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Sl. No. Paragraph Title Page

1. Child Labour 1
2. Dowry System 2
3. Gender Discrimination 3
4. Diaspora 4
5. War of Independence 5
6. International Mother Language Day 6
7. Cultural Assault 7
8. Junk Foods 8
9. Food Adulteration 9
10. Social Values 10
11. Environmental Pollution 11
12. Climate Change 12
13. Global Warming 13
14. Greenhouse Effects 14
15. Deforestation 15
16. Recycling 16
17. Internet 17
18. Information & Communication Technology 18
19. Digital Bangladesh 19
20. Traffic Jam 20
21. Road Accident 21
22. Price Hike 22
23. Natural Calamity 23
24. Flood 24
25. Earthquake 25
26. Globalization 26
27. Load Shedding 27
28. 28
29. 29
30. 30
Child Labour (in Bangladesh)

Bangladesh is a developing country in the third-world/LDCs. Due to the rapid growth of

population, the people of Bangladesh are getting poorer. Therefore, to secure a better living or
simply to support their family, poor parents are engaging their children to work from a very early
stage. Child labour in Bangladesh is common, with 4.7 million or 12.6% of children aged 5 to 14
in the work force. Out of the child labourers engaged in the work force, 83% are employed in
rural areas and 17% are employed in urban areas. Employment ranges from jobs in the informal
sector such as in agriculture and domestic service, to jobs in the formal sector, such as in the
garment industry. All the child labourers in Bangladesh are manual workers. They have to work
very hard to earn their living and the work is usually extremely difficult for them. They are
obliged to work in cheap hotels and shops. Many children are found breaking stones or brick for
house-building. They are also found doing dangerous work like welding. Some children work as
street hawkers selling different items to the passers-by. Some work in factories, some polish
boots and some even work as rickshaw-pullers. Child labourers are helpless and the employers
take full advantage of this condition. They are given the least wages possible for the maximum
labour. Sometimes they need to work for 10 to 14 hours but are not paid for their overtime. They
are usually treated very harshly at their working places. At households they are tortured
physically and mentally. They are usually given insufficient food and as a result, they suffer
from malnutrition. Our government should think about this grim situation of child labour and
promulgate a law against ill-treatment towards them. If these children are not provided with the
basic necessaries of life, they would be an economic burden for us. In 2006, Bangladesh passed a
Labour Law setting the minimum legal age for employment as 14. Nevertheless, the enforcement
of such labour laws is virtually impossible in Bangladesh because 93% of child labourers are
employed in the informal sector such as small factories and workshops, on the street, in home-
based businesses and domestic employment. Despite the prevalence of child labour in
Bangladesh, there has been an increase in legislation against child labour.
Dowry System (in Bangladesh)

Dowry means property or money brought by a bride to her husband when they get married. It is
a serious curse for the modern civilization. The system of Dowry imposes great burden to the
bride`s family. Bridegroom and their family forced to spend so much, at times which may be
beyond the limits of bride parents. The bride`s guardians these days are imposed with demands
and specifications from the groom`s family on what they want for the wedding. Now-a-days the
system of giving and taking dowry in marriage has struck deeper roots in rural Bangladesh. In
the urban area also it is found in disguise. Like the groom family influences the bride parents this
is not dowry as if they are giving this gift for their daughter. Illiteracy, poverty and the greed of
the bride-groom & his family are the main causes of this heinous system. In Bangladesh this is
seen to be a major problem. Today taking and giving dowry is considered as cognizable offence
as per law. Though the Dowry prohibition Act was passed in 1980, the law has not yet been
implemented effectively. In some cases, wife is inhumanly tortured, and killed by her husband
and family for dowry. In village society, most of the parents are poor. They cannot keep their
words they have given before marrying off their daughters. This leads to chaos and hellish
unhappiness to the newly wed daughter. However, the first thing to be done to stop this
malpractice is to grow awareness among all. There should be wide spread efforts/movement to
arouse collective conscience of the community against this social evil right now. We can get rid
of this social vice by taking social reformative work urgently. A girl child is also brought up with
all the efforts and troubles just like how a boy child is brought up. She too deserves equal rights
and acceptance in the society, rather than making her as an asset that is kept for sale. Girls are
precious and the society needs to understand that they are not materials for business transaction.
Thus, dowry is a sin and all people of society should join hands to eradicate this system
Gender Discrimination (in Bangladesh)

Gender discrimination is the difference between male and female in respect of enjoying human
rights. It is severe in Bangladesh which starts at birth/independence. Female children, girls and
women are all victims of discrimination and widow destitute old ladies are the worst sufferers. It
is thought that mentally and physically women are not suitable for many jobs. Most parents want
to have male children so that they can supplement their family income and help with the
domestic work when the parents will grow older. In the existing socio-economic set up, male
children are best suited to this purpose. So parents think the female child a burden to them. But
society will be deprived of the service of the half of the population if gender discrimination is
allowed to continue. It will hinder progress. So everybody should treat male and female equally.
Illiteracy, ignorance and superstition should be removed from society. A general awareness
about the evils of gender discrimination should be created among the people. These are the ways
how this problem can be solved. A girl child is also brought up with all the efforts and troubles just
like how a boy child is brought up. She too deserves equal rights and acceptance in the society, rather
than making her as an asset that is kept for sale. Girls are precious and the society needs to understand
that they are not materials for business transaction.
Digital Bangladesh/Vision 2021

Digital Bangladesh is at present a buzzword to the people of all classes. It means digitalizing
Bangladesh by ensuring an ICT based society where information will be available on line and
where all possible tasks of the government and other non-government or semi-government
offices will be performed using digital technology. The motto of digital Bangladesh is to
establish technology based digital governance, emphasizing the overall development of the
country and the nation. The benefits of digital Bangladesh are many. If we can establish a
digital Bangladesh. It will make people think globally and connect them with the whole world
economically, politically, socially, academically and even culturally. It will improve banking and
financial activities. Agriculture, health, education, commerce all these sectors will be highly
benefited by making Bangladesh a digital one. For implementing this dream of
digital Bangladesh, government has to take certain initiatives. First of all, uninterrupted power
supply has to be ensured. We have to develop computer network infrastructures throughout the
country. We also have to train our people to acquire ICT skill. Digital governance will curb
crime and corruption and pave the way for our countrys rapid development. So, to see our
country a digital one, governments commitment and peoples co-operation are urgently
Climate Change

