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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Global Perspectives

THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

Global Perspectives

Essential Question

Understand what the Scientific Revolution was and be able to describe important innovations.

THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION The scientific revolution occurred from roughly the late 16th century to the early

The scientific revolution occurred from roughly the late 16th century to the early 18thTHE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION This revolution brought about radical changes in scientific thought The era is heralded

This revolution brought about radical changes in scientific thoughtfrom roughly the late 16th century to the early 18th The era is heralded as the

The era is heralded as the birth of modern sciencebrought about radical changes in scientific thought The most important changes occurred in the fields of

The most important changes occurred in the fields of astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and engineeringThis revolution brought about radical changes in scientific thought The era is heralded as the birth

ENGINEERING

ENGINEERING One of the first great engineering feats was the discovery of the mechanical clock New

One of the first great engineering feats was the discovery of the mechanical clockENGINEERING New trade routes from the east brought the technology from China to Europe Europeans did

New trade routes from the east brought the technology from China to Europeengineering feats was the discovery of the mechanical clock Europeans did not pay great attention to

Europeans did not pay great attention to timefrom the east brought the technology from China to Europe For the most part they monitored

For the most part they monitored the position of the sunto Europe Europeans did not pay great attention to time They had sun dials, water clocks

They had sun dials, water clocks and solaria, none of which are terribly accurateFor the most part they monitored the position of the sun People rose when the sun

People rose when the sun came up and went to bed when it went down. Few lingered in the dark.they monitored the position of the sun They had sun dials, water clocks and solaria, none

ENGINEERING

ENGINEERING The first mechanical clocks appear in Italy in the early 1200’s The Church strongly pushed

The first mechanical clocks appear in Italy in the early 1200’sENGINEERING The Church strongly pushed for their use as they coordinated prayer Soon they appeared everywhere

The Church strongly pushed for their use as they coordinated prayermechanical clocks appear in Italy in the early 1200’s Soon they appeared everywhere and became a

Soon they appeared everywhere and became a mainstay of bell towers and wallsstrongly pushed for their use as they coordinated prayer They became increasingly artistic and sophisticated Medieval

They became increasingly artistic and sophisticatedeverywhere and became a mainstay of bell towers and walls Medieval clocks remain an attractive site

Medieval clocks remain an attractive site to see across Europe today where many still operate as the did when first created over 500 years agoappeared everywhere and became a mainstay of bell towers and walls They became increasingly artistic and

Question

Have you heard of Galileo? What were his greatest contributions?

ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY The most significant change in astronomy was the acceptance of the view that the sun

The most significant change in astronomy was the acceptance of the view that the sun was the center of the universe, not the earthASTRONOMY Until the middle of the 16th century, natural philosophers [scientists] subscribed to the views of

Until the middle of the 16th century, natural philosophers [scientists] subscribed to the views of Claudius Ptolemythat the sun was the center of the universe, not the earth According to Ptolemy’s observations

According to Ptolemy’s observations in the 2nd century AD, the earth was stationary and the sun, stars and moon revolved around itearth Until the middle of the 16th century, natural philosophers [scientists] subscribed to the views of

ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY Ptolemy’s observations did not stop there He observed that beyond the planets existed a large

Ptolemy’s observations did not stop thereASTRONOMY He observed that beyond the planets existed a large sphere which carried the fixed stars

He observed that beyond the planets existed a large sphere which carried the fixed starsASTRONOMY Ptolemy’s observations did not stop there This theory popularized astrology Stars are fixed and rotate

This theory popularized astrologyexisted a large sphere which carried the fixed stars Stars are fixed and rotate around the

Stars are fixed and rotate around the earth, the center of the universea large sphere which carried the fixed stars This theory popularized astrology Ptolemy also made observations

Ptolemy also made observations in physicsfixed stars This theory popularized astrology Stars are fixed and rotate around the earth, the center

ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY He observed that the earth was made up of the four great elements, earth, air,

He observed that the earth was made up of the four great elements, earth, air, water and fireASTRONOMY Of these elements, all things were made However, Ptolemy observed that the stars and planets

Of these elements, all things were madeup of the four great elements, earth, air, water and fire However, Ptolemy observed that the

However, Ptolemy observed that the stars and planets had a fifth element, aetherair, water and fire Of these elements, all things were made Aether was an eternal element

Aether was an eternal element that could not be altered, corrupted or destroyedOf these elements, all things were made However, Ptolemy observed that the stars and planets had

ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY Ptolemy’s writings formed the basis of all astrological thought for 1300 years Many of his

Ptolemy’s writings formed the basis of all astrological thought for 1300 yearsASTRONOMY Many of his theories held until the late 18th century His first challenger was Nicolaus

Many of his theories held until the late 18th centuryformed the basis of all astrological thought for 1300 years His first challenger was Nicolaus Copernicus,

His first challenger was Nicolaus Copernicus, a Polish clericyears Many of his theories held until the late 18th century Copernicus observed the night sky

Copernicus observed the night sky with his bare eyes and concluded in 1543 in his book, The Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres , that the sun revolved around the earth The Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres, that the sun revolved around the earth

However he was very careful due to religious philosophies of the timebare eyes and concluded in 1543 in his book, The Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres , that

ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY Copernicus developed only a theory based on naked eye observations Proof would come due to

Copernicus developed only a theory based on naked eye observationsASTRONOMY Proof would come due to innovations with glass As far back as 3500 BC, the

Proof would come due to innovations with glass glass

As far back as 3500 BC, the Phoenicians discovered glass when they cooked food on sandobservations Proof would come due to innovations with glass Despite such a monumental discovery, it would

Despite such a monumental discovery, it would take an additional 5000 years before being shaped into the 1st telescopePhoenicians discovered glass when they cooked food on sand The Egyptians, Greeks and Romans all knew

The Egyptians, Greeks and Romans all knew of glass but made little use of itDespite such a monumental discovery, it would take an additional 5000 years before being shaped into

ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY Roman philosopher Seneca mentioned reading all the books of Rome by peering at them through

Roman philosopher Seneca mentioned reading all the books of Rome by peering at them through a glass globe of waterASTRONOMY Nero, it is written, observed gladiatorial combats in the coliseum by pressing his eye to

Nero, it is written, observed gladiatorial combats in the coliseum by pressing his eye to an emeraldof Rome by peering at them through a glass globe of water True glasses did not

True glasses did not come onto the scene until about 1000 AD when monks began using a segment of a glass sphere placed on paper to readglass globe of water Nero, it is written, observed gladiatorial combats in the coliseum by pressing

did not come onto the scene until about 1000 AD when monks began using a segment

ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY Years later, in Venice, Italy people put the first glass lenses into frames creating the

Years later, in Venice, Italy people put the first glass lenses into frames creating the eyeglassesASTRONOMY Eyeglasses emerged between 1268 and 1289 Centuries later, in Holland, Hans Lippershay c 1570-1619 constructed

Eyeglasses emerged between 1268 andthe first glass lenses into frames creating the eyeglasses 1289 Centuries later, in Holland, Hans Lippershay

1289

Centuries later, in Holland, Hans Lippershay c 1570-1619 constructed the first spyglassfirst glass lenses into frames creating the eyeglasses Eyeglasses emerged between 1268 and 1289 He was

He was a spectacles makeremerged between 1268 and 1289 Centuries later, in Holland, Hans Lippershay c 1570-1619 constructed the first

ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY The spyglass was very weak and was likely never used to gaze at the stars

The spyglass was very weak and was likely never used to gaze at the starsASTRONOMY It was used as a gimmick, a toy In 1608, Galileo Galilei in Padua, Italy

It was used as a gimmick, a toywas very weak and was likely never used to gaze at the stars In 1608, Galileo

