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CHAPTER​​3

BOUNDARY​​LAYER

CHAPTER​​3​​:​​BOUNDARY​​LAYER

Introduction

Internal​​flow​​vs​​External​​flow

External​​flow​​:​​object​​is​​completely​​surrounding​​by​​fluid​​flow.

Examples

- flow​​of​​air​​around​​airplanes.

- falling​​snow​​flakes.

- flow​​of​​water​​around​​submarine​​and​​fish

Important​​of​​external​​flow​​study​​:​​aerodynamics

- lift​​and​​drag​​on​​surface​​vehicles

- decrease​​vehicles​​fuel​​consumption

- improve​​vehicle​​handling

Two approaches (theoretical and experimental) used to obtain information​​about​​fluid​​forces​​developed​​by​​external​​flow.

Because of the complexities of the governing equations and the complexities of the geometry of the object involved, the amount of information obtained from theoretical method is limited. Much information about external flow comes from experiments carried out,​​for​​most​​part,​​on​​scale​​models​​of​​the​​actual​​objects.

In this chapter, we consider characteristics of external flow past an objects and learn how to determine the various forces on objects surrounded​​by​​a​​moving​​liquid.

​ ​​ ​​General​ ​External​ ​Flow​ ​Considerations

A body immersed in a moving fluid experiences a resultant force due to the interaction between the body and the fluid surrounding it.

Fluid​​mechanics​​phenomena

- body​​moves​​through​​the​​fluid​​with​​velocity​​U.

- fluid​​flows​​past​​the​​stationary​​body​​with​​velocity​​U.

In any case we can treat the situation as fluid flowing stationary​​body​​with​​velocity​​U,​​the​​upstream​​velocity.

past a

Assume : the upstream velocity is constant in both time and location​​(uniform​​and​​constant​​velocity).

The structure of an external flow and the ease with which the flow can be described and analyzed often depend on the nature of the body​​in​​the​​flow.​​Three​​general​​categories​​of​​bodies​​are

- two​​dimensional​​object

- axisymmetric​​bodies

- three​​dimensional​​bodies

Another​​classification​​of​​body​​shape

- streamlined​​body

- blunt​​body

When an object is immersed in a free stream of fluid flow, an interaction​​between​​the​​body​​and​​the​​fluid​​occur.

This can be described in terms of the stresses – wall shear stress due​​to​​viscous​​effects​​and​​normal​​stress​​due​​to​​the​​pressure.

Typical shear stress and distributions are shown in figure below and both shear stress and pressure vary in magnitude and direction along​​the​​surface.

It is often useful to know the detailed distribution of shear stress and pressure over the surface of the body although such information is difficult to obtain. However only the integrated or resultant​​effects​​of​​these​​distribution​​is​​needed.

In a flow field, the drag force resulting in flow passes over an object is

D​​=​​DP +​​Dwhere

F

D p​ ​​ D f​ ​​

-​​drag​​force​​resulting​​from​​pressure

-​​drag​​force​​resulting​​from​​friction

The resultant of the shear stress and pressure distribution can be obtained by integrating the effect of these two quantities on the body​​surface​​as​​indicated​​in​​figure​​below.

The components of the fluid force on the small area element dA are

dF x​ ​​ dF y​ ​​

=​​(pdA)​​cosθ​​+​​w dA)​​sinθ =​​-(pdA)​​sinθ​​+​​w dA)​​cosθ

The​​net​​components​​of​​the​​force​​on​​the​​object​​are Drag,​​D =​​∫dFx =​​∫p​​cosθ​​dA​​+​​∫τw sinθ​​dA

Lift,​​L

=​​∫dFy

=​​-​​∫p​​sinθ​​dA​​+​​​​τw

cosθ​​dA

Drag is the resisting force acting against the body in the direction of flow.

Lift​​is​​the​​force​​acting​​in​​the​​vertical​​direction.