Climate change is the most pressing issue at the moment over the world. Climate change is
basically a change in the pattern of the climate that lasts for a few decades to centuries. Various
factors lead to the changes in the climatic conditions on the Earth. These factors are also referred
to as forcing mechanisms. These mechanisms are either external or internal. External forcing
mechanisms can either be natural such as the variation in the Earths orbit, variation in solar
radiation, volcanic eruptions, plate tectonics, etc or can be caused due to human activities such as
green house gases, carbon emission, etc. Internal forcing mechanisms, on the other hand, are the
natural processes that occur within the climate system. These include the ocean- atmosphere
variability as well as the presence of life on the earth. Climate change is having a negative
impact on the forests, wildlife, water systems as well as the polar region on the Earth. A number
of species of plants and animals have gone extinct due to the changes in the climate on the Earth
and several others have been affected adversely. Human activities such as deforestation, use of
land and use of methods that lead to the increase in carbon in the atmosphere have been a major
cause of climate change in the recent past. It is important to keep a check on such activities in
order to control climatic changes and ensure environmental harmony. The climate is changing
rapidly that result in the rise of the earths average temperature. The global climate change and
its consequences are leaving a bad impact on the developing countries to face natural calamities
and poverty. Climate change impacts include temperature rise, greenhouse and carbon dioxide
gas emissions, erratic rainfall, salinity intrusion, rise of floods, cyclones, storm surges and
draught, ice sheets melting which will seriously affect the agriculture and livelihood, especially
at the poor. Bangladesh, for its geographical locations, is likely to be the most affected. The
developed nations, which are more responsible for such climate changes, should take
responsibilities to protect the victimized countries. The Maldives is also one of the worst victims
of climate change. A one meter sea-level rise will submerge about one-third of the total area of
Bangladesh, which will uproot 25-30 million people of Bangladesh. These people will become
refuges of climate change. To reduce the bad impact of climate change people should be aware.
Tree plantation can reduce global warming which is the main natural reason of climate change.
Stop using harmful chemicals can reduce environmental pollution which is the main man made
reason of climate change. Students should be careful to protect the environment and raise
awareness. Thus students can play a vital role to reduce bad impact of climate change.
Global Warming

Global warming is a gradual increase in the temperature of the earth surface and atmosphere all
around the world. It is caused due to the greenhouse effect of increased level of green house
gases such as carbon dioxide, CFCs, etc. There are various types of pollutants also which
involved in increasing the atmospheric temperature of the earth. Increasing use of fossil fuels by
the people and deforestation is increasing carbon dioxide emissions which trap heat and cause
greenhouse effect. Water vapor is also a significant greenhouse gas which is not directly
produced by humankind but involve in global warming hugely. A slight increase in the level of
CO2 causes marked increase in earth temperature. Green house gases absorb and reradiate
infrared radiations which ultimately cause green house effect. Because of deforestation, CO2 is
not absorbed well and remain in the atmosphere for long time and trap heat. Global warming is
heating the planet by regular increase in the average temperature of Earths surface due to the
release of excessive amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. There are various types of
green house gases (such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, chloro floro carbon, sulphur, etc)
playing a big role in enhancing the level of global warming. High temperature causes melting of
ice and snow thus reduction in amount of ice and snow, change in water cycle, rise in sea level,
change in climate, change in weather patterns, and lot of changes in the natural cycle which
participate in the global warming. Such huge changing events have forced people to think
seriously and take decisions against these changing patterns of environmental parameters. It has
been a serious issue and putting our future at risk as well as existence of life on the earth. It is
considered that deforestation and rise in carbon dioxide level is primary issue of increasing
global warming. Emitting greenhouse gases from vehicles and CFC gas from air-conditioners are
very dangerous as they are empowering this demon. Such gases especially CFC erode the ozone
layer and make holes which pass ultraviolet rays and affect living beings on the earth. Increasing
sea level creates the fear of submerging coastal regions and completely finishing few islands in
near future thus making people homeless. Overpopulation causes overuse of natural resources
and technologies which is not good for welfare of human beings.
Greenhouse Effect

Write a paragraph about 'Greenhouse Effect' by answering the questions below:

What is greenhouse effect?
How is it caused?
What is the main culprit for global warming?
What are the threats of global warming?
What measures can we take to prevent global warming?
What do you mean by greenhouse effect?
How is it created?
What is its effect and who are affected?
How can it be stopped?
What are the measures you prefer to stop it?
The greenhouse effect is the process by which the air surrounding the earth is becoming warmer
day by day. In other words, it is the gradual warming of the air which ultimately results in the
gradual increase in the world temperature. In short, the rise in atmospheric temperature is known
as the greenhouse effect. The carbon dioxide is primarily responsible for temperature rise in
atmosphere. The carbon dioxide is given off when coal and oil are burnt. As a result, the ice
covering the North and South poles is melting and may eventually lead to a rise in sea levels
which can flood many areas of the world. Scientists have already given warning that some parts
of coastal countries including Bangladesh may go under water due to greenhouse effect. The
total area of deserts is increasing every year. Many species of animals and plants are endangered
with the threat of extinction. In order to protect ourselves from its catastrophic impact and to
prevent global warming, we should take some effective measures. Therefore, deliberate cutting
down of forests must be stopped. Tree plantation program should be adopted soon. Steps should
be taken to put an end to the causes and sources of emitting carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Forests are a rich resource of our planet, Earth. Pristine forests provide benefits to the ecosystem
that a re-created forest cannot create. Therefore it is important to protect our forests.
Deforestation refers to loss of forest cover due to clearing of trees and vegetation in the forest.
Deforestation leads to ecological and environmental disturbance and imbalance. Forests are
habitats that play host to many wildlife species. A wide variety of animals, birds, reptiles and
insects inhabit forests. The wildlife species that live in forests depend on the forests for their
food, and complete their life cycle in the forest. When trees are cut, all the inhabitant creatures
suffer. Man too depends on forest products for his food. Communities that live near forests
depend on the forests for their livelihood. These communities have been living near the forests
over several generations, and are keen protectors of the forests. They adopt traditional
environment-friendly practices. Deforestation therefore affects local communities. Forests are
important in maintaining the hydrological cycle in an ecosystem. When forests are left
undisturbed the rainfall patterns are normal. The water table is also high enough to be available
for mans use for his various requirements to maintain his life and livelihood. All life forms need
water. Not only do marine species need water bodies, all terrestrial creatures too depend on water
for their life. Loss of forest cover leads to disturbances in the hydrological cycle and climate
patterns too. Deforestation therefore leads to long term ecological disequilibrium and
environmental hazards.

Recycling means taking something that has already been used, and making it fit for use
again. Recycling might mean reusing a thing that has been used before. Recycling might, on the
other hand, mean taking something that has been used and transforming it into something new.
Rinsing out old glass milk bottles and using them again is an example of recycling by reusing.
Melting down a used aluminum can and shaping it into a new metal object is an example of
recycling by transforming a used object into something new. Recycling is one of the best ways
for you to have a positive impact on the world in which we live. Recycling is important to both
the natural environment and us. We must act fast as the amount of waste we create is increasing
all the time. The amount of rubbish we create is constantly increasing because: Increasing wealth
means that people are buying more products and ultimately creating more waste. Increasing
population means that there are more people on the planet to create waste. New packaging and
technological products are being developed, much of these products contain materials that are
not biodegradable. New lifestyle changes, such as eating fast food, means that we create
additional waste that isnt biodegradable. There are numerous reasons why we ought to recycle.
For example: It reduces the amount of waste that goes in to landfill. It saves energy. It reminds
us to be aware of our actions and the impact that they have on the environment. We can start by:
Sorting out plastics, metal cans and carboard from your trash. Thinking about what you can reuse
and what you need to take to the recycling plant. Recycling is very important as waste has a huge
negative impact on the natural environment. Harmful chemicals and greenhouse gasses are
released from rubbish in landfill sites. Recycling helps to reduce the pollution caused by waste.
Habitat destruction and global warming are some the affects caused by deforestation. Recycling
reduces the need for raw materials so that the rainforests can be preserved. Huge amounts of
energy are used when making products from raw materials. Recycling requires much less energy
and therefore helps to preserve natural resources. Recycling is essential to cities around the
world and to the people living in them. No space for waste. Our landfill sites are filling up fast,
almost all landfills in the world will be full. Reduce financial expenditure in the economy.
Making products from raw materials costs much more than if they were made from recycled
products. Preserve natural resources for future generations. Recycling reduces the need for raw
materials; it also uses less energy, therefore preserving natural resources for the future.