In 1608, Galileo Galilei in Padua, Italy heard of the devicenever used to gaze at the stars It was used as a gimmick, a toy He

He began constructing his own for scientific observationsused to gaze at the stars It was used as a gimmick, a toy In 1608,

ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY Galileo spent many tedious hours polishing glass lenses so he could achieve the greatest magnification

Galileo spent many tedious hours polishing glass lenses so he could achieve the greatest magnification possibleASTRONOMY He then did something unprecedented He pointed it to the stars Galileo first looked at

He then did something unprecedentedso he could achieve the greatest magnification possible He pointed it to the stars Galileo first

He pointed it to the starsmagnification possible He then did something unprecedented Galileo first looked at the moon Many believed the

Galileo first looked at the moonpossible He then did something unprecedented He pointed it to the stars Many believed the moon

Many believed the moon was completely smoothmagnification possible He then did something unprecedented He pointed it to the stars Galileo first looked

ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY Galileo however observed that the moon was rough, it had canyons, craters and mountains Then,

Galileo however observed that the moon was rough, it had canyons, craters and mountainsASTRONOMY Then, by creating an ingenious refractory device he observed the sun Later he pointed it

Then, by creating an ingenious refractory device he observed the sunthe moon was rough, it had canyons, craters and mountains Later he pointed it to Venus

Later he pointed it to Venus and then Jupitercreating an ingenious refractory device he observed the sun As Galileo wrote down what he saw,

As Galileo wrote down what he saw, he began noticing many new thingsThen, by creating an ingenious refractory device he observed the sun Later he pointed it to

ASTRONOMY

ASTRONOMY He noticed that the moon changed over time He saw that Venus changed shape, similar

He noticed that the moon changed over timeASTRONOMY He saw that Venus changed shape, similar to that of the moon during its various

He saw that Venus changed shape, similar to that of the moon during its various phasesASTRONOMY He noticed that the moon changed over time He saw the sun had spots on

He saw the sun had spots on it that moved across its surfaceshape, similar to that of the moon during its various phases Jupiter had moon like earth

Jupiter had moon like earth but they would disappear then reappearHe saw the sun had spots on it that moved across its surface All of these

All of these discoveries would made a major impact on the scientific communityhad moon like earth but they would disappear then reappear He proved that the Earth was

He proved that the Earth was not the centre of the Universewould made a major impact on the scientific community This breakthrough shattered classical belief and field

This breakthrough shattered classical belief and field the Scientific Revolutionwould made a major impact on the scientific community He proved that the Earth was not

Essential Question

What were three of Galileo’s discoveries concerning the solar system?

PHYSICS

PHYSICS As important an impact Galileo made on astronomy, perhaps even greater were his discoveries in

As important an impact Galileo made on astronomy, perhaps even greater were his discoveries in physicsPHYSICS Physics as we know it today, is the study of matter and energy, did not

Physics as we know it today, is the study of matter and energy, did not existperhaps even greater were his discoveries in physics What did exist was mechanics, the study of

What did exist was mechanics, the study of motion and optics, the study of lightit today, is the study of matter and energy, did not exist Galileo’s work in this

Galileo’s work in this field laid the foundation for modern physicsstudy of matter and energy, did not exist What did exist was mechanics, the study of

PHYSICS

PHYSICS Mechanics and its theories were 1st made by Aristotle He said that every object’s motion

Mechanics and its theories were 1st made by AristotlePHYSICS He said that every object’s motion required something of another object to move it, once

He said that every object’s motion required something of another object to move it, once the mover stopped, the object fell to the groundPHYSICS Mechanics and its theories were 1st made by Aristotle However, this theory failed to explain

However, this theory failed to explain why a projectile remained in flight after being released from ones handit, once the mover stopped, the object fell to the ground Galileo observed that an object

