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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This is to acknowledge the different practitioners, experts, and specialists who made this learning materials and teaching guides for Grade 8 possible.

 

Writers ( Agriculture and Fishery Arts)

1. Aniceta Kong

Master Teacher I

Div.

of Oriental Mindoro

2. Delia San Diego

Master Teacher I

FFHNAS, Sta. Maria, Bulacan

3. Julie Francisco

Teacher I

FFHNAS, Sta. Maria, Bulacan

4. Nenitadela Cruz

Teacher III

MMFSL, Malolos City

5. Emma Mendoza

Master Teacher I

TSF, Tanauan City

 

Language Editor

Dr. Ofelia C. Flojo

Retired Regional English Supervisor

CALABARZON

 

Consultant

Alberto Dumo

Retired BSE Agriculture Specialist

Sta.

Maria Bulacan

 

Reviewers

1.

Mila Dena Lomat

Master Teacher I

FNAS, Floridablanca, Pampanga

2.

Wilfred S. Murla

Principal

VHS – Annex, Victoria, Tarlac

3.

Armado V. Illescas

Master Teacher I

MMFSL, Malolos City

4.

Eliseo T. Caseres

Instructor I

MMFSL, Malolos City

5.

Nenita P. Dela Cruz

Teacher III

MMFSL, Malolos City

 

Lay-Out Artist/Illustrator

 

1.

Henry Allen M. Arcos

2.

Brenn R. Bulado

3.

Arlene A. Guiao

4.

Francis C. Pili

5.

Noel C. Pili

6.

John S. Saladas

 

Management Team

1.

Dr. Lolita M. Andrada

Director IV

 

2.

Joyce DR. Andaya

Director III

 

2.

Ms. Bella O. Marinas

Chief,SDD

 

3.

Dr. Jose D. Tuguinayo, Jr.

SST. CHIEF, CDD, OIC

 

4.

Mr. Emmanuel S. Valdez

EPS II

 

5.

Mr. Albert B. Erni

EPS II

 

NOTE:

All pictures and graphic illustrations taken from the internet are properties of the original owners and are used only as supplemental materials for educational purposes.

are properties of the original owners and are used only as supplemental materials for educational purposes.
are properties of the original owners and are used only as supplemental materials for educational purposes.
INTRODUCTION This Module on Animal Production is one of the eighteen mini- courses under TLE

INTRODUCTION

This Module on Animal Production is one of the eighteen mini- courses under TLE subject designed mainly for you either in the Regular High School or Open High School Program. In this module, you are provided with various learning resources and experiences to enable you to gain wisdom and understanding of the lesson. Each of these includes what to know, what to process,what to reflectand understand and what to transfer. Specifically, this module is proposed to boost the knowledge, skills, and necessary attitudes of the learners in Animal Production. It includes lessons such as use of farm tools, their maintenance, mensuration and calculation, interpretation of plans and layout, application of safety measures in the workplace, selection of farm site, breeds of farm animals, housing systems, fixtures and equipment, feeds and feeding, sanitation and cleanliness in the farm and marketing animals and their by-products. It also integrates common competencies necessary in raising farm animals. The animal industry can supply the needs of the Filipino consumers if you know how. Production efficiency depends on a better knowledge and understanding of the fundamental principles and practices in animal production.

fundamental principles and practices in animal production. OBJECTIVES At the end of this module, you are

OBJECTIVES

At the end of this module, you are expected to:

1) demonstrate skills and understanding in:

a. the use of farm tools

b. the selection of farm site

c. mensuration and calculation

d. the interpretation of plans and layout

e. application of safety measures in the workplace

2) identify the following:

a. breeds of farm animals

b. housing systems

c. fixtures and equipment for herd and flocks

d. feeds and feeding

f. anitation and cleanliness on the farm

g. arketing farm animals and animal by- products

d . feeds and feeding f. anitation and cleanliness on the farm g. arketing farm animals
d . feeds and feeding f. anitation and cleanliness on the farm g. arketing farm animals
What to know LESSON 1:USE OF FARM TOOLS AND THEIR MAINTENANCE Farm tools are very

What to know

LESSON 1:USE OF FARM TOOLS AND THEIR MAINTENANCE

Farm tools are very important in every farm activity. Without them, very little is accomplished. Therefore, you as learners should be able to identify and learn how to use them to make your work easier and faster,

1. Digging fork – is a multipurpose tool, used for breaking up and turning soil in the garden, harvesting, and for manual cleaning around the barn.

2. Spade – a tool designed for the purpose of digging or removing soil.

3. Shovel – a tool that is suited for moving loose materials.

4. Rake – a tool used to gather or loosen materials or to level a surface.

5. Bolo –a tool whose primary use is for cleaning the vegetation for agriculture.

6. Scythe –a tool that is used for cutting grass and fodder for the carabaos and cattle.

7. Hoe – a tool used to cultivate silage plantation

8. Pinchers

9. Ear notchers

10. Castrating and butchering tools

11. Fencing ranches

9. Ear notchers 10. Castrating and butchering tools 11. Fencing ranches Spade Shovel Bolo Digging fork
9. Ear notchers 10. Castrating and butchering tools 11. Fencing ranches Spade Shovel Bolo Digging fork

Spade

Shovel

Bolo

9. Ear notchers 10. Castrating and butchering tools 11. Fencing ranches Spade Shovel Bolo Digging fork
9. Ear notchers 10. Castrating and butchering tools 11. Fencing ranches Spade Shovel Bolo Digging fork

Digging fork

Rake

9. Ear notchers 10. Castrating and butchering tools 11. Fencing ranches Spade Shovel Bolo Digging fork
9. Ear notchers 10. Castrating and butchering tools 11. Fencing ranches Spade Shovel Bolo Digging fork

LESSON 2 : SAFETY MEASURES IN USING FARM TOOLS

Wear the proper protective clothing: safety footwear, gloves, long pants if necessary.

Allow for safe distance between people if you are working with other people.

Check for faulty and defective farm tools and report them in accordance with farm procedures.

Use appropriate tools and equipment safely according to job requirements; and manufacturers’ conditions.

Activity no. 1

List down the safety measures to be observed specifically in cattle barns and goat barns?

to be observed specifically in cattle barns and goat barns? What to process Directions: Write the

What to process

Directions: Write the tool that is described in the following statements .Write you answers on your test notebook.

1. a ground heavily covered with dried leaves

2. a plot to be planted with forage

3. the ranch being fenced with barbwire

4. animal manures to be transferred outside their quarters

5. clearing a canal

6. making marks on the ears of an animal

7. a plot to be cultivated by turning up the soil

LESSON 2: SELECTING THE SITE

Tell whether a site is ideal or not? Read the statements below and check all that applies to a good site.

