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(Q.1). Warter is heated from 400C to 700C passing through a rectangular tube of 3.5 cm 1.

5 cm
with a velocity of 1.2 m/s . The tube wall is maintained at 85 0 C. Fine out the length of the tube
required. Take the following properties of water at mean temperature of 55 0C.

= 985.5 kg/m3 , Cp = 4.18 kJ/kg-0C , v = 0.52 10-6 m2/s

K = 0.654 W/m-0C and Pr = 3.26

[ Hint : first find out h and the use the following equation

where is perimeter of the tube and Tw is its surface temperature.]

[ANS: 4.4 m]

(Q.2). lubricating oil at 600C is cooled to 450C passing through a tube with a velocity of 3.5 m/s which is
maintained at 30 0C. take the following properties of oil.

= 865 kg/m3 , K = 0.14 W/m-0C , Cp = 1.78 kJ/kg-0c and V = 9 10-6 m2/s

[ Hint : use the same procedure as mentioned in the above problem ]

(Q.3). A liquid metal at the rate of 4 kg/s is passes through a 6 cm diameter tube used in nuclear reactor .The
wall of the tube is provided with constant heat flux and wall temperature is maintained 40 0 C above
the fluid temperature along the tube the metal passing through is heated from 200 0C to 2250C . Use
the following relation for uniform flux condition.

Nud = 0.625 (RedPr)0.4

use the following properties of the liquid metal

=7700 kg/m3 , v = 8 10-8 m2/s , Cp = 130 J/kg-0C , K = 12 w/m-0c , Pr = 0.011

[h = 2340 W/m2-0C and L = 73.8 cm]

(Q.4). In a power plant ,the feed water is heated from 20 0C to 1500C passing through a duct of 8 cm 4cm
whose wall temperature is maintained at 1700C . compare the heat transfer coefficient using (a)
Dieters Bolters and (b) seeder Tate equation and fine the minimum length of the duct required giving
your justification .Use the following properties of water at 127.50C.

= 2.6510-3kg/m3 ,Cp =4.23 kJ/kg-0C, Pr = 1.64 , Hw(at 1700c) = 1.5810-4 kg/m-s

[ANS : 8.96 W/m2-0C, 10.95 w/m2-0C and 16.2 m]

(Q.5). water at 200C flows through a tube of mm diameter at 20 cm/s. The tube surface is provided with
uniform heat flux of 6000 W/m2 temperature of water coming out should be 740C . Take the following
properties of water at (74+20)/2 = 470C.

= 989 kg/m3 , Cp = 4.18kJ/kg-0C , = 5.810-4 kg/m-s , K=0.64W/m-0C and Pr= 3.8

use the following equation

[Hint : T0 =Ti + qAs/mCp where m =ru . Ac and As = dL]
[ Ans:1.86 m]

(Q.6). An air heater is use to heat 20103kg/hr of air from 200C to 750C using steam at 1.3 bar . It is proposed
to double the air flow with the same direction in temperature and increasing the pressure of the
steam . Determine the required steam pressure for new condition . For new condition AMTD may be
taken instead of LMTD.

[ Hint : (LMTD)new flow = 2 (LMTD) original flow ]

[ ANS: temp.=156.50C & P=5.6 bar ]

(Q.7). An existing condenser with an area of 20 m2 is used to condense the steam at 1000C using water at
400C and flow rate of 54kg/min .the over all heat transfer co efficient is 120 W/m 2-0C. Find the exit
temperature of water and the rate of condensation (b) If over all heat transfer co efficient is doubled
by adjusting the water flow rate , find the percentage of increasing in condensate

[ ANS: (a) 68.30C, 2,82 kg/min (b) 53%]

(Q.8). In a super heater , saturated steam at 10 bar is heated 300 0C when its flow rate is 15 kg/ sec. The gas
used enters the heater at 6000C and its flow rate is 25 k/sec. the tubes used for heating are of 3 cm in
diameter amd 3 m long . Find the number of tubes required The heat transfer co efficient of steam side
and gas side are 600 W/m2-0C and 250W/m2-0C respectively.