It is difficult to define terrorism. It is seen that in many cases terrorists fight for their legal right. On
the other hand, their right may be illegal to those against whom the terrorist run their movements.
Other people think that terrorism is the introduction to revolution. We see the expansion of terrorism
after the Second World War. It is said that it is originated from the Third World War or Middle East. If
we look back, it is seen that it came to light at the end of the nineteen century. The main aim of
terrorists to terrify, to create panic. Criminals commit crimes because of their moral bankruptcy. But
terrorist try to justify their activities from a moral angle of vision. And this is where the main
difference lies between the terrorists and the criminals. The world is now standing on the volcano of
terrorism. Today people want to live in peace. They do not expect any harmful activities. They want
to make a better place for the future generations who will lead their lives peaceful way.

To spread panic and horrify people is known as terrorism. It has become a worldwide phenomenon.
Many countries encourage terrorism in other countries for their political gains. We can have an
example of Pakistan, which is helping terrorism in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir. The countries
give them training and sophisticated deadly arms for their wicked acts. Terrorists kill innocent
people mercilessly. The idea behind it is to spread panic among people and cripple government
machinery. Thus terrorism is a vicious circle which can ruin a country. In India there is terrorism in
eastern states also. Some separatist groups are also adopting terrorism for acceptance of their
demands by the government. The terrorist activities in our country had already taken the precious
lives of our two Prime Ministers, Smt. Indira Gandhi and Sh. Rajiv Gandhi. With Pakistan's collusion
terrorists created a havoc in Bombay in the recent past. The government should curb these activities
and should not accede to the demands of the terrorists.

Terrorism has become a global phenomenon and though it was relatively late in the day
that the world realised the gravity of it, but, thankfully, it has.

It was the bombing of the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 that finally
got the world to do a serious rethinking about the issue. India has been plagued by the
problem for decades now, and faced an attack on Parliament on December 13, 2001.
Terrorism is, by and large, a political problem and arises out of intense dissatisfaction
with the state of things. A handful of people take up violent means in furtherance of
what they believe to be a social or religious cause. Governmental insensitivity or the
vested political interests sometimes both add fuel to fire, and the unrest caused by a
few violent people turns into some kind of a violent movement and gradually gets
organised. Terrorism is thus born, to put it simply. It might be to assert linguistic or
cultural identity or to carry out a holy war on the world to save the world from those
whom they consider infidels. There is no uniform definition of terrorism. In India,
Parliament first enacted TADA and then POTA to counter the problem, but the remedy
proved more dangerous and harmful than the disease itself. It turned into a political tool
in the hands of unscrupulous politicians. In face of rampant abuse both TADA and
POTA had to go.
Decentralization (of Power)

Globalization has had far-reaching effects on our lifestyle. It has led to faster access to technology, improved
communication and innovation. Apart from playing an important role in bringing people of different cultures
together, it has ushered a new era in the economic prosperity and has opened up vast channels of development.
However, globalization has also created some areas of concern, and prominent among these is the impact that
it has had on the environment. Globalization has featured extensively in the debates on environmentalism, and
green activists have highlighted its far-reaching effects. Let us know about the impact of globalization on our
environment. Activists have pointed out that globalization has led to an increase in the consumption of
products, which has impacted the ecological cycle. Increased consumption leads to an increase in the
production of goods, which in turn puts stress on the environment. Globalization has also led to an increase in
the transportation of raw materials and food from one place to another. Earlier, people used to consume
locally-grown food, but with globalization, people consume products that have been developed in foreign
countries. The amount of fuel that is consumed in transporting these products has led to an increase in the
pollution levels in the environment. It has also led to several other environmental concerns such as noise
pollution and landscape intrusion. Transportation has also put a strain on the non-renewable sources of energy,
such as gasoline. The gases that are emitted from the aircraft have led to the depletion of the ozone layer apart
from increasing the greenhouse effect. The industrial waste that is generated as a result of production has been
laden on ships and dumped in oceans. This has killed many underwater organisms and has deposited many
harmful chemicals in the ocean. The damage caused to ecosystem from the oil that spilled from one of the
leaking containers of British Petroleum in 2010 is just one of the examples of the threat globalization poses to
the environment. Due to globalization and industrialization, various chemicals have been thrown into the soil
which have resulted into the growth of many noxious weeds and plants. This toxic waste has caused a lot of
damage to plants by interfering in their genetic makeup. It has put pressure on the available land resources. In
various parts of the world, mountains are being cut to make way for a passing tunnel or a highway. Vast barren
lands have been encroached upon to pave way for new buildings. While humans may rejoice on the glimmer
with these innovations, these can have long-term effects on the environment. Various studies over the years,
have found that plastic is one of the major toxic pollutants, as it is a non-biodegradable product. However,
plastic is of immense use when it comes to packaging and preserving goods that are to be exported. This has
led to increased use of plastic, causing widespread environmental pollution. It has made so many changes in
our lives that reversing it is not possible at all. The solution lies in developing effective mechanisms that can
check the extent to which it can impact the environment. Researchers are of the view that the answer to this
problem lies in the problem itself, that is, globalization itself can lend support to building a better structure
which is economically feasible and environment-friendly. Globalization is about competition, and if certain
privately owned companies can take the lead in being environment friendly, then it will encourage others to
follow suit.
Natural Calamities

Natural calamity means natural disaster which is caused by nature. Every year Bangladesh falls
victim to/of various natural calamities. They are flood, cyclone, drought, river erosion, tidal
bores, excessive rainfall, earthquakes and many other natural calamities. Almost all of these
natural calamities visit Bangladesh every year, and we count a heavy loss every year owing to these
natural calamities. There are some causes behind these natural calamities. Environmental pollution,
climate change, global warming, greenhouse effect, deforestation lack of plans etc. are responsible for
these natural calamities. The after effects of the natural calamities are dangerous/beggar
description. They cause heavy damage/loss to our life and properties. Many people suffer untold
sufferings. They become homeless and helpless. Houses are destroyed, cattle are washed away, crops
are greatly damaged and trees are uprooted. Thousands of people and other animals remain
without food for many days. Famine breaks out, price of daily necessaries rise up. Economy of
country handicapped. Many people and animals die for want of food. Many
contagious/dangerous diseases like diarrhea, cholera, typhoid and dysentery spread out in an
epidemic form. The educational institutions are closed down for a long time. In a word, the whole nation
undergoes extreme sufferings and socio-economic pressure. Though we cannot prevent natural disasters
as we have no hand in nature, we can reduce the damage caused by natural calamities. The government as
well as the conscious citizens should come forward to raise public awareness to reduce the losses caused
by natural calamities.

