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POWER TRANSMISSION LINES Introduction

POWER TRANSMISSION LINES

IntroductionPOWER TRANSMISSION LINES

POWER TRANSMISSION LINES Introduction
POWER TRANSMISSION LINES Introduction

Electric power system

10.5 kV 154 kV 154 kV 66 kV 34.5 kV 0.4 kV
10.5 kV
154 kV
154 kV
66 kV
34.5 kV
0.4 kV
Electric power system 10.5 kV 154 kV 154 kV 66 kV 34.5 kV 0.4 kV

Power transmission from generating stations to industrial sites and to substations is the fundamental object of the transmission systems.

This function is accomplished by transmission lines that connect the power plants into the transmission network, interconnect various areas of transmission networks, interconnect one electric utility with another, or deliver the electric power from various areas within the transmission network to the distribution substations, from which the distribution systems supply residential and commercial consumers.

network to the distribution substations, from which the distribution systems supply residential and commercial consumers.

Transmission system planning

The purpose of transmission planning is to define a transmission system or its expansions so as to comply with the electric energy demand at specified quality and reliability criteria at a minimum cost.

One of the basic criteria that should be established in a system planning is that no load can be lost under occurrence of a simple contingency in the system being studied or in another neighboring interconnected system. Define criteria for steady-state conditions Define criteria for temporary and transient conditions

interconnected system. Define criteria for steady-state conditions Define criteria for temporary and transient conditions

Planning methods

Perform market forecast (load forecast) Evaluate generation facilities Evaluate existing network and preferential characteristics Conduct electrical studies Conduct economic studies

facilities Evaluate existing network and preferential characteristics Conduct electrical studies Conduct economic studies

Voltage levels

The transmission lines are the connecting links between the generating station and the distribution systems, as well as links between transmission systems. The voltage levels of transmission lines, either overhead or cables, are selected according to the power to be transmitted to a certain area or supplied to a consumer.

overhead or cables, are selected according to the power to be transmitted to a certain area

Voltage levels

Voltage levels
Voltage levels
Voltage levels
Voltage levels

Voltage levels used in Turkey

380

220

154

66

36

35

34.5 kV

33

31.5 kV

30

15.8

kV

10.5 kV

kV

400 kV

kV

kV

kV

kV

kV

kV

Transmission

Distribution ( medium voltage

0.4 kV Distribution ( low voltage

)

)

kV kV 400 kV kV kV kV kV kV kV Transmission Distribution ( medium voltage 0.4

Turkey’s electric power system:

Turkey’s electric power system: North-Western Anatolia 154kV South Anatolia 66kV Atatürk Dam to Istanbul and Izmir
Turkey’s electric power system: North-Western Anatolia 154kV South Anatolia 66kV Atatürk Dam to Istanbul and Izmir
Turkey’s electric power system: North-Western Anatolia 154kV South Anatolia 66kV Atatürk Dam to Istanbul and Izmir

North-Western Anatolia

154kV

South Anatolia 66kV Atatürk Dam to Istanbul and Izmir 380kV (400kV)

electric power system: North-Western Anatolia 154kV South Anatolia 66kV Atatürk Dam to Istanbul and Izmir 380kV

TEIA

(TURKISH ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION COMPANY)

Annual Report 2014

Overhead transmission lines

380kV

220kV

154kV

66kV

Total

(400kV)

(km)

(km)

(km)

(km)

17,682.8

84.5

35,132

509.4

53,408.7

Underground cable lines

380kV

154kV

66kV

(400kV)

(km)

(km)

(km)

47.1

252.4

3.2

53,408.7 Underground cable lines 380kV 154kV 66kV (400kV) (km) (km) (km) 47.1 252.4 3.2

International connections

Greece

Bulgaria

158,45 km 158,45 km MARITSA 3 MARITSA 3 HAM TABAT HAM TABAT 400 400 kV
158,45 km
158,45 km
MARITSA 3
MARITSA 3
HAM TABAT
HAM TABAT
400
400
kV
kV
TÜRK YE
TÜRK YE
400 400
kV
kV
148,76 km
148,76 km
~ ~~
~~ ~
MARITSA 2
MARITSA 2
PLOVDIV
PLOVDIV
AL BEYKÖY
AL BEYKÖY
KAPTAN DÇ
KAPTAN DÇ
BULGAR STAN
BULGAR STAN
YUNAN STAN
YUNAN STAN
127,89 km
127,89 km
PHILIPPI
PHILIPPI
UNIMAR
UNIMAR
NEA SANTA
NEA SANTA
BABAESK
BABAESK
400 400
kV
kV
400 400
kV
kV

Georgia

Georgia
Georgia

Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan

Armenia

Armenia

Iran

Iran
Iran

Iraq

Iraq

Syria

Syria

Transmission line considerations

Electrical power transmission lines can be AC, DC, underground or overhead.