Take Cps=2.7 kJ/kg-0C and Cpg= 1 kJ/ kg -0C

[ANS: 374]

(Q.9). A single pass shell and a tube type 100 tubes with ID = 25 mm and OD= 29 mm is used to heat water
8kh/s from 250C to 750 C using the steam at atmospheric pressure. The steam side heat transfer co
efficient 5 kW/m2-0C. Find out overall heat transfer co efficient referred to the inner area of the tube
and the length of the tube bundle. Take fouling factor of water side 0.0002 m 2-0C/ W per tube and
neglect fouling on the steam side.

Take the following properties of water at 500C P= 998 kg/m3 , Cp = 4.18 kJ/ kg -0C, K=0.65 W/m-0C and
=5.510-4Ns/m2 . [ Ans : 847.5 W/m2-0C ; 5.52 m ]

(Q.10). A counter flow heat exchanger is used to cool 2000kg/hr of oil ( C p= 2.5 kJ/kg-0C) from 1050C to 300C
using water at 150C . The over all heat transfer coefficient is 1500 W/m2-0C . Fine out the water flow
trate if its exit temperature is limited to 800C and surface area required.
(use NTU- method) [ ANS: 1380 kg/hr, 3.55 m2]

(Q.11). A cold fluid at 270C (Cp = 2.1 kJ/kg-0C) is to be heated using hot water available at 92 0C in a counter
flow heat exchanger. The mass flow rate of cold and hot fluids are 3kg/s and 1kg/s respectively. Taking
overall heat transfer co efficient as 450 W/m2-0C. find out the exit temperatures of cold and hot fluid.

[ANS :Tco = 321.50C and Tho =332.80C]

(Q.12). I a shell and tube condenser , the steam condenses on the outer surface of the tube at 100 0C and the
water flowing through the tubes at the rate of 200kg/hr is heated from 15 0C to 750C. Taking overall
heat transfer coefficient as 39W/m2-0C, find the length of the tube and condensation rate.

(use NTU - methods) [ ANS: 14.5 m and 22.2kg/hr]

(Q.13). A parallel flow heat exchanger one meter in length is used to cool oil from 150 0C to 100-0C using water
which enters at 150C and comes out at 25 0C. Now it is dicided to cool the oil to 750C by increasing the
the length of the heat exchanger maintaining the same flow rates and inlet temperatures , then
determine the new length of heat exchanger and outlet temperature of water.

[Ans :1.87m and 300C]

(Q.14). Air at atmospheric pressure at 400 K flows over a flat plate with a velocity of 5 m/s . The transition
from laminar to turbulent occurs at a Reynolds number of 510 5. Determine the distance from the
leading edge of the plate at which transition takes place.

[ Ans : 2.59m]

(Q.15).Air at 240C flows along flat plate with a velocity of 5m/s .the plate is maintained at 130 0C. calculate the
heat transfer coefficient over the entire length of the plate and the heat transfer rate per meter with
of the plate.

[ ANS : 9.73 W/m2. K,4120W/m]

(Q.16).Atmospheric air at 300K and free stream velocity of 30 m/s flows across a single tube. Water at 60 0C
enters a tube of 25 mm diameter at mean fluid velocity of 2 m/s calculate the exit temperature of
water ,if the tube is 3m long and wall temperature is constant at 100 0C.

[ANS : 770C]

(Q.17). The atmospheric air at 30 0C flows past a flat plate with a sharp leading edge . the velocityof the airis 4
m/s. The plate is heated unifromly throughout its entire length and is maintained at a surface
temperature of 50 0C .Assuming that the transition occurs at a critical Reynolds number of 510 5, find
the distance from the leading edge at which the flow is in the boundery layer changes from laminar to
terbulant . At this location, calculate (a)thickness of hydrodynamic and thermal boundery layers .
(b)total drag froce per unit width of the plate .(c) heat transfer rate ,(d) mass enters the layer.

