the water surface when paddle-
To stabilize water quality and to lower content of toxic wheels are running.
compounds. Due to Mass mortality of phytoplankton and also Eutrophi-
To make use of plankton as a natural feed. cation.
To provide shade and to decrease cannibalism. Role of Algal Growth in Water Color
To increase and stabilize water temperature. Before or during decomposition, algae may impart a green,
Color of Water brown or even reddish color to the water.
Water color, including true color and apparent color, is a This growth can produce hues varying from a pea-soup
color appearing under the sunshine and is made of micro- green to a reddish brown.
organisms, comprising phytoplankton, zooplankton and At high concentrations, algae can produce an unpleasant
bacteria, dissolved matters and minerals, clay particles, "pond scum.
organic particles, pigments and suspended colloids etc. Algal blooms also can degrade the visual appeal of a wa-
Transparency of water is mainly determined by algal den- ter body, and negatively affect its ecology by consuming
sity. Water color is usually related to the productivity. The dissolved oxygen as the algal mats decay. In some cases, the
water color can be used as a means to assess the pond decay produces a bad odor from the release of methane gas.
condition by the farmer in the absence of instrumentation.

Role of Minerals in Water Color If the algal population develops well, it will highly increase
Presence of several minerals is also responsible for an exist- pond productivity, which can go up to 6 15 tons per ha of
ing water color:- fish production.

Red and brown colors are due to iron; black to manganese

or organic matter; and yellow to dissolved organic matter
such as tannins, Iron and manganese are common, at least in
small amounts, in most rocks and sediments cause color to
the water.
In groundwater that contains abundant dissolved oxygen,
iron and manganese form solid mineral phases and cannot be
dissolved to any extent. But in some groundwater, however,
there is a limited amount or no oxygen present. Under that
condition, iron and manganese dissolve in the water to give
color to the water.
The yellow color associated with natural dissolved organic
matter (e.g., tannins) may result when rainwater or runoff
leaches this organic matter from leaves, roots, and other veg-
etative matter, and flushes it down to the aquifer supplying
a well. Golden brown color is usually related to a crop of healthy
The coloration both from iron and manganese and from dis- fish, with brilliant body color and is an indicator of expected
solved organic carbon may occur seasonally. good yield.
Insoluble oxidized iron (rust) can give water a red tint, man- Light or Bright Green (Fig.2)
ganese oxide causes a black discoloration, and a combination
of the two can yield a yellow-brown hue color to the water.
Water rich in phytoplankton and other algae usually ap-
Color of Water in Relation to Pond Productivity pears green. This color is made by development of green al-
Golden brown or reddish brown. gae group, especially Chlorella. In addition, some other algae
Light or Bright Green such as Dunaliella, Platymonas, Chlamydomonas also present
Dark Green or blackish green in pond water.
Dark Brown and Sauce-like color Transparency is usually between 20 and 70 cm.
Yellowish color Fish cultured in ponds have this water color will have high
Turbid color survival rate and pond productivity can achieve 4 8 tons per
Foggy White Water ha.
Black muddy color Chlorella also has ability to control development of Vibrio
Golden brown or reddish brown (Fig.1) spp. bacteria.
This color is causing by blooming of single cell algae as
Chaetoceros, Navicula, Nitzschia, Skeletonema, Cyclotella,
Synedia, Achnanthes, Amphora, and Euglena .
It occurs frequently due to lower temperature and in saline
waters having high organic matter concentration. Transpar-
ency is normally between 25 and 35 cm.

According to National Agricultural Extension and Re-

search (1996) states pale color, light greenish or greenish
waters suitable for fish culture.
Dark Green or blackish green color (Fig.3)
When water temperature goes quite high and quick accu-
mulation of organic matters occurs, this color is developed.
Blue-green algae such as Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Mi-
crocoleus dominate.