1. The soil is not easily flooded.

------------

1. The soil is not easily flooded. ------------

2. It is not easily reached by vehicles. ----

2. It is not easily reached by vehicles. ----

3. Stealing is rampant in the area. ----------

3. Stealing is rampant in the area. ----------
------------ 2. It is not easily reached by vehicles. ---- 3. Stealing is rampant in the
------------ 2. It is not easily reached by vehicles. ---- 3. Stealing is rampant in the

4. The soil is well drained. ---------------------

4. The soil is well drained. ---------------------

5. The neighbors are friendly. ---------------

5. The neighbors are friendly. ---------------

6. Feeds and medicines are available in the area.

6. Feeds and medicines are available in the area.

7. It is very far from the town. ---------------

7. It is very far from the town. ---------------

8. All kinds of vehicles can pass by the farm. -------

8. All kinds of vehicles can pass by the farm. -------

9. It is hard to buy stocks in the place. ----------------

9. It is hard to buy stocks in the place. ----------------

10.There are many jobless people near the farm site.

10.There are many jobless people near the farm site.

Selecting the farm site is an important decision to make because farm buildings are not easy to relocate once they are constructed. It also determines whether the business will prosper or not.

Factors to consider in selecting the site:

1. Accessibility of the farm to roads and population centers will reduce cost.

2. A hilly topographyprevent flood or stagnant water.

3. Availability of feeds and medicines in the area.

4. Distance from neighboring farms

5. Presence of trees as windbreaks during typhoons and as regulators of temperature during summer season.

6. Available space for growing forage and other green feeds.

7. Available pasture area for the livestock.

8. Peace and order condition in the area.

9. An adequate source of water

10. Distance to neighboring residences

LESSON 3:

of water 10. Distance to neighboring residences LESSON 3: BREEDS OF FARM ANIMALS What to know

BREEDS OF FARM ANIMALS

What to know

BREEDS OF POULTRY

The different breeds of poultry may be classified according to the purpose of their production:

BREED

ORIGIN

TYPE

 

CORNISH

English

Meat/broiler

Excellent

in

meat

but

poor

egg-layers

RHODE ISLAND RED

American

Meat/broiler

One of the most popular among heavy breeds, fairly good egg layer, and excellent in meat quality

Meat/broiler One of the most popular among heavy breeds, fairly good egg layer, and excellent in
Meat/broiler One of the most popular among heavy breeds, fairly good egg layer, and excellent in

LEGHORN

Mediterranian

Egg layer

High egg producer with white- shelled eggs.

CANTONESE

China

Egg/layer

Medium in size, good layer of medium size eggs and best suited to Phil. condition

   

dual-

Good egg-laying average and good meat qualities

NEW HAMPSHIRE

American

purpose/general

purpose

 
American purpose/general purpose   Cornish Rhode Island Red Cobb Leghorn New Hampshire BREEDS
American purpose/general purpose   Cornish Rhode Island Red Cobb Leghorn New Hampshire BREEDS
American purpose/general purpose   Cornish Rhode Island Red Cobb Leghorn New Hampshire BREEDS

Cornish

Rhode Island Red

purpose   Cornish Rhode Island Red Cobb Leghorn New Hampshire BREEDS OF SWINE:    

Cobb

Leghorn

purpose   Cornish Rhode Island Red Cobb Leghorn New Hampshire BREEDS OF SWINE:      

New Hampshire

BREEDS OF SWINE:

       

COUNTRY

 

BREED

COLOR

EARS

TYPE

OF ORIGIN

CHARATERISTICS

Landrace

White

Hanging

Meat

Denmark

Long face, good and prolific mothers, weak legs

Large

White

Standing

Meat

England

Fertile, high quality meat, fast grower

White

 

Black with

     

Short, black skinned, more resistant to diseases compared to white breeds

Berkshire

6 white

Standing

Lard

England

points

resistant to diseases compared to white breeds Berkshire 6 white Standing Lard England points Page 7
resistant to diseases compared to white breeds Berkshire 6 white Standing Lard England points Page 7
 

Black with

     

Short, good quality meat, strong legs

Hampshire

white band

Standing

Meat

USA

   

2/3

   

Good constitution, strong legs, fast grower, resistant to stress

Duroc

Jersey

Red

(golden)

erect,1/3

hanging

Meat

USA

Pietrain

Black and

Standing

Very

Belgium

Very meaty ham and loin, very susceptible to stress

white

meaty

Reference: Course on Pig Health and Management, DA, ATI, ITCPH

Course on Pig Health and Management, DA, ATI, ITCPH Largewhite Berkshire Duroc Landrace Hampshire Pietrain Hypor

Largewhite

Course on Pig Health and Management, DA, ATI, ITCPH Largewhite Berkshire Duroc Landrace Hampshire Pietrain Hypor

Berkshire

Course on Pig Health and Management, DA, ATI, ITCPH Largewhite Berkshire Duroc Landrace Hampshire Pietrain Hypor

Duroc

Course on Pig Health and Management, DA, ATI, ITCPH Largewhite Berkshire Duroc Landrace Hampshire Pietrain Hypor

Landrace

Course on Pig Health and Management, DA, ATI, ITCPH Largewhite Berkshire Duroc Landrace Hampshire Pietrain Hypor

Hampshire

Course on Pig Health and Management, DA, ATI, ITCPH Largewhite Berkshire Duroc Landrace Hampshire Pietrain Hypor

Pietrain

Course on Pig Health and Management, DA, ATI, ITCPH Largewhite Berkshire Duroc Landrace Hampshire Pietrain Hypor

Hypor

Course on Pig Health and Management, DA, ATI, ITCPH Largewhite Berkshire Duroc Landrace Hampshire Pietrain Hypor
Course on Pig Health and Management, DA, ATI, ITCPH Largewhite Berkshire Duroc Landrace Hampshire Pietrain Hypor

BREEDS OF GOATS:

BREED

CHARACTERISTICS

ALPINE

At mature age, it weighs 70 kg and could produce 1.5 litres of milk every day. It is from European breed that has upright ears, a straight face and colours that vary from black, red and off white

ANGLO NUBIAN

A tropical breed known for its floppy pendulous pair of ears and a mix of brown and black – or sometimes just brown – hair. It weighs 70-90 kgs.at mature age and can produce 1-2 litres of milk daily.

BOER

They are known for their high-quality meat and excellent productive qualities. Compared to other local goats, they are fairly larger in size and are double-muscled. They are easy to raise, have mild temperaments, are affectionate, require no milking, no special care, shearing or fancy fences. Not only that, they can also graze in the coldest of weathers.