Overhead AC is the most used method of electrical power transmission. Transmission lines represent from %10 to 20% of the investment of a typical electric utility company. So this significant amount must be carefully spent so as to assure reliable, efficient and economical electric power transmission.

significant amount must be carefully spent so as to assure reliable, efficient and economical electric power

Overhead 3-phase AC transmission lines

Transmission lines which carry three phase power are usually configured as either single circuit or double circuit.

configured as either single circuit or double circuit. A single circuit configuration has three conductors for
configured as either single circuit or double circuit. A single circuit configuration has three conductors for

A single circuit configuration has three conductors for the three phases.

A double circuit configuration has six conductors (three phases for each circuit).

three conductors for the three phases. A double circuit configuration has six conductors (three phases for

Aluminum-steel reinforced (ACSR) conductors are primarily used for medium- and high-voltage lines.

Structures for overhead lines take a variety of shapes depending on the type of line. Structures may be as simple as wood poles directly set in the earth, carrying one or more cross-arm beams to support conductors, or "armless" construction with conductors supported on insulators attached to the side of the pole. High-voltage lines are often carried on lattice-type steel towers.

Insulators must support the conductors and withstand both the normal operating voltage and surges due to switching and lightning.

The ground conductor (earth wire) is usually grounded (earthed) at the top of the supporting structure (tower) to minimize the likelihood of direct lightning strikes to the phase conductors.

top of the supporting structure (tower) to minimize the likelihood of direct lightning strikes to the

Dampers are streamlined weights attached to transmission-line conductors, close to where the conductors are secured from insulators. Their purpose is to 'damp' any vibrations induced into the conductors by wind.

any vibrations induced into the conductors by wind. In bundled conductors of overhead transmission lines spacers
any vibrations induced into the conductors by wind. In bundled conductors of overhead transmission lines spacers

In bundled conductors of overhead transmission lines spacers are used to maintain the distance between the individual conductor cables

of overhead transmission lines spacers are used to maintain the distance between the individual conductor cables
of overhead transmission lines spacers are used to maintain the distance between the individual conductor cables

Underground AC transmission lines

Underground high voltage transmission is done by high voltage cables.

high voltage transmission is done by high voltage cables. The cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) underground
high voltage transmission is done by high voltage cables. The cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) underground

The cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) underground transmission line

voltage transmission is done by high voltage cables. The cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) underground transmission line

Both of overhead and underground transmission lines have some advantages over another and some disadvantages also.

For overhead transmission lines inductance effect is prominent but for underground cables capacitance effect is more prominent.

The cost of an underground transmission line is 9 to 15 times the cost of overhead lines. •Underground cables must be insulated and EHV insulation is expensive. Bare wires can be used in overhead transmission line construction with insulation used only at points that the wire is suspended •Underground cables must be installed in pipe, which is expensive and cooled with oil circulation system which is expensive to install and maintain. •Should a failure occur in an underground system it is expensive to repair because of the difficulty in access. •Again the cost for installing the overhead transmission tower is lower

than

installing

underground

cables.

in access. •Again the cost for installing the overhead transmission tower is lower than installing underground

Underground cables are installed only where they offer a clear advantage or there’s no alternative.

Submarine cables Cables in dense urban areas Cables where aesthetic issues are important.

The advantages of underground transmission

No towers Aren’t affected by atmospheric conditions (lightning, wind, snow) No constant maintenance

transmission No towers Aren’t affected by atmospheric conditions (lightning, wind, snow) No constant maintenance

HVDC transmission

HVDC transmission

AC technology has proved very effective in the field of generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. Nevertheless, there are tasks which cannot be performed economically or with technical perfection by this method. Such as,

Economical power transmission over very long distances, power transmission via cables Power transmission between networks operating asynchronously or at different frequencies Input of additional power without increasing the short circuit ratio of the network concerned.

at different frequencies Input of additional power without increasing the short circuit ratio of the network

The disadvantages;

•The converters generate harmonic voltages and currents on both AC and DC sides so filters are needed. •The converters consume reactive power. •The DC converter stations are expensive.

and DC sides so filters are needed. •The converters consume reactive power. •The DC converter stations
Type of plant Long-distance transmission, 960 km Voltage levels ± 500 kV DC, 400 kV,

Type of plant Long-distance transmission,

960 km

Voltage levels ± 500 kV DC,

400 kV, 50 Hz

Type of Thyristor Direct-light-triggered, 8 kV

transmission, 960 km Voltage levels ± 500 kV DC, 400 kV, 50 Hz Type of Thyristor