Obtaining these values of drag and lift for complex shapes is difficult because we have to know θ as a function of location along the​ ​body​ ​and​ ​the​ ​distribution​ ​of​ ​​τw and ​​p​ ​along​ ​the​ ​surface.

In this chapter, we will focus on a flat surface that is parallel to the direction​​of​​flow.

Characteristic​​of​​Flow​​Past​​an​​Object

Reynolds Number represents the ratio of inertial effect to viscous effects.

In the absence of all viscous effect, the Reynolds Number is infinite while in the absence of all inertial effects, the Reynolds Number is zero.

Most​​external​​flows​​are​​associated​​with

- moderately​​sized​​objects​​(0.01m<l​​<10m)

- typical​​upstream​​velocities​​(0.01m/s<U​​<100m/s)

- fluid​​involved​​are​​typically​​water​​or​​air

The resulting Reynolds Number range for such flows is approximately 10<Re<109 . Flows with Re>100 are dominated by inertial effects and flows with Re<1 are dominated by viscous effects. Hence most familiar external flows are dominated by inertial.

Flows​ ​past​ ​three​ ​flat​ ​plates​ ​of​ ​length​ ​​l​ ​​ ​with​ ​Reynolds​ ​Number​ ​​ ​0.1, 10,​​and​​107 ​​are​​shown​​in​​figure​​below.

If the Reynolds Number is small, the viscous effects are relatively strong and the plate affects the uniform upstream flow far ahead, above, below​​and​​behind​​the​​plate.

As the Reynolds Number increased, the region in which viscous effects are important becomes smaller in all direction except downstream. The streamlined are displaced from their original uniform upstream condition but the displacement is not as great as for Re = 0.1 situation.

If the Reynolds Number is large, the flow is dominated by inertial effects and the viscous effects are neglected except in the region very close to the plate and in the thin wake region behind​​the​​plate

The streamlined of the flow outside the boundary layer are nearly parallel​​to​​the​​plate.

The slide displacement of the external streamlines that are outside of the boundary layer is due to the thickening of the boundary layer in​​the​​direction​​of​​the​​flow.

Flow past a blunt object also varies with Reynolds Number. In general, the larger the Reynolds Number, the smaller the region of the flow field in which viscous effects are important. For an object that are not sufficiently streamlined, an additional characteristic of the flow is observed and call flow separation and is illustrated in figure​​below.

​ ​​ For Re = 0.1, the viscous effects are important several diameters in any direction from the cylinder. A somewhat surprising characteristic of this flow is that the streamlines are essentially symmetric about the center of the cylinder (the streamline pattern is the​​same​​in​​front​​of​​the​​cylinder​​as​​it​​is​​behind​​the​​cylinder.

As the Reynolds Number is increased, the region ahead of the cylinder in which viscous effects are important become smaller with the viscous region extending only a short distance ahead of the cylinder. With the increased of Reynolds Number, the fluid inertia becomes more important and at some location on the body, denoted the separation location, the fluid inertia cannot follow the curved path around to the rear of the body. The result is a separation bubble behind the cylinder in which some of the fluid is actually flowing upstream, against the direction of the upstream slow.

At still larger Reynolds Number, the area affected by the viscous forces is forced farther downstream until it involves only a thin (δ<<D) boundary layer on the front portion of the cylinder and an

irregular, unsteady wake region that extends far downstream of the cylinder.

Boundary​​Layer​​Characteristics

A boundary layer is a volume of fluid that is slowed down compare to​​the​​free​​stream.

In the boundary layer, the local velocity (u) is less that the free stream​​velocity​​(U),​​i.e​​u​​<​​U.

The​​boundary​​layer​​thickness​​is​​shown​​here​​as​​δ.

We assume here that the formation of the boundary layer takes place​​at​​the​​front​​end​​of​​the​​flat​​plate.

The boundary layer forms at the top and bottom of the plate surface.

The boundary layer can be divided into laminar boundary layer and turbulent​​boundary​​layer.