NATIVE

This breed’s colors range from red, white, black or a combination of the three. At mature age, it can weigh up to 30 kg. Its milk production, however, can just be enough for its young.

SAANEN

Its weight that can go up to an average of 70 kg which helps in its being the highest milk producer among other breeds. It can tote up to 1.8 liters daily. This breed originated from Switzerland and boasts of its pure white to off-white color.

TOGGENBURG

Also from Switzerland, Toggenburgs are easy to spot. They have white markings on their face and erect ears like Saanens’. At mature age, their milk production can amount up to 1.5 literseveryday.

Reference: MARID AGRIBUSINESS Technology Guide “Raising Goat”, 2006

literseveryday. Reference: MARID AGRIBUSINESS Technology Guide “Raising Goat”, 2006 Alpine Anglo Nubian Boer Page 9

Alpine

literseveryday. Reference: MARID AGRIBUSINESS Technology Guide “Raising Goat”, 2006 Alpine Anglo Nubian Boer Page 9

Anglo Nubian

literseveryday. Reference: MARID AGRIBUSINESS Technology Guide “Raising Goat”, 2006 Alpine Anglo Nubian Boer Page 9

Boer

literseveryday. Reference: MARID AGRIBUSINESS Technology Guide “Raising Goat”, 2006 Alpine Anglo Nubian Boer Page 9
literseveryday. Reference: MARID AGRIBUSINESS Technology Guide “Raising Goat”, 2006 Alpine Anglo Nubian Boer Page 9
Native goat BREEDS OF SHEEP Portland BREEDS OF CATTLE Saanen Merino Toggenburg Cheviot BREEDS CHARACTERISTICS

Native goat

BREEDS OF SHEEP

Native goat BREEDS OF SHEEP Portland BREEDS OF CATTLE Saanen Merino Toggenburg Cheviot BREEDS CHARACTERISTICS

Portland

BREEDS OF CATTLE

Saanen

Native goat BREEDS OF SHEEP Portland BREEDS OF CATTLE Saanen Merino Toggenburg Cheviot BREEDS CHARACTERISTICS

Merino

Toggenburg

OF SHEEP Portland BREEDS OF CATTLE Saanen Merino Toggenburg Cheviot BREEDS CHARACTERISTICS PHILIPPINE CATTLE

Cheviot

BREEDS

CHARACTERISTICS

PHILIPPINE CATTLE

They are very hardy, prolific, and resistant to diseases. They belong to the dual-purpose type because local farmers usually use them as work animals and later on, sell them for beef. The most popular of this type is the Batangas Strain.

NELLORE

The animals under this breed are active and strong so they make good work animals. The animal has humps but, they are not as prominent as those of the Brahman. They also have a pendulous dewlap.

SANTA GERTRUDES

The cattle under this breed have almost non-recognizable humps. Their colors range in shades of red. Like Brahman, they have the ability to adapt to the hot climate of the Philippines and they can also equal the calving efficiency of the Philippine cattle. This breed is a good source of beef.

and they can also equal the calving efficiency of the Philippine cattle. This breed is a
and they can also equal the calving efficiency of the Philippine cattle. This breed is a

AMERICAN BRAHMAN

This breed is considered the best among the imported breeds of commercial beef cattle in the country. It is recognized through its humps over the shoulder. It is greyish-white in color with very loose, pendulous skin along the dewlap and under the throat extending between the forelegs. It has large, drooping ears and horns that curve upward and backward.

THARPARKAR

The animals under this breed are considered dairy cattle. However, they can also be used as work animals. They are greyish or white in color with horns that are rather small. They have long bodies.

RED SHINDI

This breed originated from Pakistan and is known for its hump. It is docile and considered to be a dual-purpose breed- aside from being a good source of beef and milk, the steers may be used as work animals.

of beef and milk, the steers may be used as work animals. Native cow Nellore Santa

Native cow

Nellore

Santa Gertrudis

may be used as work animals. Native cow Nellore Santa Gertrudis Red Shindi American Brahman Tharparkar

Red Shindi

American Brahman

Tharparkar

may be used as work animals. Native cow Nellore Santa Gertrudis Red Shindi American Brahman Tharparkar

Sahiwal

may be used as work animals. Native cow Nellore Santa Gertrudis Red Shindi American Brahman Tharparkar
may be used as work animals. Native cow Nellore Santa Gertrudis Red Shindi American Brahman Tharparkar

BREEDS OF CARABAO

BREEDS OF CARABAO Native Carabao Tamaraw Murrah Buffalo Identify the breed based on the characteristic described.

Native Carabao

BREEDS OF CARABAO Native Carabao Tamaraw Murrah Buffalo Identify the breed based on the characteristic described.

Tamaraw

BREEDS OF CARABAO Native Carabao Tamaraw Murrah Buffalo Identify the breed based on the characteristic described.

Murrah Buffalo

Identify the breed based on the characteristic described.

1. A breed of poultry that is excellent in meat but poor egg-layer. 2. Pig breed that possesses a white color and hanging ears. 3. This breed is known for being a good layer and has a good quality meat. 4. A breed of goat known for its high-quality meat and excellent productive qualities. 5. This breed of cattle is also known as Batangas Strain.

5. This breed of cattle is also known as Batangas Strain. What to process Activity WORD

What to process

Activity

WORD HUNTING : Encircle the different breed of farm animals below.

C

O

R

N

I

S

H

I

L

N

S

A

A

N

E

N

A

P

E

E

N

D

O

R

O

C

M

I

G

L

A

U

N

E

L

L

P

E

H

L

T

R

Y

O

R

K

S

T

O

O

I

O

B

E

R

K

H

R

R

R

V

C

A

M

E

L

I

A

N

E

E

G

G

B

O

E

R

I

N

K

A

L

P

I

N

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N

I

H

G

R

A

N

E

L

L

O

E

G

B

R

A

H

M

A

N

A

L

P

T

O

G

G

E

N

B

U

R

G

L

A

R

G

E

W

H

I

T

E

A L P T O G G E N B U R G L A R
A L P T O G G E N B U R G L A R

NATIVE

CORNISH

SAANEN

BOER

NELLORE

DUROC

HAMPSHIRE

PIETRAIN

LEGHORN

ALPINE

BRAHMAN

TOGGENBURG

LARGEWHITE

“What is the best breed of poultry?” This is the most commonly asked question by a poultry raiser and as such, there is no best breed. Each breed has its own good and poor characteristics. A farmer can choose the proper breed to use depending on the type of production that he wants to attain.

depending on the type of production that he wants to attain. What to understand Activity different

What to understand

Activity

different

classmates. Identify based on their color and other characteristics.