[Hint : consider surface area of both sides of the plate]

[ANS : (a)13.9 mm, 15.258mm, (b)6.98 N ; (c) 445.2 W; (d)140.76kg/h]

(Q.18). air at 270Cand 1 bar flows over a flat plate at a speed of 2 m/s,

(i)calculate the boundery layer thick ness at 400 mm from the leading edgeof the plate .Find the mass
flow rate per unit width of the plate . take = 19.810-6kg/m.s at 270C.

(ii) the plate is maintained at 60 0C, calvulate the heat transfer rate per hour. Use following properties
of air. V= 17.3610-6 m2/s, Kf = 0.00275 W/mK, Cp =1006J/kg.K , R= 287 j/kg.k , Pr= 0.7

[ ANS: =8.57mm , m= 0.01242kg/s, Q=416 kJ/h]

(Q.19). air at 200C and at a pressureof 1 bar is flowing over a flat plate at a velocity of 3m/s. If the plate is 280
mm wide and at 550C. Calculate the following quantities at x= 280mm

(i)boundery layer thickness, (ii)local friction coefficient

(iii)average friction coefficient, (iv)shearing stree dur to friction

(v)thickness of tharmal boundary layer, (vi)local heat transfer coefficient

(vii)average heat transfer coefficient (viii)rate of heat transfer by convection

(ix)Drag force on the plate , and (x)total mass flow rate through the boundary

[ANS : (i) 6.26mm , (ii) 0.00296, (iii)0.00594 (iv)0.0152N/m 2, (v)7.05mm (vi)6.43W/m2.K, (vii)12.86 W/m2.K,(viii)36.3W (ix)0.0012
N, (x) 0.01335kg/s]

(Q.20). Water at an inlet temperature of 500C with a flow rate of 0.01 kg/s flows through a duct 2 cm by 2cm
in a cross section which is maintained at a unifrom temperature of 100 0C. Assume hydrodynamically
flow , determine the length of the duct needed to heat the water to 70 0C.

[ANS : 1.06m]

(Q.21). water at a mean temperature of 600C flows inside a 2.5 cm ID , 10m long tube with a velocity of
6m/s . the tube wall is maintained at a unifrom tempture of 100 0C by condensing steam determine the
heat transfer rate of water, assume an inlet temperature is 30 0C. [ ANS :670 W]

(Q.22). Water at inlet temperature of 500C witha flow rate of 0.01 kg/s flows through a duct 2 cm by 2 cm in a
cross section, which is maintained at a unifrom temperature of 100 0C . assume hydrodynamic
developed flow , determine the length of tha duct needed to heat tha water to 70 0C.
[Ans: 1.06m]

(Q.23).water at a mean temperature of 600C flows inside a 2.5 cm ID, 10 m long tube with a velocity of 6m/s.
The tube wall is maintained at a unifrom temperature of 100 0C by condensing steam .Determine the
heat transfer rate to water . assume an inlet temperature of 30 0C.

[Ans: 670W]

(Q.23). water flows at a rate of 0.01kg/sn through an equilateral triangular duct with sides of 2cm whose
walls are kept at unifrom temprature of 1000C. Assume the the flow ishydrodynamically and thermally
developed. Determine the duct length required to heat the water from 20 0C to 700C.

[Ans: 5 m]

(Q.24). A pipe line heater , 3m long, 4mm diameter, is used to heta a supply a carbon dioxide from 250 Kto
500K. The wall of the heater are kept at constant temperature at 600 K. Determine the mass flow rate
through the pipe line.

For carbon dioxide at 375 K and 1 bar, take

=1.41 kg/m3 , Kf = 0.023 W/m.K, Pr=0.737 , =1.810-5kg/m.s

(Q.25).Air at 300C enters a rectangular duct 1 m long 4 mm by 16 mm crosssection at a rate of 0.0004kg/s. If

the unifrom heat flux of 500 W/m2 is imposed on both the long sides of the duct calculate (a)the air
outlet temperature, (b)average duct surface temperature, and (c) pressure drop.

