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Siemens Water Technologies Corp. 12316 World Trade Drive Tel: (858) 487-2200
Suite 100 Fax: (858) 487-5600
San Diego, CA 92128 USA

Forwarding Letter

Section 1: Cost Proposal

Section 2: Technical Information
Section 3: Equipment Specification (for reference)
Section 4: Test Report & Product Brochure

USFilter RJ Environmental Products
Emergency Chlorine Vapor Scrubber System

Scope of Work
Equipment and Service by Others
Standard Terms of Sale

1. Export and Freight, CIF Port of Entry (unless adder 1 is selected)

2. Freight from port of entry to job site.
3. Equipment unloading and installation.
4. Integral Secondary Containment (unless adder-1 is selected)
5. Civil works, foundation design and concrete pad for equipment including bund for
secondary containment.
6. All FRP scrubber inlet ducting including supports, hardware and field joints.
7. All wall and/or roof flashing.
8. Initial fill of caustic (7950 L of 20% NaOH solution).
9. Power connection ( 400V/50 Hz/3 or other local three-phase supply).
10. All electrical conduit and wiring from scrubber-mounted control panel to remote-
mounted equipment or instruments such as exhaust stack chlorine sensor.
11. All gas sensors/detectors/analyzers and all external conduit.
12. All fill and drain piping.
13. Manufacturers Service for Start-up, Operator Training and Testing. One trip for up to four
days at the Jobsite (unless adder-2 is selected)
14. Minor field assembly of some sub-assemblies may be required. (For shipping purposes,
some sub-assemblies are disassembled and will need to be re-assembled in the field.
Nuts and bolts assembly is typical of what may be required.)
15. Any Testing other than our Standard Mechanical Testing
16. Any Scope of supply not mentioned in Siemens Scope of Supply section

Submittals: 4 weeks after receipt of order

Shipment: 12 weeks after approval
Delivery: Estimated shipment time is 4 weeks


Our terms of sale are listed below and on the attached Standard Terms of Sale. Please note that
section 1 of this proposal including the Standard Terms of Sale must form a binding part of any
resulting order.

Wararnty - Our standard warranty for equipment is 12 months from beneficial occupancy or 18
months from shipment, whichever occurs first.

Payment Terms 100% of the contract price will be paid by an irrevocable Letter of Credit at
sight against presentation of the following documents: Commercial Invoice, Packing List, and
Certificate of Origin (Bill of Lading). The letter of Credit shall be opened within two months
after receipt of purchase order. Please note that our bid does not include any federal or local
taxes or any customs or import fees.

Cancellation Policy If Siemens Water Technologies is issued an order and Buyer cancels or
suspends its order for any reason other than USFilters breach, Buyer shall promptly pay
USFilter for work performed prior to cancellation or suspension and any other direct costs
incurred by USFilter as a result of such cancellation or suspension. At a minimum, cancellation
after design submittal completion will result in a cancellation fee of 10% of the order value.

Backcharge Policy Without exception, Siemens Water Technologies will not be responsible for
any backcharges unless a written request is submitted to, and approved in writing by Siemens
Water Technologies prior to work being performed or any cost being incurred. Any such request
must be submitted at least three (3) working days before such approval is required to permit
Siemens Water Technologies to conduct a site visit or such other investigation as it may deem
1. Applicable Terms. These terms govern the purchase and sale of the equipment and related services, if any (collectively, "Equipment"),
referred to in Sellers purchase order, quotation, proposal or acknowledgment, as the case may be ("Sellers Documentation"). Whether these
terms are included in an offer or an acceptance by Seller, such offer or acceptance is conditioned on Buyers assent to these terms. Seller
rejects all additional or different terms in any of Buyers forms or documents.

2. Payment. Buyer shall pay Seller the full purchase price as set forth in Sellers Documentation. Unless Sellers Documentation provides
otherwise, freight, storage, insurance and all taxes, duties or other governmental charges relating to the Equipment shall be paid by Buyer. If
Seller is required to pay any such charges, Buyer shall immediately reimburse Seller. All payments are due within 30 days after receipt of
invoice. Buyer shall be charged the lower of 1 % interest per month or the maximum legal rate on all amounts not received by the due date
and shall pay all of Sellers reasonable costs (including attorneys fees) of collecting amounts due but unpaid. All orders are subject to credit

3. Delivery. Delivery of the Equipment shall be in material compliance with the schedule in Sellers Documentation. Unless Sellers
Documentation provides otherwise, Delivery terms are F.O.B. Sellers facility.

4. Ownership of Materials. All devices, designs (including drawings, plans and specifications), estimates, prices, notes, electronic data and
other documents or information prepared or disclosed by Seller, and all related intellectual property rights, shall remain Sellers property. Seller
grants Buyer a non-exclusive, non-transferable license to use any such material solely for Buyers use of the Equipment. Buyer shall not
disclose any such material to third parties without Sellers prior written consent.

5. Changes. Seller shall not implement any changes in the scope of work described in Sellers Documentation unless Buyer and Seller
agree in writing to the details of the change and any resulting price, schedule or other contractual modifications. This includes any changes
necessitated by a change in applicable law occurring after the effective date of any contract including these terms.

6. Warranty. Subject to the following sentence, Seller warrants to Buyer that the Equipment shall materially conform to the description in
Sellers Documentation and shall be free from defects in material and workmanship. The foregoing warranty shall not apply to any Equipment
that is specified or otherwise demanded by Buyer and is not manufactured or selected by Seller, as to which (i) Seller hereby assigns to Buyer,
to the extent assignable, any warranties made to Seller and (ii) Seller shall have no other liability to Buyer under warranty, tort or any other legal
theory. If Buyer gives Seller prompt written notice of breach of this warranty within 18 months from delivery or 1 year from acceptance,
whichever occurs first (the "Warranty Period"), Seller shall, at its sole option and as Buyers sole remedy, provide replacement parts to the
Buyer or repair (Buyer to provide Seller with unencumbered access to the equipment) or refund the purchase price therefore. If Seller
determines that any claimed breach is not, in fact, covered by this warranty, Buyer shall pay Seller its then customary charges for any repair or
replacement made by Seller. Sellers warranty is conditioned on Buyers (a) operating and maintaining the Equipment in accordance with
Sellers instructions, (b) not making any unauthorized repairs or alterations, and (c) not being in default of any payment obligation to Seller.
Sellers warranty does not cover damage caused by chemical action or abrasive material, misuse or improper installation (unless installed by

7. Indemnity. Seller shall indemnify, defend and hold Buyer harmless from any claim, cause of action or liability incurred by Buyer as a result
of third party claims for personal injury, death or damage to tangible property, to the extent caused by Seller's negligence. Seller shall have the
sole authority to direct the defense of and settle any indemnified claim. Sellers indemnification is conditioned on Buyer (a) promptly, within the
Warranty Period, notifying Seller of any claim, and (b) providing reasonable cooperation in the defense of any claim.

8. Force Majeure. Neither Seller nor Buyer shall have any liability for any breach (except for breach of payment obligations) caused by
extreme weather or other act of God, strike or other labor shortage or disturbance, fire, accident, war or civil disturbance, delay of carriers,
failure of normal sources of supply, act of government or any other cause beyond such party's reasonable control.

9. Cancellation. If Buyer cancels or suspends its order for any reason other than Sellers breach, Buyer shall promptly pay Seller for work
performed prior to cancellation or suspension and any other direct costs incurred by Seller as a result of such cancellation or suspension.