Collect

pictures

of

breeds

of

animals

and

show

to

your

SCORE

CRITERIA

5

With 9 to 10 pictures of different breeds of animals properly identified.

4

With 7-8 pictures of different breeds of animals properly identified.

3

With 5-6 pictures of different breeds of animals properly identified

2

With 3-4 pictures of different breeds of animals properly identified.

1

With 1-2 pictures of different breeds of animals properly identified.

of animals properly identified. 1 With 1-2 pictures of different breeds of animals properly identified. Page
of animals properly identified. 1 With 1-2 pictures of different breeds of animals properly identified. Page
What to transfer Question and Answer. 1. What breeds of poultry and livestock are recommended

What to transfer

Question and Answer.

1. What breeds of poultry and livestock are recommended in our country?

2. What standards should be considered in selecting the kind of breed to raise?

LESSON 4: HOUSING THE ANIMALS

the kind of breed to raise? LESSON 4: HOUSING THE ANIMALS Interpreting Plans and Layout What

Interpreting Plans and Layout

What to know

Animals also need housing to protect them from adverse weather conditions. Good housing should be durable, easy to clean and gives accessibility to feeding, loading and unloading activities. Furthermore, it should allow the entry of sunlight, have enough space for every animal andshould have proper ventilation. . For poultry and livestock raising the ideal house should have the following characteristics:

1. It is far from residential areas that may be affected by the unpleasant odor produced by a large number of animals.

is far from residential areas that may be affected by the unpleasant odor produced by a
is far from residential areas that may be affected by the unpleasant odor produced by a

2.It is on an elevated area that has good drainage and will not keep water to accumulate. 3.It is exposed to ample sunlight. 4.The area is close to a source of water for cleaning and feeding of animals.

THE POULTRY HOUSE

Type of Shelter for poultry: 1.RANGE-TYPE is located in the middle of the pasture. It
Type of Shelter for poultry:
1.RANGE-TYPE is located in
the middle of the pasture. It
needs a wide land area.
2.SEMI-CONFINEMENT TYPE has
provisions for a sun porch or runway for
additional
space for movement of the
birds. The floor is the slat-type made of
litter.
of the birds. The floor is the slat-type made of litter. 3.COMPLETE CONFINEMENT SYSTEM – the

3.COMPLETE

CONFINEMENT SYSTEM – the birds are confined to the house entirely, with no access to land.

litter. 3.COMPLETE CONFINEMENT SYSTEM – the birds are confined to the house entirely, with no access
litter. 3.COMPLETE CONFINEMENT SYSTEM – the birds are confined to the house entirely, with no access
litter. 3.COMPLETE CONFINEMENT SYSTEM – the birds are confined to the house entirely, with no access

Broilers Requirements:

A. The following space requirements may serve as guide

1. Day-old to three weeks

2. 3 weeks to 4 weeks

3. 5 weeks to market age

- 0.3sq.ft./chick

- 0.5sq.ft/chick

- 1.0sq.ft./bird

HOUSING THE PIG

- 0.5sq.ft/chick - 1.0sq.ft./bird HOUSING THE PIG Gestation unit is where pregnant pigsare confined. It is

Gestation unit is where pregnant pigsare confined. It is designed as individual pen to restrict pregnant animal from turning around.

pen to restrict pregnant animal from turning around. Farrowing unit where nursing sow and its young

Farrowing unit where nursing sow and its young are confined for 30 days

where nursing sow and its young are confined for 30 days . Nursery unit where the

. Nursery unit where the piglets are kept for two months

. Nursery unit where the piglets are kept for two months Growing unit where weanlings are

Growing unit where weanlings are raised until they are ready to be marketed

the piglets are kept for two months Growing unit where weanlings are raised until they are
the piglets are kept for two months Growing unit where weanlings are raised until they are

HOUSING THE SMALL RUMINANTS (goat and sheep)

HOUSING THE SMALL RUMINANTS (goat and sheep) Like other herds, goats require a few provisions. First

Like other herds, goats require a few provisions. First and foremost, remember that the goat houses’ primary objective is to provide the animal’s shelter, so make sure it prevents rain and wetness from coming in. Goats, after all, are very prone to pneumonia. They also like elevated platforms that take the form of stairs.

HOUSING LARGE RUMINANTS

that take the form of stairs. HOUSING LARGE RUMINANTS House stock must be provided with sufficient

House stock must be provided with sufficient space for lying, grooming and normal animal-to-animal interactions. Escapes must also be provided if young calves are housed with adults; for example, calves and suckler cows. Providing indoor housing for cattle also prevents damage to pasture during rainy season when the grass is scarce.

to pasture during rainy season when the grass is scarce. B. TYPES OF ROOFS FOR POULTRY

B. TYPES OF ROOFS FOR POULTRY

Types of roofs for animal production

OF ROOFS FOR POULTRY Types of roofs for animal production There are several types of roof

There are several types of roof construction to choose from. The choice is determined by the available materials, the amount of investment and the size of operations.

a. Shed or single span type – This is the most simple type of roof. It is usually used in small construction.

b. Gable or bouble span – This is the conventional system of roof construction.

used in small construction. b. Gable or bouble span – This is the conventional system of
used in small construction. b. Gable or bouble span – This is the conventional system of

c.

Monitor – This type is appropriate for big establishments. It is actually a big double span with an outlet for air at the top of the roof.

d. Semi- monitor - This is like the monitor type except that an outlet on top of the roof is made on side.

e. Combination of shed and gable

the roof is made on side. e. Combination of shed and gable What to process Write

What to processthe roof is made on side. e. Combination of shed and gable Write True if the

Write True if the idea is correct and False if the idea is incorrect.

1. Shelter is a basic need of the animals. 2. Ideal houses for animals should be near the residential areas. 3. The area should be closed to a source of water for cleaning and feeding the animals. 4. The animal house should allow provision for proper ventilation. 5. One thing basic to all animal houses is cleanliness.

.

What to understand5. One thing basic to all animal houses is cleanliness. . Discuss the different houses and

Discuss the different houses and units for the animals.

POULTRY

animal houses is cleanliness. . What to understand Discuss the different houses and units for the
animal houses is cleanliness. . What to understand Discuss the different houses and units for the

SWINE

GOAT

CATTLE

SWINE GOAT CATTLE Activity What to transfer Illustrate a typical house of poultry and swine .