The​​Reynolds​​number​​for​​a​​boundary​​layer​​is​​given​​by

Rex ​ ​=​ ​​ρUx/μ

The transition from laminar boundary layer to turbulent boundary

layer takes place at a critical distance x = xcrit in 105 <Rex <3​​x​​106 ).

the x-direction (2 x

Turbulent

because​​the​​viscous​​effect​​is​​higher.

boundary

layer

produces

larger

drag

on an object

The sub-layer (similar to the one we discussed in chapter 2) is located​​under​​the​​turbulent​​boundary​​layer​​on​​the​​surface.

This​​sub-layer​​will​​be​​destroyed​​when​​the​​surface​​roughness​​of​​the

plate​​is​​high.

Consider​​2-dimensional​​flat​​plate​​on​​an​​x-y​​plane.

The​​shear​​stress​​within​​fluid​​is​​given​​by

τ​​ ​=​ ​​μ(δu/δy)

where

τ​​=​​shear​​stress

μ​​=​​dynamic​​viscosity

(δu/δy)

=

velocity gradient across the boundary layer in y-direction

The purpose of the boundary layer on plate is to allow the fluid to change its velocity from upstream value of U to zero on the plate. Thus u = 0 at y = 0 and u = U at y = δ, with the velocity profile, u = u(x,y) bridging the boundary layer thickness. In actuality there is no

sharp​​‘edge’​​to​​the​​boundary​​layer​​(it​​is​​not​​precisely​​u​​=​​0​​at​​y​​=​​δ).

Several parameters has been defined to develop the theory of boundary​​layers​​namely

- boundary​​layer​​thickness,​​δ

- displacement​​thickness​​δ*

- momentum​​thickness​​θ

Boundary​​Layer​​Thickness,​​δ

Defined as the distance perpendicular from the surface of the flat plate to the position where the local velocity is 99% of the free stream​​velocity

δ​​=​​y​​when​​u​​=​​0.99U

Displacement​​Thickness​​δ*

Defined as the distance for a deflected streamline due to the boundary​​layer.​​Mathematically​​it​​is​​expressed​​by

δ ​​=​​ [1​​​​(u/U)]dy

The displacement thickness represents the amount that the thickness of the body must be increase so that the uniform inviscid flow has the same mass flowrate properties as the actual viscous flow.

Figure below shows two velocity profiles for flow past a flat plate, one if there were no viscosity and the other if there is viscosity and zero slip at the wall. Because of the velocity deficit, U – u with in the boundary layer, the flowrate across section b-b is less than that across section a-a. However if we displace the plate at section a-a by an appropriate amount δ*(boundary layer displacement thickness), the​​flowrates​​across​​each​​section​​will​​be​​identical.​​This​​is​​true​​if

δ*bU =​​ ​​(U​​​​u)bdy

​​

​​ ​​ ​​ ​​δ*

=​ ​

​ ​ [1​ ​​ ​(u/U)]dy

Example :​​Air​​flow​​into​​a​​2​​ft​​square​​duct​​with​​uniform​​velocity​​of 10​ ​ft/s​ ​forms​ ​a​ ​boundary​ ​layer​ ​on​ ​the​ ​walls.​ ​​ ​The​ ​fluid within​​the​​core​​region​​flows​​as​​if​​it​​were​​inviscid.​​From advanced​​calculation​​it​​is​​determined​​that​​for​​this​​flow the​​boundary​​layer​​displacement​​thickness​​is​​given​​by δ*​​=​​0.007(x)1/2 Determine​ ​the​ ​velocity​ ​​U​ ​=​ ​U(x,y)​ ​and​ ​pressure​ ​drop​ ​of the​​air​​within​​the​​duct​​but​​outside​​of​​the​​boundary layer.