The survival rates of shrimp in these ponds are quite high

but the growth rate is slow. The formation of turbid water may be due to the suspen-
Some algae in this group make fish have stinking muddy sion of clay particles or detritus, strong wind and the result-
smell. Sometimes it is infested with protozoa and germs. It ing disturbing movement of shrimp or fish at the bottom.
is not a desirable color in semi-intensive fish culture practice. It provides some nutritional effect since the clay particle
Dark Brown and Sauce-like Color can absorb nutrients, organic particles and microorganisms
Poor pond management, such as overfeeding or using large to form clay floccules which can serve as shrimp natural
amounts of trash fish, causes a rapid growth of dinoflagellates feed. Too many clay particles can be negative to the growth
and brown algae. of shrimp or fish.
Transparency of this water is about 15 cm and indicates Clay turbidity is usually milk grey in color. Excessive tur-
super-eutrophication. Sometimes causes dropsy and makes bidity caused by the presence of colloidal clay in a pond can
the animal susceptible to gill disease. block light penetration and retard or prevent the formation
The reason for this dark brown color to form is not due to of algal bloom.
algae, but by the pigment and tannic acid, that normally oc- Clear Water Color
curs a high concentration in mangrove area because of acid This water is transparent. This may be caused by a lack
sulfate soils. According to Bhatnagar et al. (2004), dark brown of nutrients, the presence of heavy metal pollutants like
color is lethal for fish / shrimp culture. copper, manganese, iron or acid bottom clay (pH 5.5 or
Yellowish Color lower). Water color is referred as apparent color and true
This color is caused by the development of Chrysophyta. In color based on the type of solid material present in it. Un-
addition, flagellated algae also cause this color in water. der these conditions, no organisms can grow properly.
It is usually formed in old fish ponds that have accumulated Clear water is unproductive for fish/shrimp culture. Clear
a high organic load over a long period and through bacterial water indicates very low or absence of biological produc-
action. tion not fertile enough and fish will not grow well in it.
Black muddy color
It inhibits the growth of benthic diatom viz. blue-green al-
gae and green algae and also growth of shrimp or fish is inhib-
Tannins that are yellow to black in color are the most abun-
ited and chances of high mortality exist. dant kind found in lakes and streams and can have a great in-
Dissolved organic matter, some algae or dinoflagellates and
fluence on water color.
soil runoff can produce yellowish color. Bottom of the pond where black muddy layer accumulated
Naturally occurring organic compounds such as tannins by suspended organic and inorganic matters in water, uneat-
and lignins, derived from the decomposition of plant and en feed, shrimp faeces, excreted products and death body of
animal matter, can give surface water and groundwater a tea-
all organisms in water. Mud will have black color when there
like yellow-brown hue, as well as a musty smell, and is known
is high accumulation of ferrous products.
for its "root beer" color. H2S and ferrous will be produced in bottom. Bacteria and
Foggy white water color harmful algae will develop strongly inside mud. Together with
This mainly comprises of zooplankton, clay particles and mud, they cling to gills and body of shrimp to make shrimp
detritus. Too high a population of zooplankton in the en- weak, therefore shrimp is more susceptible to diseases. Black
vironment interferes with shrimp behavior and can muddy color is unproductive for fish/shrimp culture.
cause damage to shrimps. It is also indicative of the die- Coloration against productivity
off of algae or the deterioration of water quality with Table.1. Different coloration against productivity of the
resulting propagation of bacteria. This watercolor will ecosystem
need to be well controlled during fish culture period.
Coloration Productivity
Golden brown or red- Average productive
Turbid Water Color dish-brown color
Light or Bright Green color Highly productive
Dark Green or blackish Low productive
green color
Dark Brown and Sauce-like Unproductive
Yellowish color Unproductive
Foggy White Water color Unproductive
Black muddy color Unproductive