Activity

What to transfer

Illustrate a typical house of poultry and swine. Materials needed:

Bond paper

Pencil

Ruler

Eraser

1. Using the information given, draw typical houses for poultry and livestock(pig). Include and label the different parts/compartments of the housing.

2. Submit your output to your teacher. Be prepared to present your work.

3. If in case you have questions, ask your teacher.

Find out how you fared by accomplishing the Scoring Rubric honestly and sincerely. Remember it is your learning at stake!

how you fared by accomplishing the Scoring Rubric honestly and sincerely. Remember it is your learning
how you fared by accomplishing the Scoring Rubric honestly and sincerely. Remember it is your learning

DIMENSION

1

2

3

1. Plan / drawing

Highly acceptable; it is well thought out

Somewhat acceptable; thought out

Not at all acceptable; not thought out

2. Justification

Every part of the drawing makes sense

Some parts of the drawing make sense

No part makes sense

3. Appropriate

All materials are appropriate

Some materials are appropriate

No material is appropriate

material choices

C. FIXTURES AND EQUIPMENT

appropriate material choices C. FIXTURES AND EQUIPMENT Activity What to know Let’s Shop! Inside the box

Activity

What to know

Let’s Shop!

Inside the box are the different farm tools and equipment used in animal raising. Group them according to their purpose and write them on the table below the box.

spade

fork

brooder

perch

shovel

dropping board

heat lamp

bolo

feeding trough

drinking trough

nest

water system

farrowing crate

shipping crate

trailer

waterer

feed cart

self-feeder

castration rack

rake

Farm Tools

Poultry

Swine

crate trailer waterer feed cart self-feeder castration rack rake Farm Tools Poultry Swine Page 20
crate trailer waterer feed cart self-feeder castration rack rake Farm Tools Poultry Swine Page 20

A. POULTRY

EQUIPMENT

FUNCTION

PICTURE

DROPPING

These fixtures should be provided in the laying house to facilitate collection of manure.

DROPPING These fixtures should be provided in the laying house to facilitate collection of manure.

BOARDS

PERCHES

These are horizontal poles where birds can sit and rest especially during night time. Sufficient perches should be constructed to prevent the birds from crowding at night.

rest especially during night time. Sufficient perches should be constructed to prevent the birds from crowding

NEST

Hens or layers lay their eggs in the nest. A nest could be either open or closed. The nest should be built on a partition or on end walls. It should be high enough above the floor so that the hens can work under them.

be built on a partition or on end walls. It should be high enough above the

FEEDING

These should be provided so as to keep the hens from scratching the feeds and wasting them especially when the birds are laying eggs.

be provided so as to keep the hens from scratching the feeds and wasting them especially

TROUGHS

to keep the hens from scratching the feeds and wasting them especially when the birds are
to keep the hens from scratching the feeds and wasting them especially when the birds are

DRINKING

Drinking jars should be large and sufficient enough to supply the water needs of the birds for the whole day. It should be durable and easy to clean.

and sufficient enough to supply the water needs of the birds for the whole day. It

TROUGHS

INCUBATOR

This is

a

device

that

INCUBATOR This is a device that

maintains

the

required

temperature needed hatch the egg.

to

BROODER

A device with controlled temperature for the rearing of newly hatched chicks until two weeks old or until the birds are ready to be transferred to growing house.

the rearing of newly hatched chicks until two weeks old or until the birds are ready

2.Equipment for hogs and livestock

1. Breeding crate. Is theequipment used when natural breeding method is practiced. The gilt or sow in heat is confined first inside the crate before the boar is allowed for mating.

is practiced. The gilt or sow in heat is confined first inside the crate before the
is practiced. The gilt or sow in heat is confined first inside the crate before the
is practiced. The gilt or sow in heat is confined first inside the crate before the

2. Farrowing crate or stall. Due to its limited space, this equipment minimizes the movement of the sow and reduces the possibility of death of piglets due to crushing. This also prevents the sow from eating the feeds given to the piglets.

prevents the sow from eating the feeds given to the piglets. 3. and brooders. Baby pigs

3.

and brooders.

Baby pigs can be kept comfortable by providing them with brooders with a 50 to 100 watt bulb especially during rainy or cold days.

Heat

lamps

Brooders and heat lamps must be located on any side of the farrowing stall. Be sure that the sow will not get in contact with the brooder which should not be electrically grounded.

stall. Be sure that the sow will not get in contact with the brooder which should
stall. Be sure that the sow will not get in contact with the brooder which should
stall. Be sure that the sow will not get in contact with the brooder which should

4. Water system. A pressurized water system with pipes extending to the hog houses is the most desirable type. A minimum pressure of five (5) kg per sq cm and 500 gallons an hour is necessary. This will eliminate labor in fetching water.

is necessary. This will eliminate labor in fetching water. 5. Shipping crate. This handy piece of

5. Shipping crate. This handy piece of equipment is ideal for transporting pigs.

6. Castration rack. This equipment is used during castration. The piglets are laid down with their backs on the rack.

7. Feed cart. This equipment is used to transport feeds during feeding time. It can accommodate 100 kg of feed.

7. Feed cart. This equipment is used to transport feeds during feeding time. It can accommodate
7. Feed cart. This equipment is used to transport feeds during feeding time. It can accommodate
7. Feed cart. This equipment is used to transport feeds during feeding time. It can accommodate
7. Feed cart. This equipment is used to transport feeds during feeding time. It can accommodate

8. Self-feeders. An automatic self-feeder is designed so that feed wastage is minimized and the rate of flow of the feed can be controlled. It is durable and can hold sufficient feed for a day.

It is durable and can hold sufficient feed for a day. 9. Waterers. Pigs will consume
It is durable and can hold sufficient feed for a day. 9. Waterers. Pigs will consume

9. Waterers. Pigs will consume 2.0 to 2.5 pounds of water per kg of dry feed. Automatic waterers are advantageous. If the nozzle type waterers are used, they must be placed 24 to 30 inches above the floor for sows and growing pigs. One automatic cup or nozzle for each pig pen is normally sufficient to supply the water needs of the animals. Waterers should not be placed beside the self-feeder or feeding trough. This practice will keep the feeding area dry and clean.

10. Livestock trailer. This is designed for the comfort and safety of the animals. They usually have adjustable vents and windows as well as suspension designed to provide a smooth ride and less stress on the animals.In addition, trailers have internal partitions that assist the animal in stayingupright during travel and protect the animals from injuring each other in transit.

assist the animal in stayingupright during travel and protect the animals from injuring each other in
assist the animal in stayingupright during travel and protect the animals from injuring each other in
What to process Directions: Match Column A with Column B. Write your answer in your

What to process

Directions: Match Column A with Column B. Write your answer in your test notebook.