Any sudden movement of the earth due to a natural cause which produces a shaking is known as
an earthquake. An earthquake is a natural calamity. It causes much havoc to our life and wealth.
It is the result of sudden release of energy that creates seismic waves. The chief cause of
earthquakes is the sudden slipping of the portion of the earths crust past each other along
fractures of faults. Another cause is volcano activity. Minor causes of earthquake are sudden
landslides, sub-marine slides and collapse of cavern roofs. The sudden shock sets up vibration in
the earth and the vibrations take the form of waves within the earth. The focus of the earthquake
is the place where these vibrations originate and the point on the earths surface which is
vertically above the focus is called the epicenter. If the focus is nearer the earths surface the
effects of the earthquake is greater. The vibrations or the tremors of the earthquake are measured
by the Richter scale/seismometer. Earthquakes cause change in the earths surface. Sometimes in
mountainous regions landslides are caused. Buildings collapse and crumble within seconds and
several people are rendered homeless. Fire is another great danger. Railway lines are often
bucked of twisted. Under-ground water system is naturally disturbed by earthquake. It is a
natural calamity and its effects are disastrous. The surface area where the quake occurs
undergoes serious changes.. Those who are trapped are crushed to death. The aftermath of
earthquake is very terrible for the survivors who lose their near and dear ones. They suffer from
traumas throughout their lives. It endangers our existence and survival on earth. Due to
movement of the tectonic plates of the earth, earthquake occurs frequently. Earthquake cannot be
prevented, but we can minimize the damages of earthquake. We can make preventive measures
by ensuring earthquake resistance building code compulsory.
Flood in Bangladesh

The unusual swelling of water that overflows the banks of the rivers and submerging a vast area of
land is called flood. It is a natural calamity/disaster/catastrophe. Bangladesh is a land of rivers.
During the monsoon, water rises in rivers and causes floods. Bangladesh faces this problem
almost every year. There are various causes of floods. Excessive and continued heavy rainfall is
the main cause of flood in our country. Also flood causes due to melting of snow in the mountains
and the silting of rivers. Recently the sudden release of water from the Farakka barrage at the upper
during rainy season overflows rivers and floods the country. Floods cause a great havoc on our
crops, houses, and trees. Thousands of people become homeless, helpless and suffer greatly for
want of shelter, food and many other things. Floods also cause death to human beings, cattle, etc. It
also disrupts the communication network. After floods, famine and pestilence/epidemics break out
in the shape of cholera, diarrhea, dysentery etc. as people drink impure water and they do not get
proper food. The price of all daily necessaries goes up. Economy of country becomes stand-still.
Immediate relief is needed for the flood-hit areas. Flood victims need to supply foodstuff,
clothes, drinking water, etc. The floods that took place in 1954, 1961, 1968, 1974, 1985, 1988,
1998, created much havoc. Floods also do some good to us. They make our soil fertile for growing
more and better crops. Government and non-government agencies have to come forth to stand by
the flood-affected people. We cannot stop floods in Bangladesh completely but floods can be
controlled somewhat if necessary measures are taken. We should build dams, and embankments,
and dredge the rivers. We can also join one river with another for easy flow of water. In the
meantime, many countries of the world have been able to control floods successfully. We must
take the help of modern science and international cooperation. If we try our best, we will surely
Junk Food

The word junk food speaks itself a lot and indicates its harmful nature to the health. Junk foods
are trash food to the health because they are high in calorie, fat, cholesterol, sugar and salt
components. Now-a-days kids and teenagers are more prone to eat junk foods daily in bulk
amount. They are leading their lives towards danger through their unhealthy lifestyle. They
generally eat chips, french fries, cracks, snack, noodles, burger, pizza, pasta, and other junk
foods whenever they feel hungry. These foods are made giving more salt, spice, oil,
preservatives, unhealthy colour, unhygienic powder etc. No junk foods are beneficial and
provide no nutritional value. It affects the health in all ways of the people of any age group,
weight and health condition. Junk foods are considered as high in calories however one who eat
end up easily getting exhausted and need more food frequently. Junk food does not provide
appropriate level of energy thus the eater develop tendencies of craving more food frequently.
What we generally acquire from the junk foods are unhealthy fats and not healthy ingredients
thus we feel lack of oxygen which causes poor brain functioning. We absorb much cholesterol
from such type of foods which causes plaque formation in the arteries and creates problems for
the heart to pump normal amount of blood. Thats why we feel high level fatigue. High level of
bad cholesterol destroys our liver and put more weight at the same time. According to the
research, kids and children eating more junk food on daily basis are overweight and obese and
highly prone to the heart and liver disorders. Such kids are more prone to become diabetic and
lethargic because of high sugar collection in their body in the early ages. They get high blood
pressure because of high amount of sodium mineral in the junk foods. Kids and children should
be trained by their parents to follow healthy eating habits from the childhood.
Cultural Assault

A culture comprises the way of life, art, belief, rules, custom and tradition of a nation. It's the
heart of a nation, and portrays the norms that people follow, the mentality they have, how
civilised they are and what their position is in the world. But sometimes, a country's culture is
badly influenced by others and subsequently its culture is overshadowed. Many intellectuals are
of the view that Bangladesh is a victim of this cultural assault. Nowadays our culture is being
threatened by alien cultures, especially by Indian and Western culture, thanks to the television
channels. Cultural assault means violent attack on a countrys heritage as well as social and
religious values. Satellite channels play active role in this regard. These satellite channels are
continuously giving rise to cultural intrusion. As ours is a Muslim country, we have a
conservative social and religious value. But satellite channels are destroying our own culture,
society and young generation. All the dirty western culture is coming through these channels.
These channels are not only destroying the moral character of our young generation but also
breaking down our social culture and ethical values. Some channels telecast obscene and
indecent programmes which develop domestic discord and adultery. Watching these violent and
indecent programmes, our young generation is drifting away from our own culture, music,
entertainment and modes of life. From these western channels, our young generation is learning
how to fight with others, how to kidnap others, how to loot bank or house, how to make more
girl friends or boyfriends, how to be drug addicted, how to be smuggler and how to be
international gambler etc. The government should impose strict restriction on telecasting these
vulgar and dirty programmes to protect our young generation from being spoilt. In this case a
committee can be formed to enforce a policy regarding which channels can be permitted to be
viewed and which channels should be censored.