Solution

:

If​​we​​assumed​​incompressible​​flow,​​it​​follows​​that​​the​​volume

flowrate​​across​​any​​section​​of​​the​​duct​​is​​equal​​to​​that​​at​​the

entrance.​​That​​is

U1 A1 ​​=​​(10)(2)(2)​​=​​40​​ft3 /s​ ​=​​ 2 uda

According to the definition of displacement thickness, the flowrate across section 2 is the same as that for a uniform flow with velocity U through a duct whose walls have been moved inward by δ*. Therefore

 40​ ​=​ ​​∫​ 2​ uda​​=​​U(2​​-​​2​δ​*)​ 2 40​ ​=​ ​4U(1​ ​-​ ​​δ​*)​ 2

40​​=​​4U[1​​-​​0.007(x)1/2 ]2

U =​​10/[1​​-​​0.007(x)1/2 ]2 ​​ft/s

From​​Bernoulli​​equation

p1 ​​+​​(1/2)ρU1 2 ​​=​​p2 ​​+​​(1/2)ρU2

2

with​ ​​ρ​​ ​​=​ ​2.34​ ​x​ ​10-3 ​​slug/ft3 ​ ​and​ ​​p1 ​​=​​0

p2 =​ ​(1/2)​ ​​ρ(​ ​U1 2 ​​​​U2 2 )

=​​(1/2)(​​2.34​​x​​10-3 )[(10)2 ​​​​(10/[1​​-​​0.007(x)1/2 ]2 )2 ] =​​0.119​​[1​​-​​(1/[1​​-​​0.007(x)1/2 ]4 )​​lb/ft2

Momentum​​Thickness,​​θ

Defined as the loss of the momentum capacity rate compared to the rate without the boundary layer. Mathematically it can be expressed​​by

θ​​=​​

(u/U)​​[1​​​​(u/U)]dy

Momentum thickness is often used when determining the drag on an​​object.

Boundary​​Layer​​Equation​​and​​Solution

Governing equation for boundary layer flow - Prandtl Momentum

Equation​​(2​​Dimensional)

Governing​​equation​​for​​Prandtl​​Momentum​​Equation

- Continuity​​equation

- Momentum​​equation

Solution​​for​​Prandtl​​Momentum​​Equation​​-​​Blasius​​Solution

- this​​solution​​is​​for​​laminar​​flow

- introduced​​the​​dimensional​​similarity​​variable

η​​​=​​(U/νx)1/2

- from stream function equation, Ψ = (ν x U)1/2 , the velocity components​​are

u​ ​=​ ​Uf​ ​​(η) v​​=​​(νU/4x)1/2 (ηf​ ​​​​ ​-​ ​f​ ​)

- substitute velocity components into continuity and momentum equation, the third order ordinary differential equation

2f′′′​​​+​​ff′′​​​=​​0

- boundary​​condition

f​ ​=​ ​f​​ ​=​ ​0​ ​at​ ​​η​​ ​=​ ​0​ ​and​ ​f​​ ​​​​ ​1​ ​as​ ​​η​​ ​​​​ ​​

- numerical solution termed as Blasius solution is tabulated in table​​below

- from​ ​the​ ​solution​ ​it​ ​is​ ​found​ ​that​ ​u/U​ ​​​​ ​0.99​ ​whenη​​ ​​ ​=​ ​5, thus

i. Wall​​shear​​stress

iii. Displacement​​thickness

iv. Momentum​​thickness

v. Friction​​coefficient,​​cf

cf ​​=​​tw /0.5​ ​​ρU2

where cf ​​=​​0.664(Rex )-1/2

vi. Friction​​drag​​coefficient,​​CDf ​​as CDf ​​=​​Df /(1/2)ρU2 bl

***​​where

where CDf ​​=​​1.328(Rel )-1/2

Reynolds​ ​number,​ ​​Re​ ​=​ ​Ux/ν

****​ ​page​ ​17​ ​​ ​31​ ​​ ​shows​ ​the​ ​derivation​ ​of​ ​Prandtl​ ​Momentum​ ​Equation and​​Blasius​​Solution​​(shear​​stress,​​boundary​​layer, displacement​​thickness,​​momentum​​thickness​​equation)

The momentum integral equation, τw = ρU2 dθ/dx can be used along with an assumed velocity profile to obtain reasonable, approximate boundary layer results. The accuracy of these results depends on how closely the shape of the assumed velocity profile approximates the​​actual​​profile.