Column A

Column B

1. This fixture should be provided in laying house to facilitate collection of manure.

a. drinking trough

2. This fixture should be constructed so as to keep the hens from scratching the feeds and wasting them especially when the birds are laying eggs.

b. perches

3. This is a device for maintaining the eggs of birds to allow them to hatch.

c. nest

4. This equipment provides heat to the baby pigs especially during rainy or cold days.

d. dropping board

5. This equipment is used to transport feeds during feeding time.

e. farrowing crate/stall

6. These are horizontal poles where

birds can sit and rest especially during

night time.

7. An equipment that minimizes the movement of the sow and reduces the possibility of death of piglets due to crushing.

8. This equipment is used when breeding gilt to a large boar or a large sow to a junior boar.

9. This fixture is where a hen or a layer lays their eggs

10. It contains the water that the birds need for the whole day.

f. heat lamp & brooder

g. incubator

h. feeding trough

i. breeding crate

j. feed cart

need for the whole day. f. heat lamp & brooder g. incubator h. feeding trough i.
need for the whole day. f. heat lamp & brooder g. incubator h. feeding trough i.
What to understand A. Assess your personal knowledge of poultry facilities and equipment by giving

What to understand

A. Assess your personal knowledge of poultry facilities and equipment by giving a simple definition or function using the table below. Write your answer on the spaceprovided.

FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT IN POULTRYPRODUCTION

Defined as….

1. Dropping board

 

2. Brooder

 

3. Feeding trough

 

4. Incubator

 

5. Nest

 

6. Castration rack

 

7. Farrowing crate

 

8. Breeding crate

 

9. Shipping crate

 

10. Self-feeders

 
7. Farrowing crate   8. Breeding crate   9. Shipping crate   10. Self-feeders   Page
7. Farrowing crate   8. Breeding crate   9. Shipping crate   10. Self-feeders   Page
Activity What to transfer Making feeding and drinking trough Directions: After learning about using farm

Activity

What to transfer

Making feeding and drinking trough

Directions: After learning about using farm tools, equipment and facilities being used in animal production, you will be constructing a simple feeding and drinking trough using indigenous materials.

1. Group yourselves into three. Inform your teacher that you are ready to construct the

simple feeding and drinking trough for poultry.

2. Your teacher will provide you with the following:

1. Bamboo

2. Cutting tools

3. Electric drill

4. Screw driver

5. Claw Hammer

6. Nails

7. Screws

8. Protective materials

9. Plastic sealant

3. Your teacher will also demonstrate the construction procedures. Take note of the

following while he/she performs this activity:

Checking the tools

Wearing appropriate personal protective equipment

Observing safety precautionary measures practiced during the construction

Using the tools correctly

Cleaning and storing of farm tools

Proper disposing of waste materials

4. After the demonstration, construct your own simple feeding and drinking trough.

Ensure that you follow the procedures done by your teacher. If you have queries or questions, approach your teacher.

that you follow the procedures done by your teacher. If you have queries or questions, approach
that you follow the procedures done by your teacher. If you have queries or questions, approach

Find out how you have fared by accomplishing the Scoring Rubric honestly and sincerely. Remember it is your learning at stake!

Dimension

Excellent

Very

Satisfactory

Needs

No

POINTS

Satisfactory

Improvement

Attempt

5pts.)

(4pts)

 

(3pts)

(2pts)

(1pt)

 

Uses tools and equipment correctly and confidently at all times.

Uses tools and equipment correctly and confidently at all times.

Uses tools and equipment correctly and confidently most of the time.

Uses tools

   

and

Use of tools

equipment

incorrectly

No

and less

attempt

and equipment

confidently.

 

Manifests

Manifests

Manifests

Manifests

   

very clear

clear

understand-

less

understand-

understand-

ing of the step by step procedure with some clarification

understand-

Application

of

ing of the step by step

ing of the step by step

ing of the step by step procedure with so much clarification

No

attempt

procedures

procedure

procedure

 

Observe safety precautions at all times

Observe safety precautions most of the time

Observe

Do not observe safety precautions most of the time

   

safety

Safety Work

precautions

No

habits

sometimes

attempt

Completene ss of output

       

No

 

attempt

CRITERIA

 

5 points

3 points

 

1 point

1. Accuracy

The output is accurately done.

 

The output is almost accurately done

The output has many errors.

2. Craftsmanship /

The output is very good.

 

It is good but still needs improvement.

It is very crude and needs much improvement.

Quality

3. Originality

Design is very unique, innovative and indigenous.

 

Design is unique, innovative and indigenous.

Design is very common and it is not indigenous.

4. Functionality

It is very functional.

 

It is functional.

It is not functional.

indigenous. 4. Functionality It is very functional.   It is functional. It is not functional. Page
indigenous. 4. Functionality It is very functional.   It is functional. It is not functional. Page

LESSON 5: FEEDS AND FEEDING

Mensuration and Calculation

LESSON 5: FEEDS AND FEEDING Mensuration and Calculation What to know Feed is anything given to

What to know

Feed is anything given to animals for growth, maintenance and reproduction. Feeds serve as fuel for the animals’ body. It is one of the most important factors that contribute to the success of animal production.

Farm animals are raised for family consumption and for sale in the market. To achieve high returns on investments, provide the flock with the necessary feeds and vitamins that will facilitate their growth. It is important to observe the proper feeding requirements. The raiser should know the frequency of feeding, amount of feeds, and kinds of feeds appropriate to the age of the animal.

Kinds of feeds

1. Concentrates -- feeds which are relatively high in total digestible nutrients (TDN)

and low in fiber. Examples,

cereal grains like corn, sorghum, and pollard

2. Roughage --- feeds which are high in fiber and low in digestible nutrients (TDN). Examples, Grasses, legumes, silage,hay, rice straw, bean straw, etc.

Forms of feeds

1. Pellet

2. Crumble

3. Mash

CLASSIFICATION OF FEED RATION

Starter. This is fed to young chickens one day to six weeks old. This is given to chicks that cannot eat large particles of feeds for the first two weeks after they are hatched. The mash contains 20 to 21% protein.

Booster. This kind of feed is specially made for the delicate nutritional needs of newly hatched chicks. It is given to chicks one day to two weeks old.

Grower. This is fed to growing chicks six to twelve days old and to the swine when they are two to six months old. It contains 17% protein.

Fattener. Fattening rations are given to hogs or cattle until they reach maturity and are ready for market.