The term diaspora denotes the movement of people from their ancestral homeland to live and
work in other country.Its origin is traced in thousands years back. In the Bible there is reference
of diaspora. In the history of human civilization, we find a number of events of it. In the history
of mankind, Jews people were the first mover. Their ancestor Abraham was forced to leave Iraq
and took shelter in Egypt. In Egypt he was a mover also. Then his offspring Jews were forced to
leave Egypt and settled themselves in Palestine. In Palestine the Jews were the exoduses. Later
many of them were forced to leave Palestine during Islamic era. These Jews people shifted
themselves in Europe and then America. Recently scholars have distinguished between different
kinds of exoduses based on its causes such as imperialism, trade or labour migrations or by the
kind of social coherence. The Aryans also left their central Europe thousands of years ago and
settled in Indian continent. Globalization has facilitated people to people connection. Diaspora,
in one country helps to bridge gaps between nations, hence it strengthens globalization. So,
globalization has great influence on diaspora.
Independence War of Bangladesh

The name of our country is Bangladesh. Before 1971 it was known as East Pakistan. Then we
were the part of then Pakistan. They started to oppress us in many ways. They did not give our
rights. On 25 March 1971 the Pakistani army invaded our mother land. They killed many people
and injured a lot recklessly. Many women were tortured by them. Thousands of them were raped
and killed. Many people fled to India to survive. But people could not bear any more. They made
themselves ready to face the Pakistani army. Many common people, with the help of Indian
government, fought against them. They fought for Liberation. So it is called Liberation War of
Bangladesh. Then Sheikh Mujib was the leader and General Ataul Gani Osmani was the Army
Chief. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman played the lead role in gaining independence. He inspired people
to fight for mother land. Common people of Bengal went to battle field with the dream of having
a free mother land. And it was the great leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman who made people dream
for an independent country. It was not easy for the common people to fight against the trained
armies of Pakistan. They fought for nine month and after nine month we gained our liberation.
But this liberation took lives of more than thirty lakh of people and took chastity of two lakh
women. Now we are a free nation. We remember the freedom fighter with great respect.

Internet is a network of computer systems that have been connected to each other using standard
communication protocols. Internet gives access to a large volume of precious and useful
information. Internet operations began when the US Department of Defense connected some
computers through optical cable networks. These networks also used satellites for transmission
of data to far-off places. The Internet service is provided by both Government and private
organizations. Internet has given the most exciting mode of communications to all the e-mail.
We can send as e-mail to all the corners of the world. The data cost of internet for sending an E-
mail is very low. Further, Internet can be used to collect information from various websites on
different subjects. This information could relate to education, medicines, literature, software,
computers, business, entertainment, friendship and leisure. Internet is also used for carrying out
business operations and that set of operations is known as Electronic Commerce (e-commerce).

All the newspapers, magazines and journals of the world are available on Internet. The
possibilities an Internet are endless. The advantages of Internet are low cost, large volumes of
information, high speed of access and good quality of entertainment. Its disadvantage is that
people often waste time while surfing through various websites on Internet. The new century has
ushered into a new era of Information Technology and Internet is the backbone of this modern

Internet has revolutionized the living style and working style of the human being. It has reduced the
man effort and time thus very beneficial to all for gaining knowledge as well as increase income at
less input. It has ability to provide information within no time at the doorstep. Basically internet is a
network of networks which connects various computers to handle from one place. Now a day,
internet has spread its effects at every nook and corner all over the world. Accessing internet require
a telephone line, a computer and a modem. It helps in getting worldwide information online from any
place of the world. It helps in gathering, collecting and storing information to our computer from the
websites on any topic within seconds. There is a computer and internet facility in my computer lab in
the school where we access needed information for our project. My computer teacher assists me
about how to get online information and use in appropriate manner. It has made online
communication fast and easy so that people can communicate with each other located anywhere in
the world via video-conferences or just messaging. Students can take help of internet to get prepare
for their exam, to prepare their projects, to get participated in the extra-curricular activities and many
more. Students can contact their teachers online to discuss some unsolved questions or friends for
many purposes. Using internet we can get information about anything in this world like real address
and exact distance of the destination we want to go to travel, etc.
Information & Communication Technology (ICT)

Information technology means the study or use of electronic equipment. Especially computers
for storing and analyzing information. It is a wonderful invention of modern science. Besides
computers, it also includes telephone,television,radio,wireless,email,fax,the internet etc.Being
one of the important inventions of information technology television can not only send message
but also telecast live moving events,cinemas,dramas,music,dance and many other entertaining
programmes.Another wonderful invention of modern science is wireless or radio. It can send
message from one place to another with the aid of electric waves. By means of wireless, we can
transmit information in a second from one corner of the world to another. On a radio set, we hear
the voice of the speaker from one part of the world. The Internet is a giant member information
technology. It is the source of news and information. There is no information but is available in
the internet. Thus, internet fulfills the demand of every individual. Various social networking
services such as face book, twitter, Linkden etc are rendering their services only by means of the
internet. The bond of brotherhood and friendship is being built up among the world people
keeping them in a global village with these social services. The present concept of globalization
is completely void and nothing without information technology. So, information technology and
globalization are independent with each other. But information technology is not free from
demerits. Social and anti-social movement, hijacking, fraudulence and many other crimes can
take place for the misuse of information technology. So, all the world people irrespective of
colour and creed should be aware of the demerits of information technology.

Our age is known as the age of Information Technology. Information Technology with its
superhighway has not only revolutionised mans way of working but also his very existence. IT
(Information Technology) revolution is sweeping our civilization bringing about unfathomable
changes in our present-day civilization. Twenty first century belongs to the IT world.
The term Information Technology or simply known as IT is a generic name given to all
improvements that are taking place in our world due to the inter-linked advancement in
technology, learning, and information. The term refers to recent technological developments that
are taking place in our world as a result of better technology, due to better information.

It consists of a number of allied modern advancements such as, computer, Internet, websites,
surfing, E-mail, E-commerce. E-governance, Video- conference, cellular phones, paging, fax
machines, smart cards, credit cards, ATM cards etc. All these have been possible due to the
advancement in information gathering technique or system which is known as Information
Superhighway which, like a highway, opens us to a world of technology and information full of
immense possibilities.

Discipline basically means having an orderly manner or behavior in whatever one does. It is the
training of mind and character. Discipline is very much a necessity in our life, in our society, at
our homes, schools and wherever one may be. In short, discipline is very much important in
every walk of life. Man is a social animal and he has to live in harmony with others. This is only
possible when he abides by a certain order and does not work according to his sweet will.
Learning of discipline to be learnt from our very childhood. Like education Discipline also
begins at home. The school playing ground offers opportunity to learn Discipline. The value of
discipline cannot be expressed in words. Discipline is a habit that gets acquired over a period of
time. Right from childhood, children are taught how to be discipline and well behaved. If they do
not get the understanding and importance of being disciplined, their lives would be disorganized
which may end them up in great loses. When a child is bought up in a discipline manner, they
would develop a good personality that would be with them wherever they may be. Discipline
would make people more civilized and ordered. Discipline helps to keep us in order and also
makes us to respect one another`s thoughts and views. Though some people argue that being
discipline interrupts one`s freedom of thought, it is not true. Being discipline only would help
one to be ordered and systematic thereby leading to a more controlled kind of character that
would only bring more peace and harmony to the society. Society and nature are the best
disciplinarians. When one violates their laws, you end up in trouble and would be punishable. If
one wishes to achieve anything in life, one has to be disciplined or else nothing could be
achieved. Lack of discipline in one`s life is like a ship without a rudder, you are totally lost, from
everybody and from everything. Being discipline is the basic key to being successful in life. T is
key to all progress and prosperity.
Physical Exercise