(Q.26).Water is heated in a tank using horizontal pipes , 50 mm diameter with the wall temperature of 60 0C
maintained by condensing steam on the insides of the tube. The water in the tank is at 20 0C, calculate
the value of natural convection cocfficient, if the water is stagnant.

[Ans : 795 W/m2.K]

(Q.27).A flat square electrical heater od 0.5 m0.5 m is placed vertically in still air at 20 0C. The heat generated
is 1200 W/m2. Determine the value of natural convection coefficient and agerage temperature of the

[Ans :33.02 W/m2.k, 56.50C]

(Q.28). A plate heater 0.4m0.4m using electrical element has a constant heat flux of 1.3 kW/m 2. It is placed
in a room air at 200C witha hot side facing up. Determine the value of heat transfer coefficient and
avarage temperature of the plate.

[Ans :9.13 W/m2.k, 151.40C]

(Q.29). A vertical; pipe of 10 cm diameter and 3m long , at a surface temprature of 100 0C is in a room where
the air is at 200C , what is the rate of heat loss per unit length of pipe?

[Ans :1198.7 W/m]

(Q.30). The warm air in a heating system is circulated through a sheet metal duct of size 60cm 40 cm 7 cm.
The duct is uninsulted and exposed to air at 350C. What is the heat gain per unit length of duct?

(Q.31). A thin, 16 cm diameter horizontal plate is maintained at 130 0C in a large body of water at 700C, the
plate convects heat from both its top and bottom surfaces, determine the rate of heat input in to the
plate necessary to maintain the temprature of 130 0C

[Ans : 3.41 kW]

(Q.32). A double pipe heat exchanger is constructed of 0.287 cm thick steel tubing (k=35 w/m.K0with a 2.09
cm inner tube and 2.66cm outer tube. The inside and out side coefficient of heat transfer are 1135
w/m2.K. respectivly, the inner fouling factor is 9.98 10-5m2.K/W. Calculate the overall coefficient of
heat transfer.

[Ans : Ui= 893.5W/m2.K]

(Q.33).Water at the rate of 4080 kg/h is heated from 35 0C to 750C by an oil having a spcefic heat of 1900
J/kg/K. The exchanger is of a counter flow double pipe design. The oil enters 110 0C. Nd leaves at 750C.
Determine the area of heat exchanger necessary to handle this load if the over all heat transfer
coefficient is 320 W/m2.K

[A= 15.82 m2]

(Q.34). hot oil having specific heat of 2.09 kJ/kg.K flows through a counter flow heat exchanger at the rate of
2286 kg/h with an inlet temp. Of 930C and an outlet temp. Of 650C. Cold oil havinf specific heat of 1.67
kJ/kg.K flows in at a rate of 3600kg/h and leaves at 49 0C. What area is required to handle this load , if
the overall heat transfer co efficient based on the inside area is 0.7kW/m 2.K?

[A= 8.5 m2]

(Q.35). In a concentric tube counter flow heat exchanger water flows thriough the inner tube (d i =25mm) at a
rate of 12 kg / min while an oil flows through the outer annulus (D i =45mm) at a rate of 6 kg/min. The
inlet temprature of oil and water are 1000C and 300C. What should be the length of the exchanger for
an oil outlet temperature of 600C. Tajke U0 = 37.8W/m2.K, Cp(oil)=2130J/kg.K and Cp (water = 4178

[ Ans : L= 66.5 m]

(Q.36).A pipe (k =59 W/m.K) with an I.D of 3.175 cm and wall thick ness of 0.318 cm is externally heated by
steam at a temp. Of 1800C . The water flows through the pipe witha velocity of 1.22m/s calculate the
length of the pipe required to heatwater from 30 0c to 900C . assuming the heat transfer coefficient on
the steam side to be 11.3kW/m2.K. [Ans :L=4.82 m]