11. Reservation Clause: Buyer acknowledges that Seller is required to comply with applicable export laws and regulations relating to the sale,
exportation, transfer, assignment, disposal and usage of the Equipment provided under this Agreement, including any export license
requirements. Buyer agrees that such Equipment shall not at any time directly or indirectly be used, exported, sold, transferred, assigned or
otherwise disposed of in a manner which will result in non-compliance with such applicable export laws and regulations. It shall be a condition
of the continuing performance by Seller of its obligations hereunder that compliance with such export laws and regulations be maintained at all
12. Miscellaneous. If these terms are issued in connection with a government contract, they shall be deemed to include those federal
acquisition regulations that are required by law to be included. These terms, together with any quotation, purchase order or acknowledgement
issued or signed by the Seller, comprise the complete and exclusive statement of the agreement between the parties (the Agreement) and
supersede any terms contained in Buyers documents, unless separately signed by Seller. No part of the Agreement may be changed or
cancelled except by a written document signed by Seller and Buyer. No course of dealing or performance, usage of trade or failure to enforce
any term shall be used to modify the Agreement. If any of these terms is unenforceable, such term shall be limited only to the extent necessary
to make it enforceable, and all other terms shall remain in full force and effect. Buyer may not assign or permit any other transfer of the
Agreement without Sellers prior written consent. The Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
without regard to its conflict of laws provisions.

13. Steel Price Escalation. Recent market conditions have resulted in exceptionally volatile prices for both stainless and carbon steels. Supply
conditions are such that producers have instituted surcharges, which they apply at the time of actual shipment of the steel. This means that the
cost for steel used for developing the prices in this quotation are not firm. As a result of this policy, it has become necessary for Siemens to
pass along any escalation in the cost of carbon and stainless steels. The price escalation will be calculated by indexing the cost of the steel
based on the London Metals Exchange from the date that this proposal is issued to the date that the steel is actually received.

Siemens Water Technologies
Emergency Chlorine Vapor Scrubber System

A. Scrubber System Design Information and Performance Requirement

B. System Process Description
C. Major System Components Sizing
D. Utilities Requirements
E. Installation Requirements
F. Scrubber Reaction Chemistry & Relevant Calculations
G. Scrubber Performance Predictions
H Performance Test Results
Attachments Calculations and Drawings
Storage Gas Chlorine
Capacity 1 ton (1065 kg/2,350 lbs)
Leak Rate, kg/min (lbs/min) (NOTE 1) 45 (100)
Flash Rate, kg/min (lbs/min) (NOTE 2) 45 (100)
Ventilation Rate, scmm (cfm) (NOTE 3) 85 (3,000)
Estimated Inlet Concentration, ppm 180,787
Maximum Allowable Outlet Concentration, ppm 5
Minimum Allowable Removal Efficiency, % 99.9972
Caustic Requirements, liters (gal). (20%) 7,950 (2,100)
NOTE 1: During our test, we observed a maximum release rate of 52 lbs/min. from the 1-ton
cylinder. UFC requires the rate of release to be 78 lbs/min. We have assumed 100
lbs/min. and 100% flash-off to be conservative. Please refer to Table 1 for
NOTE 2: During our 1-ton release testing, we observed flash-off to be almost 100% during
the first few minutes.
NOTE 3: We recommend an air flow rate based on 3 to 6 air changes/hour or 3,000 cfm
whichever is higher.


Siemens Water Technologies Emergency Vapor Scrubber is a three-stage chemical

absorption system consisting of a horizontal crossflow spray system followed by two
horizontal crossflow packed bed sections. An induced draft fan pulls vapors through the
scrubber, where intimate contact with a recirculating caustic solution results in the complete
absorption and removal of chlorine or sulfur dioxide vapors. A high efficiency mist
eliminator is located in the gas stream, prior to exhaust, to remove any residual caustic
A chlorine detector or manual remote start switch activates the system in two steps. The
caustic pump is activated first to permit proper wetting of packing in the scrubber stages
before starting the exhaust fan, with a 0 to 5 second adjustable time delay. The time delay
is typically set for 3 to 5 seconds. This feature allows the scrubber to be ready prior to
passing any chlorine laden gases through it.
The exhaust fan is placed downstream of the scrubber. This feature allows the complete
system to be under negative pressure until the gases are completely scrubbed. The absorber
is placed on top of a caustic storage tank, which is an integral part of the system.
The emergency scrubber system consists of following major system components:

1. FRP Three Stage Scrubber Absorber

2. Integral Caustic Storage tank
3. FRP Air Exhaust Fan
4. Caustic Recirculating Pump
5. Electrical Control Panel
6. Piping, and Single Unitary Construction

The overall scrubber system package consists of the major system components described
below. The overall size of the system is presented below, including the pump, fan, controls,
scrubber and caustic storage.

1. Scrubber with Integral Caustic Storage Containment:

The complete scrubber system is made of FRP and consists of three stages for
chlorine absorption. The caustic storage tank is integrally molded into the scrubber
housing and is made of premium grade vinyl ester resin. Since the caustic storage
tank and scrubber sections are one part, there is sufficient free board height
available for any expansion of liquid due to water formation. The caustic storage
tank is designed to hold about 20% caustic solution. The overall footprint of the
scrubber and storage tank is listed below.

Length, m (ft): 4.0 (13.0)

Width, m (ft): 2.1 (7.0)
Height, m (ft): 2.6 (8.5)
Caustic Storage Capacity (20%), liters (gal.) 7,950 (2,100)

2. Caustic Recirculation Pump:

The scrubber system includes a vertical, seal-less, centrifugal recirculation pump of

polypropylene construction. Because the pump is seal-less, it does not require seal-
water, a mechanical seal, or seal flush piping.

Recirculation Rate, m3/h (gpm) 124 (550)

TDH, kPa (ft wc) 90 (30)
Motor kW (HP) 14.9 (20)

3. Exhaust Fan:

The scrubber system includes an induced draft air exhaust fan. The induced draft
fan creates negative pressure throughout the system, ducting and scrubber for
maximum safety. Each fan is fiberglass reinforced plastic, centrifugal type with
backward inclined blade.

Air Flow Rate, m3/hr ( acfm) 85 (3,000)

Duct Pressure Losses, mm (in) WC 50 (2.0)
Scrubber/Stack Press. Losses, mm (in) WC 100 (4.0)
Total Static Pressure, mm (in) WC 150 (6.0)
Motor kW ( HP) 3.7 (5.0)
4. Electrical Control Panel:

The scrubber system includes a pre-wired electrical control panel that includes the
items listed below. A single 380V/3 phase power source will be required for the
control panel.
Motor Starter for Exhaust Fan and Recirculation Pump
Timer Delay for Exhaust Fan
Control Voltage Transformer
System HAND-OFF-AUTO Switch and System Ready Light
Fan HAND-AUTO Switch
Low Level Switch, Audible Alarm, Reset
Alarm Light for Fan Fail
Alarm Light for Fan Run
Alarm Light for Pump Fail
Alarm Light for Pump Run


1. Electrical Power Requirement:

Air Exhaust Fan: 3.7 kW (5.0 HP)
Caustic Recirculation Pump: 14.9 kW (20 HP)
400V, 3 PH, 50 Hertz


The scrubber system is factory assembled, piped, wired, and tested (operated) with water
prior to shipment. All equipment is aligned and functionally tested at the factory.

We estimate that the total installation time will be eight to sixteen hours. Below are the
installation requirements. Depending upon the job site, there may be additional
installation requirements.
1. Pour a concrete pad 6 thick, 1 ft larger than equipment footprint.
2. Unload equipment and set on concrete pad. (Place thick, 60 durometer
neoprene pad (provided by USFilter) between the scrubber and the concrete).
3. Anchor the equipment to the concrete pad (epoxy-type anchor bolts are furnished
with equipment).
4. Install the inlet ducting and dampers from the source(s) to the scrubber inlet.
5. Connect power supply to the control panel.
6. Provide and install wiring and conduit from the remote gas detectors and
ventilation system to the control panel.
7. Connect exhaust stack (provided by Others)
8. Fill the scrubber with 20% caustic solution (provided by others).