Physical exercise means the regular movement of our limbs. The proverbs goes Health is at the
root of all happiness. So to be happy one should take regular physical exercise. There are
different kinds of physical exercise likes running, walking, swimming, cycling etc. Walking and
swimming are the best kind of physical exercise which are helpful for people of all ages.
Physical exercise makes our muscles strong and stout. It helps in digesting food. It also helps the
free circulation of blood and keeps our mind fresh. As a result, the people who take physical
exercise regularly are free from various diseases. But physical exercise should be taken at proper
time and place. We should take physical exercise in an open field early in the morning or in the
afternoon. As health is wealth, we should take physical exercise regularly to keep this wealth
good. It should also be remembered that too much physical exercise is harmful for health.
Needless to say that over-exercise can deform and fracture different organs of our bodies.
Air Pollution

Air pollution means the ways in which the air is polluted. Air is the most important element of
human environment. Man can not live a single moment without air. But we do not think that it is
we who pollute this most vital element. Clean air is essential for life. Air is polluted in many
ways. For example smoke pollutes air. Man makes fires to cook his food, to make bricks burns
refuse, melts pitch for road construction and burns wood. All these things produce heavy smoke
and this smoke pollutes air. The another example is that railway engines, power houses,mills and
factories use coal and oil. Moreover, buses, trucks and cars use petrol and diesel oil. Again all
these things create smoke and cause air pollution. Furthermore, the most serious air pollution
also occurs in big cities where there are many mills and factories. Again serious air pollution also
occurs in big cities where there are many buses, trucks and cars plying the street every day.
Sometimes men in big industrial area become so sick by inhaling polluted air that they cannot be
cured. So proper measures and steps should be taken to prevent air pollution.

Water Pollution

Water, one of the ingredients of life, is being polluted by many ways. Water pollution is one of
the most serious environmental problems. And it is men who are greatly responsible for water
pollution. It occurs when water is contaminated by such substances as human and animal wastes,
toxic industrial chemicals, agricultural residues, oil and heat. Most of our water bodies rivers,
canals, ditches, lakes, seas, oceans, estuaries and underground water sources (i.e., tub wells, bore
wells) are gradually becoming polluted. Farmers use chemical fertilizers and insecticides in their
fields to grow more food. When these chemicals and insecticides get mixed with rain water cause
water pollution. Mills and factories throw away their waste materials and toxic wastes into the
rivers and canals and cause water pollution. Steamers, launches and boats also pollute water by
throwing oil, food and human waste into the rivers and canals. Moreover, unsanitary latrines in
the countryside standing on the banks of ditches, canals and rivers also pollute water.
Furthermore, drains running into the canals and rivers cause water pollution. Deforestation,
urbanization, intensive agriculture and industrialization have caused pollution of water bodies.
Polluted water may look clean or dirty, but it invariably contains germs, chemicals or other
materials that can cause inconvenience, illness or death. Water pollution can be prevented in
many ways. Various kinds of fatal diseases like diarrhea, dysentery, cholera including water
borne diseases are the effects of water pollution. Water pollution always threatens the existence
of human lives on earth.
Mobile Phone

Mobile phone is one of the latest inventions of modern science. It is a small cellular phone that
can be easily carried with us. It has made our everyday life easy-going and tension free. We can
now communicate easily with others through this. As the networks of different mobile operators
have covered almost the whole country, we dont have any chance to get lost. Our friends and
family members can easily find us even how far we are. Because of its great benefits, the number
of mobile phone users is increasing day by day. But every positive thing has some negatives
aspects as well. Mobile phone is also not an exception to this. Teenagers often spoil their
valuable time by talking to their friends for long. They are often found to talk to their friends for
long two or three hours at night. Different mobile operators often offer some mid-night free or
low cost calls. Students mostly take this advantage and thus kill their time. Besides, hijackers,
robbers and different anti-social activists often commit crime by communicating among
themselves through mobile phone. The billing rate of mobile phone is still very high in the
country. Scientists are warning that excessive use of mobile phone can cause brain cancer, and
hamper the mental growth of children. But despite these disadvantages, we use mobile phone as
it has been a part and parcel in our daily life. Mobile phones have revolutionized the life of
human beings for many years. They have become widespread all over the world. This revolution
in the communication aspect replaced letter-writing by providing ease to the humanity in terms
of communication among the people. Besides that, mobile phones also play an anti-social part in
humanity. It depends on how it is being used. In short, we can say that mobile phones have their
uses and misuses which entirely depend upon the user.
Early Rising

Early rising is the habit of getting up from bed in the morning. It is a very good habit. It is
essential and good for health. This habit is of special use to a man in various ways. The man who
rises early in the morning can take some exercises or a walk in the morning fresh air by the river
side or in the open field. Then bath with fresh water. The morning air refreshes both body and
mind. Then the air is full of oxygen. There is a calm and serene atmosphere everywhere. One can
enjoy the beauty of nature in the early morning. Nature smiles in the morning with colourful
flowers and green leaves and the chirping of birds is also heard in the morning. All these make
them cheerful and healthy. The beautiful gifts and colourful nature in the morning remind
everybody of the Creator. One feels like to pray to God. An early riser gets enough time to do his
work either in study on in other work, which will bring him success. Finally he must follow the
instructions to rise early. An early riser has many advantages. He can start his daily works
earlier. He had nothing to worry. He has a cheerful mind all the day round. He can earn more and
become wealthy. So the habit of early rising is the source of health, wealth and wisdom. This
habit must be developed/practiced in the childhood days. Also one has to go to bed early so that
he can wake up early in the morning. So, everybody should practice early rising.
Food Adulteration (in Bangladesh)

Man cannot live without food. It is essential for health and life. But this food must be pure, clean
and fresh. Nowadays, foods are often adulterated. In hotels and restaurants stale and rotten foods
are mixed with fresh food and served to the customers. Fish and vegetables are adulterated by
putting on them chemicals and other preservatives in order to make them look fresh. Bakery and
confectionery products are also adulterated by using toxic substances. Junk food contains
harmful chemicals. Even fruits, milk and beverages are also adulterated. In fact, all kinds of
foods and food articles are adulterated by dishonest and greedy businessmen for a quick and
unearned profit. Adulterated foods are a serious health hazard. They cause many fatal diseases
and even death. Food adulteration has become an alarming problem in our country. Dealing in
adulterated food is a great crime. The criminals have to be identified and punished. We must
remember that if we fail to solve it at once, this problem may go out of control in near future.
However, though our government has taken some steps to remove food adulteration, but these
are not sufficient at all. In the end, it is not possible for the government to solve food adulteration
problem in single hand. Public awareness should be created so that people can become careful
about buying foods and food articles.
Social Values (in Bangladesh)