 Fattener. Fattening rations are given to hogs or cattle until they reach maturity and are
 Fattener. Fattening rations are given to hogs or cattle until they reach maturity and are

Finisher. This feed is given after the chicken has consumed one kilogram of starter till the point of disposal of the birds.

Layer. This is for the layer of eggs for the market. It should contain 17 to 18% protein.

Breeder. This ration is given to well-selected and mature animals ready for breeding.

Pullet Developer. This is fed to pullet 12 to 18 weeks old. A 14% protein should be sufficient.

Table 1. Average feed consumption of broilers at different stages of growth

Age of Chick

Average Weight

Weekly Feed

Type of Feed

(g)

Consumption(g)

1-7

74

85

Booster

8-14

154

125

Starter

15-21

269

225

Starter

22-28

423

348

Starter

29-35

628

429

Starter

36-42

868

837

Finisher

43-49

1123

723

Finisher

50-60

1384

890

Finisher

Activity

Direction: Compute the cost of broiler based on the given weights if the price per kilo is 120 pesos.

1. 0.5 kilo

P

2. 0.9 kilo

P

3. 1.2 kilos

P

4. 1.5 kilos

P

5. 2.0 kilos

P

Farm animals are raised for family consumption and for sale in the market. To achieve high return on investments, provide the herd with the necessary feeds and vitamins that will facilitate their growth. It is important to observe the proper feeding requirements. The raiser should know the frequency of feeding, amount of feeds, and kinds of feeds appropriate to the age of the animal.

should know the frequency of feeding, amount of feeds, and kinds of feeds appropriate to the
should know the frequency of feeding, amount of feeds, and kinds of feeds appropriate to the

GUIDELINES IN PREPARING HOME RATION FOR GROWING AND FATTENING FARM ANIMALS:

PALATABILITY. The ration must be palatable. It can be measured by the amount of feed consumed by the animals for a given period of time.

NUTRITIVE REQUIREMENT. In formulating a simplified ration, keep in mind that it should always contain the needed nutrients, like protein, vitamins, and minerals. Younger animals require more crude protein than growing and fattening animals. Leftover foods, corn and corn by-products, and root crops like sweet potatoes and cassava can be used as feeds provided they are properly cooked. Feed premix (feed supplement can be added to the simplified ration to cover deficiencies in vitamins and minerals.

ECONOMY. It should be reasonably economical aside from the ready- mix ration, the animals must be fed with some green feeds, like grass, ipil-ipil, and kangkong. They are also good sources of vitamins and minerals and will lessen the cost of feeds for the livestock.

and will lessen the cost of feeds for the livestock. What to process Draw a happy

What to process

lessen the cost of feeds for the livestock. What to process Draw a happy face (
lessen the cost of feeds for the livestock. What to process Draw a happy face (

Draw a happy face ( the statement is wrong.

), if the statement is correct and a sad face ( ), if the

1. It is important to keep all feeding and watering equipment clean. 2. The ration must be palatable. 3. The feeds should be reasonably economical. 4. Animal must be fed with some green feeds like ipil-ipil and kangkong. 5. The feed should be made available to the animals at all times.

What to understandfeed should be made available to the animals at all times. Discuss the following classification of

Discuss the following classification of feeds:

1. Starter Mash

2. Growing Mash

3. Fattening Mash

to understand Discuss the following classification of feeds: 1. Starter Mash 2. Growing Mash 3. Fattening
to understand Discuss the following classification of feeds: 1. Starter Mash 2. Growing Mash 3. Fattening

4. Layer Mash

5. Breeding Ration

6 .Pullet Developer Mash

4. Layer Mash 5. Breeding Ration 6 .Pullet Developer Mash Activity # 1 What to transfer

Activity # 1

What to transfer

Direction: Using table 1 on feed consumption for broilers, compute how many kilos of feeds ( broiler, starter and finishing feeds) a broiler will consume in 45 days.

Youroutput will be rated using the rubric below:

SCORE

CRITERIA

5

Correct procedure and computation is presented in logical order.

4

Complete and correct method of solution but has not obtained the final answer.

3

Complete method of solution and with strong computation.

2

Suggest good mathematical thinking but with incomplete solution and no answer.

1

No attempt

Activity No. 2

Formulate a simple feed for swine using Pearson square method.

no answer. 1 No attempt Activity No. 2 Formulate a simple feed for swine using Pearson
no answer. 1 No attempt Activity No. 2 Formulate a simple feed for swine using Pearson

LESSON 6: SANITATION AND CLEANLINESS ON THE FARM

Applying Safety Measures in the Workplace

ON THE FARM Applying Safety Measures in the Workplace What to know Sanitation means providing clean

What to know

Sanitation means providing clean and favourable surroundings to maintain good health in the flocks and herds. The maintenance of good health of farm animals spells the difference between failure and success of animal production.

Some guideposts for keeping the farm clean and sanitary are as follows:

Select stocks that are young and disease-free.

If the house to be used is an old poultry house or pigpen, clean it very well first before housing the new set of animals. Floors, ceilings and walls should be scrubbed thoroughly. Sanitize the waterers and feeding trough.

Disinfect the animal houses to kill parasites and disease-causing organisms.

Disinfect all tools and equipment.

Animal should be confined. Confinement makes it possible to keep the place clean and sanitary. It helps the farmer see changes in the behaviour or condition of the flock or herd in times of epidemics. Loss due to stray animals is also prevented by confinement.

Preventive measures should be taken to protect the flock or herd from disease. Vaccination or medicine may be administered to the flock or herd to prevent them contracting from diseases.

Add antibiotics to the drinking water of animals to avoid scours or diarrhea.

the drinking water of animals to avoid scours or diarrhea. What to process List down seven

What to process

List down seven sanitary practices that must be observed in the farm:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

What to process List down seven sanitary practices that must be observed in the farm: 1.
What to process List down seven sanitary practices that must be observed in the farm: 1.
Activity # 1 What to understand Visit a farm and interview the owner or any

Activity # 1

What to understand

Visit a farm and interview the owner or any responsible personnel regarding the guidelines for keeping the farm clean and sanitary. Make an observation if the practices we discussed are applied in that farm.

List down your observations and discuss them in the class.

Activity # 2

List down as many precautionary measures in the following:

1. Poultry farm

2. Piggery farm

3. Cattle ranch

4. Goat farm

1. Poultry farm 2. Piggery farm 3. Cattle ranch 4. Goat farm What to transfer Activity

What to transfer

Activity # 1

The latest bird flu that killed millions of chicken in Hongkong, China, and Vietnam caused alarm to farmers not only in those places but also in other agricultural countries such as the Philippines. As a student of Agriculture, conduct a research on the causes ofthis epidemic and what can be done to prevent it.