Tables 1 through 4, attached at the end of this section, present detailed calculations
regarding anticipated maximum chlorine concentration, theoretical caustic requirement,
heat of reaction, excess chemical available, and minimum recirculation rate required.
The system design and performance requirements are summarized in Table 4.

1. Caustic Requirement

Sodium hydroxide solution is used to neutralize the chlorine. The reaction

between sodium hydroxide and chlorine is:

2NaOH + Cl2 NaCl + NaOCl + H2O + 44,600 Btu/mol

Two moles of sodium hydroxide (80 kg or 80 lbs.) are required to neutralize each
mole of Cl2 (70.9 kg or 70.9 lbs.). To neutralize all the Cl2 leaked from the cylinder,
the minimum weight of sodium hydroxide is:

x 80 = 1,203 kg
The caustic solution in the scrubber sump is 7,955 L (2,100 gallons) of 20% by
weight of sodium hydroxide.
Each gallon of 20% solution contains 0.244 kg/L (2.04 lbs) of NaOH.
Thus, NaOH available = 0.244 x 7949 = 1,943 kg (4,284 lbs).
Therefore, the percentage of excess chemical = 62%. Table 2 presents details of
the calculations.

2. Final Solution Composition

Based on the above reaction, neutralization of chlorine and caustic is as follows:

For each kg (lb) of chlorine:
NaOH required: 1.13 kg (1.13 lbs)
NaCl produced: 0.825 kg (0.825 lbs)
NaOCl produced: 1.05 kg (1.05 lbs)
Water produced: 0.25 kg (0.25 lbs)

After all chlorine is released and neutralized, the sump composition is shown in
Table 2, attached in section 7.6 of the submittal.
3. Scrubber Recirculation Rate

Table 3 presents calculations for the scrubber recirculation rate and available
chemical at the start and end of the release event.

4. Sump Temperature Rise

Neutralization of chlorine with sodium hydroxide is an exothermic reaction. The

heat of reaction is 47,055 kJ/mole (44,600 Btu/mole) of Cl2. Reaction is in the liquid
phase. If there is no heat loss to the air and other components of the scrubber system,
the temperature rise of sodium hydroxide solution can be calculated from the
following equation:

H = m C p T

H = total heat released by reaction, kg
m = total weight of caustic solution, kg
Cp = heat capacity of caustic solution, kJ/kg.-oC
T = temperature rise, oC

Heat capacity for 20% by weight caustic solution is 3.8 kJ/kg-C (0.9 Btu/lb-oF).
One liter (0.26 gallons) of 20% NaOH weighs 1.226 kg (2.70 lbs). Most of the heat
will be lost due to air moving through the system, which must be analyzed as

m1 = Mass of NaOH, 20%, kg
m2 = Mass of Air, kg
m3 = Mass of Chlorine Reacted, kg
Cp = Specific Heat, kJ/kg.-C
dH = Change of Enthalpy, kJ

The heat generated by the chlorine absorption,

m3 47,055kg / kgmol
dH =
70.9kg / kgmol

By conservation of energy, the total change above is equal to the change of energy in
the liquid sump, dH1 added to the change of energy in the air traveling through the
system, dH2.

dH = dH 1 + dH 2

Due to the intimate contact in the scrubber vessel between the airstream and the
recirculating liquid, the two temperatures approximate one another, as can be seen in
the performance test data.
Assuming the same initial temperatures of the sump and ambient air (to be
conservative since released chlorine will be very cold),

dH 1 dH 2
dT 1 = dT 2 = =
m1 Cp1 m2 Cp 2

The result of solving these simultaneous equations is shown in Table 2, where the
temperature rise is shown as 0C (33F). With an initial temperature of 27C (80F),
the final reaction temperature is well below the equipment service rating of 66C

5. Chemical Utilization During Equipment Checkouts

Carbon dioxide will be absorbed by the caustic solution during weekly testing of the
scrubber system. The reaction between sodium hydroxide and carbon dioxide is:

CO 2 + 2NaOH Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O

Two moles of sodium hydroxide (80 kg) are required for a complete reaction with
each mole of carbon dioxide (44 kg). It is recommended that the scrubber system be
exercised 5 minutes every four weeks. To be conservative, we estimate caustic
consumption based on 10 minutes of operation every 2 weeks. The following
amount of caustic would be consumed:

CO2 Conc. in Ambient Air, % by Volume: 0.033%

Airflow Rate, m3/min (cfm):: 85 (3,000)
CO2 Flow Rate, m3/min (cfm): 0.028 (9.90E-01)
CO2 Flow Rate, kg-mol/min (lbs.-mole/min): 0.00116 (2.56E-03)
CO2 Flow Rate, kg/min (lbs/min): 0.051 (0.113)
NaOH Required, kg (lbs) NaOH/kg (lbs) CO2: 1.82
NaOH Consumed, kg/min (lbs/min): 0.0930 (0.205)

NaOH Consumed per Cycle of 10 min: 0.093 (2.05)

No. of Cycles/Yr: 26
NaOH Consumed/Yr, kg (lbs): 2.42 (53.3)
NaOH Consumed, L, (gal), 50% 31.6 (8.35)

About 31.6 L (8.35 gallons) of 50% caustic should be added every year.

Siemens Water Technologies scrubber system will reduce outlet concentrations to the
following levels in three stages of scrubbing. The scrubber system models are based on
proven and reliable models and each stage has taken into account about a 20% safety factor.
These models have been verified during our full scale testing. The predicted performance is
presented as follows:

Scrubber Inlet Conc., ppm Scrubber Outlet Conc., ppm

180,787 <5


Siemens Water Technologies has carried out a chlorine release performance test at a
nationally recognized and C.A.B.O. approved test facility in San Antonio, Texas. The
chlorine liquid was released from a 150 lb cylinder, 1-ton cylinder and a holding tank
with 550 lbs chlorine into a specially built flash room.

The flash room was equipped with temperature and pressure monitors. The release rates
were measured through an electronic load cell. The exhaust chlorine concentrations were
monitored with an Enterra EIT Model 4000 analyzer.

During the entire release of 1-ton chlorine, the exhaust chlorine concentration was less
than detectable. During a release rate of 100 lbs/min, the outlet concentration never
exceeded 1 ppm.

The release room or flash room was under negative pressure during the entire test period.
The test met all requirements of the UFC (release rate in excess of 78 lbs/min, stack
concentration <5 ppm of chlorine, and room under negative pressure).

TABLE 1: Chlorine Vapor Generation Rate & Scrubber Performance

TABLE 2: Reaction Chemistry Calculations
TABLE 3: Scrubber Recirculation Rate
TABLE 4: Scrubber System Summary

FIGURE 1: Scrubber General Arrangement

FIGURE 2: Process Flow Diagram


a. Chlorine Cylinder Temperature: 21 C

b. Ambient Temperature: 21 C
c. Room Pressure: 1 bar
d. Chlorine Cylinder Capacity: 1066 kg
e. Chlorine Density: 2.95 kg/m3
f. Chlorine Leak Rate: 45 kg/min
g. Percent Flash-off Rate 100 %
h. Chlorine Flash Rate: 45 lbs/min
i. Time to Empty Cylinder: 24 minutes
j. Rate of ventilation: 85 m3/min
k. Molal Volume at average room conditions: 24.1 L/mol

1. In order to estimate maximum concentration of Cl2 vapor entering
into the scrubber, the following assumptions are made.
* All liquid released is flashed immediately into vapor.
* All vapor formed is exhausted into the scrubber.
These assumptions will provide the most conservative requirements for the scrubber system.