Social value refers to customs, belief, social practices and norms, behavioral patterns and attitude
of a particular social community. Social value shapes the life of a person to a great extent. They
differ from society to society. In the past, people were very much strict about maintaining social
values. Obedience and respect for the elders were predominant in our society. Smoking in front
of the superior was forbidden. People used to believe in joint families. Honesty, sincerity,
truthfulness, sympathy, fellow feelings were also considered to be social values. But all these are
now changing. Today, because of scientific and technological development, people are getting
educated. Now/Today people are getting more and more liberal. All these have lasting influence
on their ideas, beliefs and tradition. Now-a-days people have no fellow feelings, they are
becoming self-centered and getting involved in anti social activities, addicted to drugs etc.
because of social degradation. If it continues, worse days are ahead of us. To avoid such an
uncongenial situation, everybody should be careful to preserve social values. There is a clear
western influence on our culture and values. Many people now accept western values. The
causes of the present social values are satellite, television, globalization, free exchanges among
the nations and free trade. There are certain effects of our social values. As western music,
culture, and modes of life are getting more and more familiar with us, our social values are also
getting westernized. People now prefer living in a small family. There are frequent exchanges
among different communities in our society. Our social values reflect our moral standard, culture
and tradition. We should be more alert to maintain these values. If we lose our values, we will
have no individual identity as a nation. Our social values show our identity.
Drug Addiction

Drug addiction means a strong desire for a drug which the addict cannot resist. Narcotics like
Opium, Heroin, Yaba, Marijuana, phensidyle, and Cocaine are used by the addict. When the
person takes them, he gets excited and loses control over himself. Addiction to drug has
nowadays become one of the greatest devil in the world as well as Bangladesh. There are mainly
two reasons behind it. First one is young people are more curious and bad company
allures/provokes them. So, whatever they see harmful or useful, they are the first to taste. Again,
frustration is another cause of taking drugs. When there is no hope left for the young, they
become addicted to drugs. Today young people have no play-ground for sports & have limited
scope of cultural activities. Drug addiction has become a global problem. Thousands of families
in cities, towns and even rural areas all over the world are directly or indirectly affected by it.
Drugs have terrible effects on human body. It is a slow poison that damages the brain and all
internal functions of the body leading ultimately to death. Again, drug addiction gives birth to
new crimes. Drugs are very expensive. So, young people involve in crimes to get money for
taking drugs. In Bangladesh drug problem has become a national problem. Bangladesh is often
used by the drug dealers as transit from one country to another. In these circumstances, all
concerned must create awareness both individually and collectively. The highest punishment of
dealing in or smuggling drugs is death in Bangladesh. The law must be enforced immediately.
Parents, teachers must give proper teachings so that children can choose the right thing. This
curse can be eradicated only when each and every person of a country becomes aware of it.
Strong step should be taken to stop the production and trafficking of drugs. Sufficient clinics
should be established to cure drug addiction. But the permanent solution lies in removing
frustration, poverty and inequality in the society which cause drug addiction.
Importance of Learning English

English is now an international language. The world now has become a global village. The
different nations have come closer to one another and they have to make communication with
each other. For this communication a common language is necessary. And English has got that
position of a global language. People all over the world use this language as a medium of
communication. Therefore in order to keep pace with the advancement of civilization and
maintain international we should learn English. It is the official language of international
organizations like UNO, ADB, World Bank, Olympic committee etc. More than 80% of all the
information in the worlds computers is in English. Many organizations need employees who
have good knowledge of English. So for a good job, good knowledge of English is necessary.
Nowadays, many people believe that English will help them to get a good job with better
salaries. Almost all the books in different branches of science and technology are either written
or translated in English. So, English is must for higher education and international
Load Shedding

Write a paragraph about Load Shedding answering the following questions.

(a) What is load shedding?

(b) What are the causes of load shedding?
(c) When does it occur?
(d) What are its bad effects?
(e) What should we do to stop load shedding?

Load shedding means the discontinuity of supply of electricity for short or long time. The
concerned authority stops the flow of electricity to some areas for some time to manage the
shortage of power generation. Nowadays it has become a part of our daily life. There are many
reasons for load shedding. The insufficient production of electricity is the main reason of it.
Misuse and illegal connection of electricity are the other reasons of it. Load-shedding is almost a
daily occurrence in cities, towns, suburbs and villages. There is hardly any area which is not
affected by it. It occurs mostly at night because the demand of electricity is more than in the
daytime. The bad effects of load shedding are beyond description. It creates problem in the
socio-economic development of the country. Mills and factories, shops, hospitals etc. become
paralyzed due to load shedding and production is hampered for this. The sufferings of the
students know no bounds. They sit in the darkness closing their books during the load shedding.
They suffer a lot of if it occurs in the time of their examination. The patients also suffer terribly
because operation stops in hospitals for load shedding. Load shedding at night also encourages
the thieves. However, this problem should be solved at any cost. The concerned authority must
take necessary steps to stop it. More power stations should be established. Illegal connection and
system loss should also be stopped. After all, there is no alternative to be conscious about the
misuse of electricity. Corruptions in this sector must be curbed with an iron hand.
Road Accident

Bangladesh is a very populated country. Here road management is very bad. Every day we
find road accident news in daily newspapers. I also face a road accident. Everyday go my
college by local bus. Like daily activities I was going for my bus. I was standing on the rod
and waiting for the bus. Then I saw two little boys are crossing the busy road. They were not
enough to cross the road. When they are crossing the road a bus push them in little speed.
They were very afraid for his and they also little injured. One boy's leg was injured and
another was injured in his hand. I rushed them and treatment them. I took a medicine from
the nearby dispensary and used it on the injured place. They are crying for pain. I told them
where from they are and where hey want to go. They said " They are going to school and
they are from Khulna. After some moment I take them their hose. The boys parent were very
socked to see their boys are ill. They were very sad. I told the full matter about the road
accident. They thanked me. They also invited me to come their hose. I was gone their hose.
And they offer me food. In this way I become common person to them.
Traffic Jam

Traffic jam means a long line of vehicles that cannot move or that can move very slowly. It is a
common affair in the big cities. It is one of the major problems of modern time. Traffic jam reach
in the peak when office-goers, workers, students go in the morning & back in the evening. The
causes of traffic jam are many. Rapid growth of population and the increasing amount of
vehicles are the main causes of it. In proportion to our population roads have not increased.
Overtaking tendency also causes traffic ham. The number of traffic police is insufficient. There
are many unlicensed vehicles which should be brought under control. The drivers are not willing
to obey the traffic rules. The indiscriminate playing of rickshaw is another cause of it. Haphazard
illegal parking of vehicles alongside the pavement also causes of it. Violation of traffic rules is
also responsible for it. The drivers do not follow traffic rules. Traffic jam causes untold
sufferings to people. Sometimes it raises our mental tension. It causes loss of our valuable time
and money. We have to wait to reach our destination. The students, the office-going people, the
businessmen, the fire brigade vehicles and the patients in the ambulance are the worst sufferers
of it. Traffic jam can be removed by enforcing traffic rules strictly. The narrow roads should be
broadened. By-pass roads should be constructed in the big towns. One-way movement of
vehicles and building of fly-over can solve this problem. Sufficient traffic police should be
posted on important points. Unlicensed vehicles should be removed. Roads & highway
department should take a Master Plan for eradicating traffic jam. Above all we can reduce it by
raising public awareness.
Price Hike/Spiral of Commodities