Most​​simple​​approximation

(u/U)​ ​=​ ​y/δ

for

0​ ​​​​ ​y​ ​​​​ ​​δ

Other​​approximations​​are

Several assumed velocity profiles and the resulting values of δ are given​​in​​figure​​and​​table​​below.

 Profile​​Character δ​Re​ x​ 1/2​ /x c​ f​ Re​ x​ 1/2 C​ Df​ Re​ l​ 1/2 Blasius​​solution 5.00 0.664 1.328 Linear u/U​​=​​y/​δ 3.46 0.578 1.156 Parabolic u/U​​=​​2y/​δ​​​-​​(y/​δ​)​ 2 5.48 0.730 1.460 Cubic u/U​​=​​3(y/​δ​)/2​​–​​(y/​δ​)​ 3​ /2 4.64 0.646 1.292 Sine​​wave u/U​​=​​sin[​π​(y/​δ​)/2] 4.79 0.655 1.310

It is often convenient to use the dimensionless local friction coefficient,​​cf ​​to​​express​​the​​wall​​shear​​stress

cf ​​=​​tw /0.5​ ​​ρU2

The approximate value of local friction coefficient, cf using Blasius solution​​is cf ​​=​​0.664/(Rex )1/2

For a flat plate of length, l and width, b the net friction drag Df can be​​expressed​​in​​terms​​of​​the​​friction​​drag​​coefficient,​​CDf ​​as CDf ​​=​​Df /(1/2)ρU2 bl

The approximate value of friction drag coefficient, CDf using Blasius​​solution​​is CDf ​​=​​1.328/(Rel )1/2

Example : A flat plate with a length of 2.4 m and width 0.9 m moves horizontally with velocity 6 m/s in still air with a density 1.21 kg/m3 and kinematic viscosity of 1.49 x 10-5 m2 /s. Assuming that the boundary layer is laminar determine​ ​δ,​ ​δ*,​ ​θ,​ ​​τω ,​​cf ,​​CDf ​​and​​Df ​​.

Solution​​:

Laminar​​flow,​​Re​​=​​2​​x​​105

Re

2​​x​​105 ​​= 6(x)/(1.49​​x​​10-5 )

= Ux/ν

 ​​ ​​ ​x = (2​ ​x​ ​10​ 5​ )(1.49​​x​​10​ -5​ )/6 = 0.497​​m

tω

= 0.332U3/2 (ρμ/x)1/2

= 0.332(63/2 )[(1.21)(1.49​​x​​10-5 )]1/2

= 0.021Pa

 δ =​​5(x)/(Re)​ 1/2 =​​5(0.497)/(2​​x​​10​ 5​ )​ 1/2 =​​5.56​​x​​10​ -3​ ​​m =​​5.56​​mm δ​* = 1.72(x)/(Re)​ 1/2

= 1.72(0.497)/(2​​x​​105 )1/2

= 1.91​​x​​10-3 ​​m

θ

cf

CDf

Df

= 0.664(x)/(Re)1/2

= 0.664(0.497)/(2​​x​​105 )1/2

= 7.38​​x​​10-4

= 0.664/(Rex )1/2

= 0.664/(2​​x​​105 )1/2

= 1.48​​x​​10-3

= 1.328/(Rel )1/2

= 1.328/(2​​x​​105 )1/2

= 2.97​​x​​10-3

= CDf ​​(1/2)ρU2 bl

= 2.97​​x​​10-3 (0.5)(1.21)(62 )(0.9)(2.4)

= 0.155​​N

****​ ​page​ ​41​ ​​ ​45​ ​​ ​shows​ ​the​ ​derivation​ ​of​ ​Friction​ ​Coefficient​ ​and Friction​​Drag​​Coefficient

Transition​​from​​Laminar​​to​​Turbulent​​Flow

When the flat plate is long enough there will be a transition from laminar​​to​​turbulent​​boundary​​layer

This​ ​transition​ ​depends​ ​on​ ​​Rex .