Liquid Release Rate, kg/min 45

Vapor Rate, kg/min 45
Vapor Rate, m /min 15
Ventilation Rate, m min 85
Maximum Inlet Cl2 Conc., ppm 180,785
Maximum allowable outlet conc., ppm 3
Minimum Removal Efficiency, % 99.998%
Room Volume, m 113


Total Chlorine scrubbed, kg 1,066

NaOH/Chlorine 1.13
Total NaOH required for reaction, kg 1,203
Sodium Hydroxide concentration, % wt 20%
Volume of solution recommended, L 7,950
kg NaOH / L of solution 0.244
Total NaOH in sump, kg 1,943
Excess Chemical Available, % 62%
Freezing temperature of solution, C -28
Sp. Gravity of solution 1.224


Chlorine absorbed, kg 1,066

Time to Empty Cylinder, min 24
Time to Treat Leak, min 16
Total Leak Event Time Period, min 40
Airflow Rate, m /min 85
Air Density, kg/m3 1.201
Air Mass, kg 4,040
Solution Weight, kg 9,731
Solution Specific Heat, kJ/kg-C 3.768
Gas Specific Heat, kJ/kg-C 4.187
Reaction Heat, kJ 1,556,817

Heat Added to Solution, kJ 1,065,329

Heat Added to Gas, kJ 491,488

Temperature Rise, Solution 29 C

Temperature Rise, Gas 29 C


Water in sump before reaction, kg 7,787

Water formed during reaction, kg 271
Total water in sump after reaction, kg 8,058
NaOCl formed during reaction, kg 1,119
NaOH left in sump after reaction, kg 741
NaCl formed during reaction, kg 879
Total weight of solution after reaction, kg 10,797

Final Composition based on weight of solution:

NaOCl concentration, lb NaOCl/lb solution, % 10.4%
NaOH concentration, lb NaOH/lb solution, % 6.9%
NaCl concentration, lb NaCl/lb solution, % 8.1%


At At
Maximum End of
Conc. Scrubbing
Level Cycle


Total Chlorine scrubbed, kg/min (Note 1) 45 23

kg NaOH needed/kg Chlorine 1.13 1.13
Total NaOH required for reaction, kg/min 51.2 25.6
Sodium Hydroxide concentration, % wt 20.0% 6.9%
Recirculation Rate recommended, L/min 2,082 2,082
kg NaOH / L of solution 0.24 0.099
Total NaOH in recirc. Stream, kg/min 509 206
Excess Chemical Available, % 894% 705%

Note 1: Assumption that the leak rate near the end of the leak event
will be one-half of the maximum rate.


Scrubber Air Flow Rate, m /hr 5,097
Maximum Inlet Concentration, ppm 180,785
Maximum Outlet Concentration, ppm 3
Minimum Removal Efficiency, % 99.998%

Recirculating Solution strength, % wt 20%

Minimum Recirc. Rate Required, m /hr 13
Recommended Recirculation Rate, m /hr 125

Final NaOCl Conc. in sump, % 10%

Maximum Temperature Rise, C 29




The work specified herein includes furnishing and installing all equipment and materials necessary
to provide the owner with a chlorine vapor scrubber system. The system must be a completely
packaged unit, pre-assembled, piped and wired, and include a scrubber, demister, pump, fan, and
controls, and is factory tested with water prior to shipment. Chlorine leak detectors are specified
elsewhere and are not part of these specifications. The complete scrubber system shall be a
"UNITARY" single piece construction.


A. System Description: The Contractor shall furnish and install a complete "once-through", three-
stage, pre-piped, wired, tested and packaged emergency chlorine gas scrubber system including an
integral absorber with three chemical scrubbing stages, a mist eliminator, exhaust fan, integral
caustic storage tank, caustic recirculation pump, piping, valves, fittings, ductwork, and all other
equipment and accessories as specified to provide a total system.

B. The mechanical, structural, and electrical design has been based on a chlorine vapor scrubber system
manufactured by USFilter, RJ Environmental Products, Model RJ-2000, U.S. Patent No. 5,518,696,
U.K. Patent No. GB 2 280 862B. The cost of any changes and modifications to mechanical,
structural, electrical, and emergency electrical facilities necessary to adapt alternate equipment to the
layout and design shown shall be borne by the CONTRACTOR. Clearances shown on the
Drawings shall be maintained. Any such proposed changes or modifications are subject to review
and acceptance of the OWNER. In addition, the Contractor must verify that all appropriate scrubber
testing has been completed prior to bid.

C. Specified Manufacturer: Siemens Water Technologies, Poway, CA, USA or approved equal.


A. In order to be considered for qualification as an approved alternate, the following must be submitted
at least three weeks prior to the bid and approved by the engineer in order to bid:
1. Drawings, specifications, and product literature with adequate detail to determine that what is
proposed will meet the requirements of the plans and specifications.
2. A list of installations (20 minimum) of identical type presently in service for one or more years.
3. Evidence of manufacturing capability including description of facilities, the number and
qualifications of personnel, and quality control practices. The alternate equipment supplier shall
identify major outside fabricators for the purpose of determining experience.
4. Evidence of technical capability to design and check the alternate system fully, including
modifications required to building and other systems.
5. Evidence of full scale testing of the scrubber design by an independent testing laboratory.
6. A complete listing of changes which will be required in the contract plans and specifications to
accommodate the alternate equipment.

7. Alternate bidders shall guarantee in writing, signed by an officer of the company, that the
equipment offered will provide comparable or superior features, performance, quality and
materials of construction as the equipment specified.
8. Alternate bidders shall provide a supply bond equal to 100% of the contract amount.
9. The cost of any changes incidental to the installation of the alternate equipment such as
electrical wiring, relocation of piping, engineering supervision, ductwork, building
configuration and design, shall be borne by the contractor with no additional expense to the
Owner or Engineer. The contractor shall furnish the specified supplier if a proposed alternate
does not meet the requirements of Part 1.3 of this section.

B. Codes: The Contractor shall comply with the rules and regulations of authorities having jurisdiction
over the work specified herein, including but not limited to, the 1997 Uniform Fire Code with local
amendments (Article 80, Hazardous Materials, in particular), the 1991 Uniform Building Code and
the latest NIOSH guidelines.

C. Testing: Testing shall have been carried out at a fully accredited national testing laboratory facility
[Council of American Building Officials - (CABO) or equal], with appropriate witnesses. Any test
carried out at a manufacturer's facility will not be considered acceptable. Continuous emission test
data demonstrating less than 5 ppm chlorine in the exhaust shall be provided. Averaging of test data
shall not be acceptable. Test data shall include a profile of temperatures and pressures throughout
the spill room and scrubber system for the test cycle. Test results exhibiting conformance to the
Uniform Fire Code regarding emissions shall be made part of the required design submittal for
approval prior to release for fabrication. Being a named supplier does not relinquish the
manufacturer from providing the required test data with the bid. All of the costs associated with
compliance to this specification are the responsibility of the scrubber manufacturer.


A. The Contractor shall, at its sole expense, defend and pay all damages and costs awarded in any
proceeding brought against the Owner, its employees and agents, in which it is claimed that the
manufacture, sale, or use of any material and equipment or parts thereof furnished hereunder
constitutes an infringement of any patent or other proprietary information right, provided Contractor
is promptly notified of the commencement of any such proceeding. Contractors indemnity, as to
use, applies only when infringement occurs from the normal use for which such material and
equipment were designed. Owner may, at its option, be represented at any such proceeding.