Galileo observed that an object lies at rest or moves until something intervenes to change its motionto explain why a projectile remained in flight after being released from ones hand He also

He also theorized that the Earth movesfrom ones hand Galileo observed that an object lies at rest or moves until something intervenes

PHYSICS

PHYSICS Many protested that the Earth cannot be moving or else we would feel it Galileo

Many protested that the Earth cannot be moving or else we would feel itPHYSICS Galileo went forth to explain that as a ship moves through water the goods carried

Galileo went forth to explain that as a ship moves through water the goods carried by the ship do not move in relation to the moving shipthat the Earth cannot be moving or else we would feel it This insight explains that

This insight explains that while the earth moves, we do not experience its motionby the ship do not move in relation to the moving ship Galileo also set forth

Galileo also set forth the mathematical law of motionthat while the earth moves, we do not experience its motion This explained how the speed

This explained how the speed and acceleration of a falling object are determined by the distance it travels during equal intervals of timeexplains that while the earth moves, we do not experience its motion Galileo also set forth

PHYSICS

PHYSICS As great and important as Galileo’s contributions to physics were, the greatest achievements in this

As great and important as Galileo’s contributions to physics were, the greatest achievements in this field belong to Isaac NewtonPHYSICS As a farm-boy in Licolnshire England, Newton spent much of his time building wooden models

As a farm-boy in Licolnshire England, Newton spent much of his time building wooden models and machinesgreatest achievements in this field belong to Isaac Newton He was always mathematically inclined One story

He was always mathematically inclinedspent much of his time building wooden models and machines One story tells of how he

One story tells of how he sat down to calculate the wind and its speed in order to win a jumping distance contestEngland, Newton spent much of his time building wooden models and machines He was always mathematically

PHYSICS

PHYSICS It was soon obvious to everyone around Newton that the only place for the boy

It was soon obvious to everyone around Newton that the only place for the boy was at the UniversityPHYSICS In 1661, Newton entered Cambridge University and in 1669 he became a professor of mathematics

In 1661, Newton entered Cambridge University and in 1669 he became a professor of mathematicsNewton that the only place for the boy was at the University Newton studied math, biblical

Newton studied math, biblical prophecy and natural philosophyUniversity and in 1669 he became a professor of mathematics His groundbreaking book, Mathematical Principals of

His groundbreaking book, Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy, explained the universal law of gravitationUniversity and in 1669 he became a professor of mathematics Newton studied math, biblical prophecy and

PHYSICS

PHYSICS In his book, Newton explained that the same force that holds an object to the

In his book, Newton explained that the same force that holds an object to the earth, holds planets in their orbitsPHYSICS Newton established that 2 bodies attract each other with a force that is directly proportional

Newton established that 2 bodies attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between themholds an object to the earth, holds planets in their orbits Newton, with this explanation of

Newton, with this explanation of gravity, gave scientists,“A system of the world.”directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the

Question

How did Galileo use science to prove that the Earth rotates?

CHEMISTRY/MEDICINE

CHEMISTRY/MEDICINE At the beginning of the 17th century, chemistry had little respect It was not an

At the beginning of the 17th century, chemistry had little respectCHEMISTRY/MEDICINE It was not an independent disciple but part of medicine and alchemy Alchemy was the

It was not an independent disciple but part of medicine and alchemybeginning of the 17th century, chemistry had little respect Alchemy was the magical art of turning

Alchemy was the magical art of turning base metals into precious onesnot an independent disciple but part of medicine and alchemy The most famous chemist of the

The most famous chemist of the century was the Swiss Paracelsusdisciple but part of medicine and alchemy Alchemy was the magical art of turning base metals

CHEMISTRY/MEDICINE

CHEMISTRY/MEDICINE Paracelsus was one of the first to reject the Greek/ Roman physician Galen Galen and

Paracelsus was one of the first to reject the Greek/ Roman physician GalenCHEMISTRY/MEDICINE Galen and Hippocrates held that the diseases in the world were caused by an imbalance