Transition takes place at Rex = ρUxcr /μ where x is the critical distance​​along​​the​​flat​​plate.

The​​transition​​normally​​occurs​​at​​Rex ​​=​​5​​x​​105 ​​although​​the​​value might​​vary​​because​​of​​the​​instability​​of​​the​​process

3.048​​m/s.​​At​​approximately​​what​​location​​will​​the

boundary​​layer​​become​​turbulent,​​and​​how​​thick​​is​​the

boundary​​layer​​at​​that​​point​​if​​the​​fluid​​is​​a

a. water​​15.6o C

b. standard​​air

c. glycerin​​at​​20o C

Turbulent​​Boundary​​Layer

Like turbulent flow in pipes, turbulent flow in boundary layer is complex.

There​​are​​no​​exact​​solutions​​for​​a​​turbulent​​boundary​​layer.

To​​describe​​the​​turbulent​​boundary​​layer,​​we​​use​​the​​power​​law u/U​​=​​(y/δ)​​ 1/n

Momentum integral equation can be used to obtain results for turbulent​​boundary​​layer.

From​ ​momentum​ ​integral​ ​solution,​ ​​ ​if​ ​​Re​ ​<​ ​107 ​ ​,​ ​​n​ ​=​ ​7,​ ​thus

 i. Wall​ ​shear​ ​stress,​ ​​τ​ w τ​ w​ ​​=​​0.0293​ρ​U​ 2​ /(Re​ x​ )​ 1/5 ii Boundary​ ​layer​ ​thickness,​ ​​δ δ​/x​​=​​0.378/(Re​ x​ )​ 1/5 iii. Displacement​ ​thickness,​ ​​δ​* δ​*/x​​=​​0.0473/(Re​ x​ )​ 1/5 iv. Momentum​ ​thickness,​ ​​θ θ/x​​=​​0.0368/(Re​ x​ )​ 1/5 v. Drag​ ​Force,​ ​​D​ f D​ f​ ​​=​​0.0366​ρ​U​ 2​ A/(Re​ x​ )​ 1/5 vi. Friction​ ​drag​ ​coefficient,​ ​​C​ Df C​ Df​ ​​=​​D​ f​ /(1/2)​ρ​U​ 2​ A​​=​​0.0732/(Re​ x​ )​ 1/5

Different​ ​​Re​ ​and​ ​​n​ ​will​ ​give​ ​different​ ​solution/equation.

****​​page​​50​​​​56​​shows​​the​​derivation​​of​​an​​equation​​related​​to

turbulent​​boundary​​layer.

Comparison​​between​​Laminar​​and​​Turbulent​​Boundary​​Layer

 Laminar​​Flow Turbulent​​Flow (Blasius​​Solution) Wall​​shear​​stress Wall​​shear​​stress ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​τ​ w​ ​​=​​0.0293​ρ​U​ 2​ /(Re​ x​ )​ 1/5 Boundary​​layer​​thickness Boundary​​layer​​thickness ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​δ​/x​ ​=​ ​0.378/(Re​ x​ )​ 1/5 Displacement​​thickness Displacement​​thickness ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​δ​*/x​ ​=​ ​0.0473/(Re​ x​ )​ 1/5 Momentum​​thickness Momentum​​thickness ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​θ/x​ ​=​ ​0.0368/(Re​ x​ )​ 1/5 Drag​​Force Friction​​coefficient ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​D​ f​ ​​=​​0.0366​ρ​U​ 2​ A/(Re​ x​ )​ 1/5 ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​c​ f​ ​​=​​t​ w​ /0.5​ ​​ρ​U​ 2 ​ ​​ ​where ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​c​ f​ ​​=​​0.664(Re​ x​ )​ -1/2 Friction​​drag​​coefficient Friction​​drag​​coefficient ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​C​ Df​ ​​=​​D​ f​ /(1/2)​ρ​U​ 2​ A ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​=​ ​0.0732/(Re​ x​ )​ 1/5 ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​C​ Df​ ​​=​​D​ f​ /(1/2)​ρ​U​ 2​ bl ​ ​​ ​where ​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​​ ​C​ Df​ ​​=​​1.328(Re​ l​ )​ ​​-1/2

Previously​​we​​discussed​​the​​boundary​​layer​​on​​flat​​surface.