B. If such manufacture, sale, or use is held in any such proceeding to constitute an infringement and is
enjoined, Contractor, at its expense, shall either procure for Owner the right to manufacture, sell,
and use any such material and equipment; or replace same with substantially equal but noninfringing
material and equipment; or modify same to make substantially equal but noninfringing; or remove
same and refund the purchase price and transportation and installation thereof.


A. General: The Contractor shall submit complete Shop Drawings for the Chlorine Scrubber System,
together with all piping, ductwork, valves, and control for review by the ENGINEER.

B. Shop Drawings: The Contractor shall submit the following information for approval before
equipment is fabricated:
1. Drawings of system showing assemblies, arrangements, piping, electrical, mounting details,
equipment outline dimensions, fitting size and location, motor data, operating weights of all

equipment and sufficient information to allow the ENGINEER to check clearances,
connections, and conformance with the specifications.
2. Materials of construction of all equipment.
3. Manufacturer's catalog data, operating literature. Specifications, performance data, and
calibration curves for caustic soda recycle pumps, exhaust fan, and auxiliary components.
4. Complete instrumentation, control, logic and power wiring diagrams in sufficient detail to allow
installation of the instrumentation, controls, and electrical components.
5. Manuals: Furnish manufacturer's installation, operation and maintenance manuals, bulletins,
and spare parts lists.


A. The system manufacturer's representative shall be present at the job site for the following time
period; travel time excluded:
1. Eight hours for inspection and certification of the installation, and assisting in the initial filling
of the caustic storage tank.
2. Up to eight hours to train Owner's staff in operation of the system, including safe chemical
handling procedures.
3. Provide one trip consisting of three days for tasks 1 and 2 above.



A. Design Leak Event: The Emergency Chlorine Scrubber shall be of sufficient size and design to
treat a release of the entire contents of stored chlorine. The system shall be designed for the
following conditions:
Chlorine Stored Capacity: 2,350 lbs ( 1-ton)
Liquid Release Rate: 100 lbs/min
Flash-Off Rate: 100 % of liquid release
Storage Building Volume: _____ ft3
Minimum Ventilation Rate: 3,000 acfm
Maximum Outlet Chlorine Conc.: 5 ppm

B. Design Description: The Emergency Chlorine Scrubber shall be, a single-pass system which draws
vapor from the contaminated room, treats the vapor, and discharges to the atmosphere outside the
building. Chlorine concentration in the discharge shall not exceed 5 ppm at any time.

C. Draft: The Emergency Chlorine Scrubber shall provide sufficient draft to overcome the resistance
of ductwork, fittings and dampers to maintain a negative pressure in the room to prevent atmosphere
leakage of vapor.

D. System Operation: The Emergency Chlorine Scrubber shall be designed for complete and
automatic operation in response to a signal from remotely located leak detector(s) or in response to
manual activation.


A. Chlorine Scrubber System:

1. The chlorine gas scrubber system shall be a three-stage, once through absorber, designed to
remove a minimum of 99.99% of chlorine vapor in a single pass. The scrubber system shall
consist of one horizontal spray section, followed by two horizontal crossflow packed bed
systems. The spray section shall consist of multiple spray nozzles designed to produce the
required caustic flow rate and drop size. Partially treated gases shall pass through a crossflow
packed bed section to remove the majority of the remaining chlorine vapors. The packed bed
section shall include a spray header to distribute the liquid evenly over the packing section. The
final stage shall remove all remaining chlorine vapor to meet the design requirements. The
gases shall pass through a high efficiency mist eliminator prior to discharging into the stack.
Under no circumstances will horizontal mounted or multiple venturi scrubbers be acceptable.
2. All exposed recirculation piping with normal operating pressures less than or equal to 40 psig
shall be made of FRP. Recirculation piping with normal operating pressures greater than 40
psig shall be Halar lined. All spray nozzles shall be made of polypropylene. The complete
scrubber section shall be an integral part of the caustic storage tank. The overall system size,
including the caustic tank, pumps, fan, controls shall be as shown on the contract drawings. An
access manway shall be provided to allow access to the scrubber internals.
3. General: Each scrubber shall be a Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) vessel. All materials and
fabrications furnished in accordance with this specifications shall comply with all federal, state
and local ordinances of the place of installation and with the following code and standards:
NBS PS 15-69: National Bureau of Standards Voluntary Product Standard "Custom
contact molded Reinforced Polyester Chemical Resistant Process Equipment".
ASTM D-883: "Definition of Terms Relating to Plastics"
ASTM D-2583: "Test for Indentation Hardness of Rigid Plastics by Means of Barcol
ASTM D-2563: "Recommended Practice for Classifying Visual Defects in Glass
Reinforced Plastic Laminate Parts."
ASTM D-4097-82: "Standard Specifications for Contact Molded Glass Fiber Reinforced
Thermoset Resin Chemical Resistant Tanks."
4. Scrubber absorber vessel shall conform to the following structural design criteria:
Scrubber Pressure: 6" WC vacuum
Caustic Storage: Hydrostatic load of sp. gravity = 1.2
Wind Load: 100 mph
Live Load: 200 lb/sq.ft
5. The ductwork shall be designed for 6" wc vacuum and 15" positive pressure.
6. Materials of Construction:
a. The scrubber absorber vessel and accessories shall be contact molded manufactured in
accordance with NBS PS 15-69 and ASTM D-4097 for contact molding.
b. Resin used in fabrication shall be a premium vinyl ester type such as Hetron 922 by
Ashland Chemicals, Derakane 411 by Dow Chemical or approved equal.

B. Caustic Storage Tank:

1. The caustic storage tank shall be an integral part of the scrubber system. The tank shall be
capable of storing a minimum of 2,100 gallons of 20% sodium hydroxide solution.
2. The storage tank shall be combined with the absorber box into a single rectangular vessel to fit
in the area shown on the drawings.
3. All connections shall be fabricated of the same material as the tank wall and shall have the same
inner corrosion barrier as the tank wall.

4. The gage shall be 1 inch minimum clear PVC. The gage shall be provided with a shutoff ball
5. The tank shall have a minimum of four positioning lugs permanently attached and suitable for
positioning the tank without structural damage. Tie down or support lugs shall be provided and
shall be designed to be able to anchor the tank and contents against the specified seismic and
wind loads. The tank shall be provided with proper lifting instructions.
6. The tank shall bear a label which shall include the NFPA rating as well as the hazard data. It
shall be made from vinyl for added durability in high moisture. The NFPA rating shall be as
follows: Health (3), Flammability (0), and Reactivity (2).

C. Caustic Recirculation Pump

1. Pump shall be a seal-less single stage centrifugal vertical sump pump. No seal water shall be
required. Pump design shall feature open impeller in the submerged casing. The pump shall be
driven by a C face motor, mounted on a cast iron bracket, sitting on pump mounting plate and
connected to pump shaft via flexible coupling.
2. The pump shall be capable of delivering 550 gpm of 20% NaOH solution at 15 psig.
3. The casing and impeller shall be molded from premium grade unfilled virgin plastic. There
should be no metal wetted components. Wetted bolts shall be made of the same material as
pump casing and column.
4. Pump shafts shall be machined from centerless ground 304 SS, encapsulated with plastic
sleeving the same material as the pump.
5. Sleeve bearings shall be chemically resistant Vanite. The thrust bearing shall be independent
from the motor, located in brackets above the mounting plate.
6. The sleeve bearings shall be lubricated by process fluid. No external flush water shall be
7. The unit shall be built with casing cover and impeller assembly modified for thermal fluctuation
enabling the pump to be used through the full range of temperature settings.
8. The pump to be furnished by with an all plastic fabricated strainer basket with perforations in
same to keep any large particles out of the casing or impeller area.
9. Motors shall be C face, 380V, 3PH, 50Hz, TEFC. Motors larger than 25 HP shall require
reduced voltage starters.
10. The pump shall be Vanton Sump-Gard or equal.
11. OPTIONAL: Two pumps shall be provided one stand-by and one duty.