As a student of Agriculture, conduct a research on the causes ofthis epidemic and what can
As a student of Agriculture, conduct a research on the causes ofthis epidemic and what can

The foot and mouth disease that infected thousands of pigs in Metro Manila a few years ago affected the swine industry. Make a study on how this disease can be prevented.

Your output will be rated using the rubric below.

SCORE

CRITERIA

5

Information gathered suggests excellent and critical analysis of the diseases affecting both poultry and swine.

4

Information gathered suggests good analysis of the diseases affecting both poultry and swine.

3

Information gathered lacks depth in the analysis of the diseases affecting both poultry and swine.

2

Information gathered is unclear and has no bearing on the issue affecting both poultry and swine.

1

No research work presented.

LESSON 7: MARKETING ANIMALS AND THEIR BY-PRODUCTS

presented. LESSON 7: MARKETING ANIMALS AND THEIR BY-PRODUCTS What to know In any production aspect, marketing

What to know

In any production aspect, marketing is very important to keep the enterprise profitable and meaningful to the producer. Marketing farm animals includes all the activities from the time animals are taken out of their pens or cages until the products reach the consumers. Efficient marketing inspires and speeds up production.

Factors to consider in marketing:

1. Know the factors affecting the cost of production.

2. Know the cost of production of your product.

3. Study the different ways of selling .

4. Select the most practical and economical way of marketing your animals.

5. Market them at the best time of the year.

6. Load and transport your animals properly.

7. Market animals at the best weight.

8. Prevent losses at marketing time.

and transport your animals properly. 7. Market animals at the best weight. 8. Prevent losses at
and transport your animals properly. 7. Market animals at the best weight. 8. Prevent losses at

9.

Plan your marketing methods or ways.

10. Feed animals properly and fit them for market.

11. Consider the suggestions of the buyers.

12. Study the prices in relation to making the best use of the animal products.

.

Marketing Systems that can be adopted by a Producer:

.

1. Wholesale or “ pakyawan”

2. Direct selling to consumers

3. Marketing through cooperatives

selling to consumers 3. Marketing through cooperatives What to process Discuss the different factors to consider

What to process

Discuss the different factors to consider in marketing.

Discuss the different factors to consider in marketing. What to understand Visit animal raisers in your

What to understand

factors to consider in marketing. What to understand Visit animal raisers in your locality. Gather information

Visit animal raisers in your locality. Gather information about the way they market their products and why. Report it to the class for group interaction.

and why. Report it to the class for group interaction. What to transfer As a future

What to transfer

As a future poultry and livestock producer, what marketing system will you adopt and why? Share it in class.

marketing system will you adopt and why? Share it in class. SUMMARY This Mini-Course in Animal

SUMMARY

This Mini-Course in Animal Production is designed to fit your interest and needs. It provides you withimportant information on how to plan a small business. Above all, since human resources are major factors in any business enterprise, it shows you qualities of a good entrepreneur. It also covers the basic information you need in raising

it shows you qualities of a good entrepreneur. It also covers the basic information you need
it shows you qualities of a good entrepreneur. It also covers the basic information you need

animals such as the different breeds of farm animals that thrive in the country; housing for their confinement; and other needed equipment. Finally, this module ends with the discussion of the principles of feeding farm animals; maintaining cleanliness and sanitation of the farm; and marketing farm animals and their by- products.

the farm; and marketing farm animals and their by- products. GLOSSARY Animal Production – a science

GLOSSARY

Animal Production

a science that deals with production and management of livestock or

Breed

domestic animal. - a group of animals that have specific traits or characteristics in

Broiler

common. - a meat type chicken commonly grown up to 35-42 days and

Confinement

weighing 1.5-2.0 kg liveweight - the state of being confined, with restricted movement

Entrepreneur

- someone who enters any business to introduce a product or service

Farrowing

to substantially form or change the nerve center of that business - the act of giving birth to swine

Feed

-edible materials which are consumed by animals and contribute

Feeding

energy or nutrients to the animal diet -the process of giving feeds to the animal

Gestation

- the time from breeding of a female until she gives birth to her young

Layer

- egg-type or dual-type 6- month female fowl that lays eggs.

Market

- a place where goods are sold

Mortality Rate

- number of animals that died based on the total number of animals

Nutrients

raised. substances that nourish animals for specific purposes such as for

Parasite

health maintenance, growth, repair of body tissues, reproduction, and other productive activities - a living organism which is dependent on another living organism for

Poultry

food in order to survive - a collective term for all domestic birds rendering economic service to

Pullet

man. - female fowl 5-6 months of age intended for egg production

Ration

- amount of feed an animal receives in a 24 hour period

Ruminant

-name given to grazing animal that chew its cud and has split hoofs

Steer

- a male cattle that has been castrated before the secondary sex character develops

has split hoofs Steer - a male cattle that has been castrated before the secondary sex
has split hoofs Steer - a male cattle that has been castrated before the secondary sex

Swine

- a term collectively used for any of the stout-bodied, short-legged

Tool

omnivorous mammals with a long mobile snout. - device that makes the work of man easier and faster

Type

-refers to a group of animals raised to serve a certain purpose.

Vaccination

- an injection of vaccine, bacterin, antiserum or anti-toxin to produce immunity or tolerance to disease.

or anti-toxin to produce immunity or tolerance to disease. Books REFERENCES: 1. Andales, Mildred S.M. et.

Books

REFERENCES:

1. Andales, Mildred S.M. et. Al.Worktext in Technology and Livelihood Education.

2. Bernardino, Josephine C. Technology and Livelihood Education I. Phoenix Publishing House,Inc. 2005.

3. SDEP Series. Technology and Home economics I. 1990.

4. Tabinga and Gagni, Swine Production in the Philippines, 1984.

Pamphlets

1. Competency-Based Learning Material Animal Production NCII

2. Effective Technology and Livelihood Education

3. Intervet. Course on Pig Health and Management. ITCPH

4. Introduction To Entrepreneurship, Revised Edition 2007.SERDEF

5. MARID Agribusiness Technology Guide. Raising Cattle For Meat and Milk Production. 2011

6. MARID Agribusiness Technology Guide. RAISING GOATS. 2006

7. Tips on broiler production Retrieved Aug 19,2011

Others

http://www,da.gov.ph/dawebsite/poutry1.pdf 2. https://www.google.com.ph/search ? 3. www.ext.colostate.edu . Page 39
http://www,da.gov.ph/dawebsite/poutry1.pdf 2. https://www.google.com.ph/search ? 3. www.ext.colostate.edu . Page 39