Galen and Hippocrates held that the diseases in the world were caused by an imbalance of the four humors, or bodily fluidsone of the first to reject the Greek/ Roman physician Galen They being, blood, phlegm, black

They being, blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bilecaused by an imbalance of the four humors, or bodily fluids A persons illness was directly

A persons illness was directly related to not having enough or too much of one of the aboveThey being, blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile Doctors of the time prescribed dieting and

Doctors of the time prescribed dieting and blood letting as a cureblack bile and yellow bile A persons illness was directly related to not having enough or

CHEMISTRY/MEDICINE

CHEMISTRY/MEDICINE Paracelsus refuted this belief and treated his patient with chemicals such as sulfur and mercury

Paracelsus refuted this belief and treated his patient with chemicals such as sulfur and mercuryCHEMISTRY/MEDICINE Paracelsus believed chemistry would provide a new basis for the understanding of nature Chemistry was

Paracelsus believed chemistry would provide a new basis for the understanding of naturehis patient with chemicals such as sulfur and mercury Chemistry was further legitimized by English philosopher

Chemistry was further legitimized by English philosopher Robert Boylewould provide a new basis for the understanding of nature Boyle contested that matter did not

Boyle contested that matter did not share the same structure, contradicting the view that everything was made up of the same elementsprovide a new basis for the understanding of nature Chemistry was further legitimized by English philosopher

CHEMISTRY/MEDICINE

CHEMISTRY/MEDICINE Boyle speculated that matter consisted of an arrangement of atoms He conducted experiments on volume,

Boyle speculated that matter consisted of an arrangement of atomsCHEMISTRY/MEDICINE He conducted experiments on volume, pressure, density of gas and the elasticity of air Using

He conducted experiments on volume, pressure, density of gas and the elasticity of airspeculated that matter consisted of an arrangement of atoms Using a primitive air pump, Boyle was

Using a primitive air pump, Boyle was able to prove the existence of vacuumsvolume, pressure, density of gas and the elasticity of air With these discoveries, chemistry entered the

With these discoveries, chemistry entered the stage as a legitimate field of sciencedensity of gas and the elasticity of air Using a primitive air pump, Boyle was able

CHEMISTRY/MEDICINE

CHEMISTRY/MEDICINE To Galen, blood originated in the liver where it was made/converted from food It then

To Galen, blood originated in the liver where it was made/converted from foodCHEMISTRY/MEDICINE It then flowed outward through the body via veins to nourish the body Some of

It then flowed outward through the body via veins to nourish the bodyin the liver where it was made/converted from food Some of the blood made its way

Some of the blood made its way to the heart where it was enriched with “Vital Spirit”outward through the body via veins to nourish the body When the enriched blood traveled to

When the enriched blood traveled to the brain it became the bodies “Psychic Spirit” which traveled to the nerves where it influenced human behaviorvia veins to nourish the body Some of the blood made its way to the heart

CHEMISTRY/MEDICINE

CHEMISTRY/MEDICINE Harvey through experimentation with cadavers weighed how much blood the heart pumped in every hour

Harvey through experimentation with cadavers weighed how much blood the heart pumped in every hourCHEMISTRY/MEDICINE Harvey demonstrated that blood traveled outwards from the heart, through the arteries and returned to

Harvey demonstrated that blood traveled outwards from the heart, through the arteries and returned to the heart through the veinsweighed how much blood the heart pumped in every hour Harvey could not however show how

Harvey could not however show how blood traveled from the arteries to the small capillariesthe arteries and returned to the heart through the veins This was later proved in 1661

This was later proved in 1661 through the use of the microscopehow blood traveled from the arteries to the small capillaries His observations set the standard for

His observations set the standard for biological researchblood traveled from the arteries to the small capillaries This was later proved in 1661 through

Review

What was the Scientific Revolution?