D. Exhaust Fan:
1. Fan shall be fiberglass reinforced plastic, centrifugal type with backward inclined blade,
industrial fiberglass fan. Fan wheel shall be statically and dynamically balanced. Fiberglass
construction shall conform to PS 15-69 product standards. Fan resin shall be suitable for
exposure to the specific service conditions.
2. Fan housing shall be constructed of fiberglass and reinforced with rigid bracing to increase
structural integrity. Bearing support brackets shall be positioned to directly oppose belt tension
3. Fan housing shall be a curved scroll design with a 1-inch NPT drain connection at the bottom of
the fan scroll. Fan outlet shall have flanged nozzles. Fan shaft shall be epoxy coated steel.
4. Fan shall have self-aligning grease-packed bearings, with neoprene shaft seals and OSHA
approved weatherproof motor/drive cover.
5. The fan shall be designed for following specifications:
Air Flow Rate: 3,000 acfm
S.P up to scrubber inlet: 2.0 in WC
Pressure Drop through Scrubber: 4.0 in WC
Total Pressure Drop: 6.0 in WC
Motor HP: 5.0 HP
6. The fan shall have a 3-phase, 50 Hz, 380V, TEFC, motor with a 1.15 service factor. The fan
shall be New York Blower, Hartzell or equal. The fan shall have AMCA seal.

E. Recycle Piping:
1. Fiberglass Pipe: Pipe shall be manufactured by the centrifugal casting process. In accordance
with ASTM D-2997, RTRP, Type II, Grade 2, Class B. The pipe and fittings shall be made
using the same type polyester resin and be suitable for at least 150 psi at 175oF.
2. The wall thickness and sizes are as follows:
1" - 0.140" 6" - 0.165
1-1/2" - 0.140" 8" - 0.190
2" - 0.140" 10" - 0.210
3" - 0.140" 12" - 0.215
4" - 0.140" 14" - 0.215
3. FRP pipe shall be Ershigs, Fibercast, A.O. Smith or approved equal.
4. All exposed caustic recirculation piping shall be FRP, unless the normal recirculation line
pressure is greater than 40 psig. In that case, the piping and associated valves shall be Halar
lined SCH 40 steel pipe.
5. The piping shall include a pressure gauge with diaphragm and shut-off valve.

F. Motor Starter/Transformer: Provide local control panel with control voltage transformer and
motor starter for fan and pumps. A single 380V, 3 phase, 50 Hz power supply shall be provided to
the local control panel. Provide fuse protection for all motor circuits. Provide two spare fuses of
each size and type.

G. Unitary Construction: The complete scrubber system, including scrubber, recirculation pump, fan,
piping and controls shall be constructed to be a single piece of unitary construction. The complete
system shall be factory tested with water and shipped as a single piece to the job site.

H. Secondary Containment OPTIONAL: The complete scrubber system shall be enclosed in an

independent FRP secondary containment vessel. It shall be designed to contain 110% of the
primary caustic storage. Multi-laminate construction shall not be construed as secondary
containment. An FRP hinged cover shall be placed over the opening between the secondary
containment and the scrubber to prevent rain fill and allow access to the sump area.

I. Exhaust Stack OPTIONAL: The scrubber system shall include an exhaust stack manufactured of
Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic (FRP) as shown on the contract drawings. The stack shall include
an integral transition from the fan outlet rectangular flange to the round duct and shall include a
rain hat to prevent water from entering the system. The exhaust stack shall be contact molded
and manufactured in accordance with NBS PS 15-69 and ASTM D-4097 for contact molding. The
resin used in fabrication shall be a premium vinyl ester type such as Hetron 922 by Ashland
Chemicals, Derakane 411 by Dow Chemical or approved equal.

J. Neoprene Pad: A 1/4" thick, 60 durometer neoprene rubber sheet must be placed underneath the
scrubber vessel.


A. The Emergency Chlorine Scrubber shall operate manually in response to hand switches or
automatically in response to contact closures at remote leak detectors. The system shall normally
remain in automatic mode for standby conditions. System response for manual and automatic
modes is described below.

B. Manual Control
1. The control system shall provide for manual control of the following items:
System Start
System Stop
Scrubber Exhaust Fan
Caustic Recirculation Pump
2. Manual control shall be enabled by turning a HAND-OFF-AUTO switch for the respective
piece of equipment to the HAND setting. The selected device shall start and an indicating light
will energize to denote that it is operating.
3. The scrubber system shall be able to be started manually if desired by turning the system switch
to HAND. The scrubber shall function the same as during automatic mode if the scrubber is
started in this manner.

C. Automatic Control
1. The control system shall provide for automatic control of the scrubber such that when the
HAND-OFF-AUTO switches noted above are set to AUTO, the scrubber system shall operate
automatically based a signal from a Chlorine Detector in the chlorine storage area.
2. When the Local Control Panel receives a start signal from the chlorine detector, the caustic
recirculation pump will shall start immediately and after a 5 second delay the fan shall start.
Status lights shall energize to indicate that the fan and pump are operating.


A. The scrubber system shall be furnished with Local Control Panel with an FRP NEMA 4X enclosure
to house the required controls. The panel shall be mounted on the scrubber.
1. The control panel shall include the following switches and lights:
System HAND-OFF-AUTO Switch
System "READY" Status Light
Fan "Run" Light
Pump "Run" Light
Fan "Fail" Light
Pump "Fail" Light
Caustic "Low Level" Light
Lapse Timer
2. A low level switch for caustic storage shall indicate an alarm light and audible alarm. A reset
button shall be provided to silence the alarm.
3. The control panel shall include transformer, motor starters for fan and pump.
4. Provide fuse protection for all motor circuits. Provide two spare fuses of each size and type.



The complete scrubber system, pump, fan, and controls shall be assembled and piped at the factory
and operated for a minimum of one (1) hour (60 minutes) with water prior to shipment to job site.


A. The services of a factory representative shall be provided as specified in Section 1.6 to insure proper
installation and start-up of the scrubber system.

B. Operation and Maintenance manuals shall be submitted to the Owner prior to final acceptance of the

C. Upon completion of installation of the scrubber system, the Contractor shall be responsible for
performing an acceptance test to verify the satisfactory operation of the system and the design
performance requirements of the specification. As a minimum the test shall include but not be
limited to the following:
1. The test shall be witnessed by the Owner.
2. Air flow, pressure, and motor amperage shall be measured and recorded.
3. Caustic storage tank shall be leak tested prior to filling with caustic.
4. System component operation shall be tested by energizing chlorine leak detector.


Manufacturer shall guarantee the whole system, both in material and workmanship, for a period of
one year from the day of final acceptance, not to exceed 18 months from shipment.


The caustic tank shall be identified with the health, flammability and reactivity of hazardous
materials as required by codes.


A. The contractor shall provide the initial fill of sodium hydroxide for the emergency chlorine scrubber,
as recommended by the equipment supplier, prior to completion of the factory startup and
acceptance of the equipment. The contractor shall coordinate delivery with the requirements of the
startup personnel to allow hydrotesting of the scrubber prior to chemical delivery.

B. The contractor shall provide 2,100 gallons of 20 percent Rayon Grade sodium hydroxide. The
requirements shall be clearly stated in the manufacturers design submittal.

C. The solution shall be free of dissolved elements or impurities. Dilution, if necessary, from standard
stocked concentrations shall be made with deionized or soft water (less than 1 grain per gallon). The
chemical supplier shall provide certification of such dilution methods.