We​​assumed​​no​​pressure​​drop​​along​​the​​plate.

For

profound.

curved

surfaces

the

effect

of

pressure

Consider​​flow​​over​​a​​curved​​surface​​shown​​in​​figure​​above.

At​​point​​A,​​velocity​​normal​​to​​surface​​is​​zero.

This​ ​is​ ​the​ ​​stagnation​ ​point.​ ​Boundary​ ​layer​ ​grows​ ​from​ ​A.

Boundary​​layer​​keeps​​growing​​at​​B​​and​​C.

Over the rear section of the surface, the flow decelerates, therefore the​​pressure​​increases.

The fluid particles in the boundary layer are slowed down due to

At​​D,​​dp/dx​​=​​0

To overcome this effect, energy of fluid diffuses from free stream to​​the​​surface​​of​​the​​body. But if the pressure gradient is too large, the diffusion is insufficient to sustain a forward movement and the flow along the surface reverses.

This forces the mainstream to separate giving the velocity profile at E​​and​​F.

The​ ​region​ ​where​ ​flow​ ​is​ ​reversed​ ​is​ ​called​ ​the​ ​​separation​ ​​region.

Drag​​Forces​​over​​Various​​Types​​of​​Bodies

​​External​​flow​​over​​a​​body​​can​​be​​divided​​into​​3​​types

- free​​surface​​flow​​(e.g.​​ships)

- immersed​​flow​​(e.g.​​airplane,​​cars,​​submarines​​etc)

- compressible​​flow​​(e.g.​​high​​speed​​objects)

​​We​​will​​focus​​on​​flow​​over​​immersed​​bodies.

Objects​​fully​​immersed​​in​​fluid​​can​​be​​classified​​as​​:-

- Blunt​​objects

- Streamlined​​objects

Blunt​​objects

- flow​​is​​characterized​​by​​separation

- normally​​associated​​with​​high​​drag

Streamlined​​objects

- flow​​does​​not​​separate​​and​​follow​​the​​contour​​of​​the​​body.

Drag is defined as a resistance force acting on the body in the direction​​of​​flow.

Drag​​force​​is​​given​​as D​​=​​½​​ρU2 A.CD where

 ρ = fluid​​density U = free​​stream​​velocity A = area C​ D = drag​​coefficient

C D​ ​​

depends​​on​​the​​shape​​of​​the​​body​​and​​Reynolds​​Number.

For blunt objects, sometimes CD becomes independent of Re as shown​​for​​spheres​​in​​figure​​below.

Drag​​can​​be​​divided​​into​​2​​types

- Friction​​drag​​​​discussed​​earlier

- Pressure​​drag​​​​due​​to​​difference​​in​​pressure​​over​​the​​body

Pressure​​Drag,​​Dp

where

Coefficient​​of​​Pressure,​​CP

- Defined​​as​​the​​ratio​​of​​static​​pressure​​to​​the​​dynamic​​force.

where

P =​​reference​​pressure

P = static​​pressure

½​ ​​ρU2 =​​dynamic​​pressure

-

Substituting​​in​​equation​​above

In many practical cases, we often look at the total drag force on an object​​rather​​than​​in​​fraction​​(i.e​​friction​​and​​pressure​​drag).

One​​of​​the​​application​​is​​drag​​on​​airfoils.

The​​drag​​force​​acting​​on​​the​​airfoil​​is​​as​​follows

FD