Aquaculture organisms have obtained all their nutritional 3. Ayyappan, S. (2011). Hand book of fisheries and Aqua-
requirements, except for part of the mineral requirements, culture. Indian council of Agricultural Research publication,
through the live food they consume. In nature, most of the or- New Delhi. India.
ganisms subsist on live food consisting of plants (phytoplank- 4. Bhatnagar, A. and P. Devi. (2013). Water quality guide-
ton) and animals (zooplankton) obtained from the environ- lines for the management of pond fish culture. International
ment, but some do ingest and possible utilize detritus along Journal of Environmental Science, 3(6): 1-30.
with associated organisms. The initial source of food for many 5. Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University
larval organisms is plankton. Lim et al. (2003) stated that the of Florida / Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. 2004.
success in the hatchery production of fish is largely depend- A beginners guide to water management color. Gainesville,
Florida, USA.
ent on the availability of suitable live foods for feeding to fish
larvae, fry, and fingerlings. Hence, pond coloration plays a vi-6. Kannan, M. S. and N. Lenca.( 2013.) Field guide to
tal role in the productivity of an ecosystem as it reflects the algaeand other scumsin ponds, lakes,streams and rivers
production of desired plankton species that forming the pre- Northern Kentucky University Press, Highland Heights, KY
ferred food for many tropical freshwater fish species. On view 41099. USA.
of this light or bright green color and golden brown or red- 7. Lembi,C. A.( 2003.) Aquatic Plant Management.Purdue
dish-brown color is generally preferred for culture practices. University Cooperative Extension Service Press,West Lafay-
ette. USA.
8. Lim, C. L., P. Dhert and P. Soregloos. (2003). Recent de-
velopments in the application of live feeds in the freshwater
When the color becomes undesirable owing to over- ornamental fish culture. Aquaculture 227:319-331.
blooming, bactericides, insecticides and algaecides may be 9. The Pennsylvania State University. (2009). A Field Guide
used. toCommon AquaticPlants of Pennsylvania.USA.
Increasing aeration or partial replacement with clean Rahman, M. A., Mazid, M. A., Rahman, M. R., Khan, M. N.,
water may also be helpful in changing water quality. Hossain, M. A. and Hussain, M. G. 2005. Effect of stocking
Over-feeding should be avoided. density on survival and growth of critically endangered mah-
To achieve a particular color, algal nutrients may be used. seer, Tor putitora (Hamilton) in nursery ponds. Aquaculture,
Ammonium salts are good for green algae growth, while urea 249: 275284.
is good for brown algae.
For extensive farming 30-50 percent water exchange has
to be done. *Corresponding author: -
For semi-intensive farming keep aerators on, to main-
tain dead algae in suspension. Later 30-50 percent water
exchange is to be done.

Mud Crabs
Algal nutrient (Ecoplankt) should be used.
Agricultural grade gypsum (hydrated calcium sulfate), @ 12
pounds per 1,000 feet3 of water. Aluminum sulfate (filter alum)
about 50 pounds per acre-foot of water are used to solve black
muddy color problem. Application of organic and inorganic Mud crabs, also known as mangrove crabs, occur widely in
fertilizers in clear water ponds may increase productivity. estuaries and along tropical, subtropical and warm temperate
Conclusion coasts from eastern Africa to the southern tip of Japan and
Generally, microorganisms, comprising phytoplankton, zoo- northeast Australia. They also occur in many Pacific island
plankton and bacteria are the major among all that can form nations, such as Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Samoa and Tonga.
the visible color and the main reason that causes the change Large with a delicate flavor, they are highly sought after
of water color is the variation and fluctuation of microor- and command high market prices wherever they occur. In
ganisms. Plankton plays a significant role in increasing the the recent past there was considerable confusion about
biological productivity in aquaculture ponds. So, algal devel- their taxonomy, but it is now widely accepted that there
opment should be controlled in appropriate level. Maintain- are four species of mud crabs: Scylla serrata, S. olivacea, S.
ing a stable water-color is the key factor in water quality tranquebarica and S. paramamosain, with different species
management. Accurate documentation of water color is occurring at the same location in many countries, including
important as it indicates source of water and pollutants. the Philippines and Indonesia. Among the four mud crab
species, the largest and the most broadly distributed is
References S. serrata. It appears that S. paramamosain is the most
1. Agri-Environment Services Branch, Agriculture and Agri- important species in aquaculture because it is the dominant
Food Canada. (2011). Algae Identification-lab guide.Canada. species in both China and Vietnam, where mud crab farming
2. Agri-Environment Services Branch, Agriculture and is most successful.
Agri-Food Canada.(2011).Algae Identification Field Guide.

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