D. The caustic specification is as follows:

20% Caustic Soda*- Rayon Grade Specification

Component Basis Specification

Total Alkalinity (as Na2OH) wt. % 15.5 Min.
Hydroxide Alkalinity (as NaOH) wt. % 20.0 Min.
Na2CO3 wt. % 0.04 Max.
NaCl wt. % 0.0020 Max.
NaClO3 wt. % 0.0002 Max.
Na2SO4 ppm by wt. 21.0 Max.
Fe ppm by wt. 0.8 Max.
Cu ppm by wt. 0.2 Max.
Ni ppm by wt. 0.2 Max.
Hg ppm by wt. 0.2 Max.
Heavy Metals (as Pb) ppm by wt. 6.0 Max.
As ppm by wt. 0.6 Max.

File: C06-066.spec-evss-110606.doc



R.J. Environmental, Inc.
SwRI Project No. 01-4959
January 6, 1993
Page No. 5

Note: After the leak was completed, a propane burner was utilized in the flash room to
speed, up the cleanup time. It appears that the burner exhaust gases contributed to the
increased chlorine levels (0.6-1.2 ppm) measured by the chlorine monitors.

Test No. 6

This test was conducted with the RJ 150 scrubber system and involved leaking the contents
from a 150 lb liquid chlorine cylinder into the flash room. The maximum release rate reached
during this test was 28.5 lb/min and the maximum chlorine levels measured at the exhaust was
1.3 ppm. The flash room maintained a negative pressure throughout the test.

Test No. 7

A demonstration test of the RJ 2000 scrubber system was witnessed by industry representatives
and involved leaking the contents from a 150 lb liquid chlorine cylinder into the flash room. The
maximum chlorine level measured at the scrubber exhaust was 0.2 ppm which is within the UFC


The qualification tests performed on the RJ 150 and 2000 emergency chlorine scrubber systems
were performed under controlled laboratory conditions at SwRI using calibrated equipment and
instrumentation as well as certified materials. The test results were video taped for documentation
purposes and the data processed and recorded on the Department of Fire Technology VAX mainframe

The qualification tests confirmed that the RJ 150 and 2000 scrubber systems neutralized the
chlorine gas releases and met the UFC requirements for reducing the maximum allowable discharge
concentration of chlorine to one-half of the Immediate Danger to Life and Health (IDLH) rating (15
ppm) at the point of discharge into the atmosphere. The scrubber systems also maintained a negative
pressure in the flash room during treatment of the chlorine vapors.

Sincerely, Approved:

Michael R. Gonzalez Alex B. Wenzel

Senior Research Engineer Director
Fire Testing Services Department of Fire Technology


6220 CULEBRA ROAD POST OFFICE DRAWER 28510 SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS, USA 78228-0510 (512) 684-5111 TELEX 244846
FAX (210) 522-3377
January 6, 1993

Mr. Roop Jain

R.J. Environmental, Inc.
6197 Cornerstone Ct. East
Suite 108
San Diego, California 92121

RE: SwRl Project No. 01-4959 FINAL LETTER REPORT

Subject: Qualification Test Program for the R.J. Environmental Emergency Chlorine
Scrubber Systems

Dcar Mr. Jain:

This letter constitutes the final report for Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Project No.
01-4959: Qualification Test Program for the RJ 150 and 2000 Emergency Chlorine Scrubber
Systems. A description of the test program along with the tests results is included below.


Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted to perform qualification testing of the R.J.
Environmental Model No. RJ 150 and 2000 Emergency Chlorine Scrubber Systems for compliance to
the 1991 Uniform Fire Code (UFC) requirements for indoor storage of toxic compressed gases. The full.
scale laboratory tests were conducted at SwRl during the period of April 13 - 26, 1992 and involved
simulating chlorine leaks of 150, 550, and 1800 lb to confirm that the scrubber systems would meet the
UFC requirements for a maximum chlorine discharge concentration of less than 15 ppm from the
scrubber exhaust stack and operation of the cylinder storage room at A negative pressure throughout the
treatment of the chlorine vapors.


The RJ 150 and 2000 scrubber systems represent a three stage absorption system designed to
provide the mquired room ventilation rates through induced draft fans and supply of caustic solution
for treatment of the chlorine vapors. The scrubber components include a three stage absorber, integral
caustic storage tank, air exhaust fan, caustic recirculation pump, electric control panel, and associated
piping. The RJ 150 scrubber was designed to handle 150 to 300 lb chlorine leaks, while the RJ 2000
was designed to handle chlorine leaks from one ton cylinders and bulk storage tanks.
R.J. Environmental, Inc.
SwRI Project No. 014959
January 6, 1993
Page No. 2


The test set up for the qualification tests included chlorine cylinders, pressure vessel, load cells,
flash room, instrumentation, data acquisition system, and video equipment. The chlorine cylinders were
mounted on external support structures which included load cells for monitoring weight loss. A flash
room measuring 12 x 11 x 12 ft was constructed to contain the chlorine leaks and was instrumented
with thermocouple wire for monitoring room temperatures and a transducer to monitor room pressures.
Observation windows were installed in the walls and ceiling of the room to allow for video
documentation of the liquid chlorine leaks and vaporization process.

The scrubbers were instrumented with thermocouples to determine the temperatures at selected
locations and monitors to measure the chlorine levels from the exhaust stack emissions. A data
acquisition system provided continuous online data recordings of the cylinder weight loss, temperatures,
pressures, and flow rates every five seconds during each of the tests. Figure I illustrates the layout of the
test set up.

FIGURE 1. RJ Environmental Chlorine Scrubber Test Process Flow Diagram

R.J. Environmental, Inc.
SwRl Project No. 014959
January 6, 1993
Page No. 3


The following list identifies the test data recorded and the instrumentation utilized for the
qualification tests:

a. Flash Room Static Pressure: The static pressure was monitored with a calibrated
pressure transducer having an accuracy of 0.01 inch w.c.

b. Chlorine concentration: The chlorine concentration at the outlet of the scrubber was
monitored with an Enterra Model 4000 chlorine analyzer calibrated and certified by
the manufacturer. The analyzer was field checked frequently against a calibration
kit provided by Enterra.
C. Chlorine Release Rate: The chlorine release rate was calculated from the measured
chlorine cylinder weight loss versus time. The weight of the cylinders were
monitored continuously with calibrated load cells.

d. Temperatures: Temperatures of the ambient air, flash room, scrubber Wet and
outlet, and scrubber sump were measured with certified Omega Type K
thermocouple wire.

e. Pressures: The pressure differentials across the specially designed orifice plates and
scrubbers were measured with Dwyer pressure gauges.

f. Scrubber Air Flow: Volumetric air flow rates were measured with an orifice plate
installed at the scrubber inlet. The orifice plate was calibrated by measuring the air
flow at several orifice plate pressure drop settings. Air flows were measured using a
standard pitot tube in accordance to EPA Method 2.

g. Data Acquisition System: A calibrated John Fluke 2289A Helios I analog to digital
converter was utilized for recording the test data. This data was then sent to a VAX
750 mainframe computer for processing and storage.


The test program was conducted in accordance with the SwRl safety procedure written to
ensure the safety of the test personnel, environment, and equipment. The test personnel received
training regarding the use of protective clothing, respirators, hazards involved, and compliance to the
safety procedures. 'Me. test program was monitored by the SwRl Safety Office to ensure compliance
to the safety and environmental regulations.