(Q.37). A double pipe heat exchanger is used to heat water with a mass flow rate of 10 kg/s from 15 0C to 33
C the heating fluid enters at 750C with a capacity rate of 25 kW.k and the mean overall coefficient of
heat transfer is 1570 W/m2.K. Determine the surface areas for counter flow and parallal flow
[Ans : A= 13.5 m2, 16.1 m2]

(Q.38).In a parallal flow heat exchanger engine oil (cp=2.29 kJ/kg.K) enters a heat exchanger at 1500C and
leaves at 800C. The cooling water enters at 300C and leaves at 650C . If a fluid rates and inlet conditions
are unchanged , find the exit temp of each fluid in a counter flow heat exchanger.Also find the lowest
temp. To which athe oil may be cooled in (i) paerallel flow and (ii) counter flow by increasing the
length of heat exxhanger

[Ans : 70 0C , 70 0C ,70 0C ,30 0C]

(Q.39). water at the rate of 3.783 kg/s is heated from 37.78 0C to 54.440C in a she; and tube heat exchanger .
on a shell side one passis used with water as the heating fluid . 1.893 kg/s of it entering the exchanger
at 93.30C. the over all heat transfer co efficient is 1419W/m2.K and the average water velocity in the
1.905 cm diameter tube is 0.366 m/s because of space limilations the tube length must not br longer
that 2.438 m . calculate the number of tube passes, the number of tubes per pass , and the length of
the tubes.

[Ans : N =36, p= 2 , L=1.646 m]

(Q.40) a shell and a tube type heat exchanger consist of 135 thin walled tubes in a double pass arrangement
each of 12.5 mm dia with total heat transfer area 47.5 m2. The water (the tube side fluid)enters the
heat exchanger at 150C and 6.5kg/s and is heated by exhaust gas entering at 200 0C and 5 kg/s the gas
may be assumed to have the properties of atmospheric ir , the over all heat transfer co efficient is
approximated as 200 W/m2.K, what are gas and water outlet temp.?

[Ans : Th,o= 37.20C , Tc.o= 450C]

(Q.41). A steam condenser being cooled by water has been designed on the seeumpthon of clean water and
its over all heat transfer coefficientwas assumed to be 4900 W/m 2.K. Neglecting the fouling resistance
later on, it was discovered that the cooling water is not clean and its fouling factor is 0.002 m 2.K/W. Is
there any need of redesigning? Coment on the result.

[Ans : U = 435.7 W/m2.K]

(Q.42). In a heat exchanger it is desired to cool 50000 kg/h of alcohol from 60 0C to 350C using 25,000 kg/h
water entering at 60C, the over all heat transfer coefficient based on the outer tube is 600 W/m 2.K .
The specific heat of alcohol is 3.768 kJ/kg.K. calculate the surface area requird for the following cases:

(a) counter flow shell and tube type

(b) counter flow with 2 shell passes and 72 tube passes, alcohol flows through the shell

(c) cross flow with one tube pass and one shell pass with water unmixed and alcohol mixed

Comment on result:

[Ans : (a)86.42 m2 , (b)107 m2]

(Q.43). An industrial gas turbine plants enploys a counterflow concentric tube heat exchanger which cools the
lubricating oil coming out from its bearing, the oil mass flow eate is 0.2 kg/s and its secific heat 2.2 the mass flow rate of the coolant(water0which flows in the opposite direction is 0.16 kg/s and
its specific heat is 4.18 kJ/ kg . K. The lubri cating oil enters the cooler at 110 0C and leaves at 400C. The
cooling water enters the cooler at 200C . the heat transfer co efficient from the oil to tube surface is
2300 W/m2.K. and from tube surfaces to the water is 5700 W/m2.K the resistance of the tube wall may
be neglected. If the mean dia oif the tube is 15 mm calculate the length of the tube , neglect the
resistance of the scale if any fromed.

[Ans : L= 16.52]