Bangladesh is a little country with growing problem. Among all problems, Price hike is a good
one. The problem has spread its evil clutch all over the country. Price of anything are increasing
day by day. People of fixed and limited income are suffering a lot. All are getting concerned with
this problem. When price goes out of buying capability, It is called price hike. There are many
causes behind it. The first and foremost cause is over population. The small country cannot
manufacture enough food for its increasing population. Man-made crisis of commodities is
another cause. Dishonest business men do it for higher profits. Business syndicate, smuggling
and corruption are also depends on international market. Besides, anarchy and unawareness are
responsible for it. The effects of price hike are many. Most of people are living under poverty
line. So, their condition is becoming so miserable. Many of them have remain famished almost
every day. The poor children are leaving school in despair. There is no light of hope for balanced
food. They cannot afford to buy any medicine. For price hike, the poor are becoming poorer. The
problem of price hike is hindering overall development of our country. It is so horrible. We have
to take some immediate steps to bring down price of valuable commodities. At first, we have to
control our population. Food production must be increased as soon as possible. Dishonest
business men must be punished. For keeping price under control, we need political stability. The
government should import indispensable commodities for a stable market. Farmers should be
given easy-loan to fabricate food. The government should store food to cope with any natural
disaster. The government should also sell for essentials for the poor at a low price.
In good, we can say that price hike is a good problem. It should be solved at any cost. It is high
time to solve the problem. Conscious people should work together with the government in this
regard. Otherwise, we all slip into a good danger.
Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile Delinquency is a social evil of our times. It refers to the crimes done by the teenagers.
Such crimes are so alarmingly on the rise that government machinery and the people have sat up
and taken notice. The enlightened section of society holds that if the rot is not tackled in time, it
would eat into the vitals of social structure. This social malady originates mainly from the dismal
poverty that has been plaguing the country for some decades. Hunger knows no law. All
practices and rules for decent living are meaningless to the starving man.
Besides our administrative heads and bureaucracy that stand accused of corruption have
encouraged erosion of moral values. It is anybodys guess what signals our corrupt officials give
to the young generation. TV serials with crime scenes too encourage budding criminals. Poverty
eradication programs should be taken up in right earnest. Education programmes should be made
popular. Effort should be made to inculcate moral values among all the sections of the society.
The human-rights laws should be enforced. The teenagers and young people should be treated
with love so that they dont feel themselves to be a deprived section of the society.

Juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by Juveniles, i.e., a person below the age
at which ordinary criminal prosecution is possible. Poverty, unemployment, incidence of child
abuse, availability of drugs, guns, alcohol etc., are found to correlate with Juvenile delinquency.
The facts pertaining to Juvenile delinquency can broadly be divided into two categories(a) the
subjective approaches, and (b) the objective approaches. The subjective approaches include:
anthropological, medical, biological, psychological, psychiatric and analytical approaches.
Whereas, the objective approaches include geographical, ecological, economic, social,
sociological and cultural approaches. Among the causal factors, the social and the economic
factors are of utmost importance. Section 27 of the Code of Criminal Procedure provides that any
offence not punishable with death or imprisonment for life, committed by any person who at the
date when he appears or is brought before the Court is under the age of sixteen years, may be
tried by the Court of a Chief Judicial Magistrate, or by any Court specially empowered under the
Children Act, 1960, or any other law for the time being in force providing for the treatment,
training and rehabilitation of youthful offenders. The Parliament of India with a view to provide
for the care, protection, treatment, development and rehabilitation of neglected or delinquent
Juveniles, and for the adjudication of certain matters relating to delinquent Juveniles, enacted the
Juvenile Justice Act, 1986. This Act was reviewed and was reconstituted as the Juvenile Justice
(Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000. It was again amended in 2006. This Act gives
exclusive jurisdiction to childrens court while dealing with juvenile accused in respect of all
offences and prescribes special procedure in the inquiry and trial of such cases. In Raghbir v.
State of Haryana, (1981) 4 SCC 210, it was held that section 27 of the Code of Criminal
Procedure does not affect the provisions of any State or Central Act relating to Juvenile
delinquency. The problem of Juvenile delinquency can be solved by economic changes by
eliminating poverty and assuring economic insecurity. The economic life is fundamental and
therefore, has determining influence, upon which all social and cultural adjustments are made.
Moral Degradation

There are so many in todays society that have lost the boundaries that would have helped
them in times past to determine between right and wrong. Children are now exposed to so
much information which in many ways have molested them of their innocence, and have
deprived them of a pure and healthy childhood. Tomorrows Newspaper reads that an 11 year
old child was gunned downed by his fellow student simply because he wouldn't give up his
coat. These are a few of the teachings learned by this information generation. That material
gain is more important than another human life. The degradation of moral standards starts
not only from within the home, but in the Media and Educational system as well as
Environmental structures play a significant role as well. To reach a generation that has been
exposed to so much with so little maturity or understanding will not only be challenging for
its teachers, but overwhelming for those that seek to control them. Degradation simply
means to lower ones standard of lifestyle, to make one a degenerate and to demoralize not
only in standards, but in character as well. Greed has become the forerunner in the world
today. There is so many that now hide behind this image call success. That it doesn't really
matter what it took to get there, at least this is what they think.
Have you ever tried to look at our society lately, I know we all do and I do know that every
time you think of our society your thoughts become obnoxious, full of rage and dazed with utter
dilemma because of all that is happening in or to the society we are living in. What I'm talking
about and what we are facing is known as moral degradation. Today we live in an unfathomable
putrid Society where neither you nor your family feels safe, where every morning you woke up
and find yourself reading something disgusting full of gang-rape, molestation, dowry, murder
etc. Every time you turns a news channel there is a either its politics or intense agony to women
all over whether it is dowry case in North-Bengal or in the modern city of Dhaka. What I want to
convey is that our generation is lacking a deep sense of propriety which is a means of generosity
that is lacking somewhere I often see men troubling women directly or indirectly it doesn't
matter but these kinds of frivolous activity in people today is ubiquitous, and this is leading
Bangladesh to most menacing from the most cultural tag. People today have been indulged in
such immoral exercises that are completely opprobrious. All this would be perfectly managed if
we could just be able to learn our manners and culture specifically. As I had just entered
adulthood I can say I had a better pedagogy than kids are having now and not only me people of
my age had been punished but the scenario now has been changed completely, as today a word
against a teenager could be worse to parents than anything. Now I don't see a single teenager
showing some respect to elderly, some days back I saw this at a neighbour house a guest arrived
at his house, parents greeted them gently but that kid was busy playing his video game and didn't
even bothered to look who has came, whereas in my time I would've got a strict scolding for
such penurious behavior. They have lacked this sense because today they do not want be
unhinged as they are busy with their gadgets or internet, so by all this means I'm saying that
people have been ignorant all this time and not giving their children that proper doze of manners
which are quite consequential to be taught. All this has been arise due to the influence that we
are seeking from Western culture, we are engaged in every activity which can be called as "cool"
irrespective of their repercussions but not minding the fact that what this generation is adopting
is not of any use as it can only become grievous to ourselves only. Hence it is a request from me
not to run after that culture which has no basis in it, but you should rather choose to our sacred
culture and relish it because only they can lead to a supreme and generous Bangladesh.
A Rainy Day
Your College Library
A Tea Stall
Childhood Memories
International Mother Language Day