A total of seven tests were conducted for evaluation of the scrubber systems. The first three tests
were conducted as functional checks of the test apparatus and involved controlled releases of nitrogen
and chlorine to ensure that the scrubber systems were capable of treating the chlorine
R.J. Environmental, Inc.
SwRl Project No. 01-4959
January 6, 1993
Page No. 4

vapors. The tests were scheduled such that the severity level of the chlorine leaks was gradually
increased to confirm that the systems were operating satisfactorily and the chlorine levels from the
exhaust were within the allowable limits.

Test No. 1, 2, and 3

The first test was a functional checkout of the test apparatus, instrumentation, and data
acquisition system by venting available room air and nitrogen through the test set up. The
functional check verified that the scrubbers and the instrumentation were functioning properly.

The second functional test was conducted by leaking 19 lb from a 150 lb chlorine cylinder into
the flash room. The chlorine vapors were vented from the room into the scrubber for treatment
and exhausted into the atmosphere. The maximum chlorine level measured from the stack
emissions during the functional test was 0.1 ppm.

The third test involved the release of 75 lb of chlorine into the flash room. The maximum
chlorine level recorded at the scrubber exhaust stack was 0.2 ppm.

Based on observations made during the initial scrubber systems operation, modifications
were made by RJE to improve and optimize the gas and liquid caustic distribution for a more
efficient scrubbing process.

Test No. 4

This test involved the release of approximately 1800 lb of liquid chlorine from a one ton
cylinder into the flash room. The maximum chlorine leak rate reached during the test was 52
lb/min. As shown in the respective data tables, the flash mom was maintained under negative
pressure throughout the entire test period and the maximum chlorine level measured from the
RJ 2000 scrubber exhaust was 0.0 ppm.

Test No. 5

This test was conducted to simulate a catastrophic chlorine leak rate to determine the capability
of the RJ 2000 scrubber to treat the chlorine vapors within the allowable limits set by the UFC.
To optimize the leak rate, 550 lb of liquid chlorine were transferred from a one ton cylinder into
a 250 gal pressure tank and pressurized with a nitrogen blanket.

The liquid chlorine was released from the 250 gal pressure tank into the flash room with the
chlorine valve in the full open position. The 550 lb of chlorine were leaked into the flash room
at a maximum leak rate of 99 lb/min. The flash room maintained a negative pressure throughout
the test and the chlorine levels measured from the exhaust stack ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 ppm
which is well within the limits set by the UFC.
Table 1


Scrubber Air Flow Rate: 1,180 cfm

The exhaust stack was "sensed" by RJE and SWRI personnel. A faint "swimming pool"
type smell was all that could be smelled, further verifying that chlorine levels in the stack
were non-existent.
Table 2


Scrubber Air Flow Rate: 1,180 cfm

Release from Pressurized Chlorine Holding Tank (550-lb. Release)

* Release stopped; tank empty.

**A propane burner was placed at the intake air into the flash room (at about 30 minutes
into the test) to help speed up the chlorine vaporization rate. It is known that carbon
monoxide can interfere with the chlorine sensor. It may explain the higher chlorine
levels in the stack during the later part of the test.
Table 3


Scrubber Air Flow Rate: 280 cfm

Release from 150-lb. Chlorine Cylinder"

*Tank empty

* *Cylinder inverted to represent worst case scenario.


Test Date: April 1992

Test Site: Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas
Test No.: RJE-005

Flash Room Dimension: 12'x ll'x 12'
Flash Room Volume: 1,584 ft3
Chlorine Release: 99 lbs *
Release Duration: I min.*
Scrubber Air Flow Rate: 1, 180 cfm
* Analysis based on I minute intervals

Test Observation
The chlorine liquid was entirely "flashed" into vapor during the first few minutes of the test, as
observed during the test.

The maximum inlet chlorine concentration will be calculated based on all chlorine vapor entering
into the scrubber as soon as it is formed, i.e. no mixing in the room.
Lbs of chlorine released/min.: 99
1 lb of chlorine: 5.42 ft3 of chlorine vapor
Rate of chlorine vapor: 99 x 5.42 = 537 cfm

Scrubber flow rate: 1,180

Chlorine concentration in inlet duct to the scrubber:

537 X 106
C12, maximum = 454,980 ppm

The minimum chlorine concentration will be calculated if we assume all chlorine vapor generated
is first well mixed in the room, to a uniform concentration before it enters into the scrubber.
Chlorine Vapor Formed: 537 ft3 (first minute)
Room Volume: 1,584 ft3
Room Chlorine Concentration:
537 X 106
C12, minimum = 339,015 ppm

Since the room temperature in the flash room was not uniform (at three locations), it suggests that
the concentration in the room wasn't the same, thus we expect the chlorine vapor concentration in
the room must be somewhere between these two values.
Water Technologies

RJ-2000 Emergency
Siemens Water Technologies offers a full range of
Chlorine Scrubber
emergency scrubbers for protection against accidental
leaks of toxic gases such as chlorine, ammonia and
sulfur dioxide.

RJ-2000 Emergency Scrubber

The patented RJ-2000 is the worlds most popular

emergency scrubber system. The patented process is
designed to contain and neutralize chlorine vapors in
response to a gas leak or catastrophic cylinder failure.

The RJ-2000 scrubber uses a unique horizontal flow How It Works

path, with a proprietary caustic distribution network, to When a leak occurs, the pump and fan start
absorb better than 99.999% of the chlorine gas automatically. The fan provides sufficient vacuum to
entering the scrubber, in a very compact footprint and contain the chlorine gas and deliver it to the scrubber.
low profile. The pump circulates concentrated caustic solution
over the scrubber packing to absorb virtually all of the
The RJ-2000 is the only emergency scrubber to have chlorine gas.
been tested by an independent, certified laboratory in a
full 1-ton chlorine gas release. During this test, a The entire system is factory assembled and tested, for
catastrophic accident was stimulated with chlorine easy, plug & play installation.
release rates of 100 lb/min. The scrubber saw inlet
chlorine concentrations in excess of 500,000 ppm, and The RJ-2000 scrubbers are also available to neutralize
outlet concentrations less than 1ppm, safely below the 2-tons or 3-tons of chlorine gas. Larger bulk systems
5 ppm UFC limit. can be provided for up to 100-tons of chlorine.

Standard Features
Patented System

Proven in independent testing under a catastrophic

1-ton chlorine gas release.

Compact, low profile enables indoor installations

Factory Assembled for Plug & Play installation

FRP Construction for optimum strength and

corrosion resistance

Siemens Service and Support

RJ-2000 Design Information

Airflow Dimensions Shipping Operating Fan

Design Caustic Volume Pump Motor
Rate* LxWxH Wt Wt Motor
cfm gallons ft lbs lbs HP HP
m3/h liters mm kil kil kW kW
3,000 2,100 13.0 x 7.0 x 8.50 7,500 29,000 5.0 20
5100 7950 3965 x 2135 x 2440 3400 13155 3.7 15

3,000 3,900 13.0 x 7.0 x 11.5 10,000 50,000 5.0 20

5100 14800 3965 x 2135 x 3505 4535 22680 3.7 15

3,000 5,900 13.0 x 9.0 x 12.25 14,000 74,000 5.0 20

5100 22350 3965 x 2745 x 3735 6350 33566 3.7 15
* Standard designs for 1500, 4000 and 5000 cfm also available.

Isometric Drawing

Terrell, Texas
RJ 2000,
One Ton Capacity
Siemens Water Technologies Siemens Water Technologies reserves the
right to change the specifications referred
Odor Control Products to in this literature at any time, without
prior notice. The United States and
13100 Gregg Street, Suite B Trademark Office has recognized the
Poway, CA 92064 novelty of the design of the LO/PRO with
the award of two patents (U.S. Patent Nos.
Phone: 858-486-8500 5,876,662 & 6,174,498) An additional
patent is now pending. VPOC-EVSS-MB-08-06