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RUTA DE MINIMO COSTO PARA UNA EMPRESA EXPORTADORA DE

CARBN EN COLOMBIA

Universidad Pedaggica y Tecnolgica de Colombia


Facultad de Ingeniera
Redes de transporte

Herber Yesid Cruz Bastidas cdigo: 201410487


herber.cruz@uptc.edu.co
Cristian Fabin Prez Murcia cdigo: 201420175
cristian.perez02@uptc.edu.co
Paula Camila Prez Zorro cdigo: 201420267
paula.perez01@uptc.edu.co
Yeimi Paola Vargas Guasco cdigo: 201321725
yeimi.vargas@uptc.edu.co

RESUMEN

Se disea un sistema de distribucin de carga, de una empresa que exporta


carbn desde Colombia, con el fin de hallar rutas de mnimo costo desde los
centros de produccin de Boyac y Cesar hasta los puertos de Barranquilla y
Santa Marta, adems se tiene en cuenta el transporte de la carga a los a los
puertos de msterdam y Filadelfia. La metodologa desarrollada se centra en
encontrar una solucin a un problema de flujo de mnimo costo que considera la
capacidad de los centros de produccin, la capacidad de almacenamiento de cada
puerto ferroviario y fluvial, costos de arcos carreteros, fluviales, ferroviarios, costos
de explotacin de los centros de produccin, costos de exportacin y costo de
transbordo. Por ltimo, con ayuda de la herramienta TransCad, confirmar la
productividad de la red.

Palabras clave: Red de transporte, modelo de optimizacin, transporte, ruta de


mnimo costo, productividad de la red, multimodal.

MINIMUN COST ROUTE FOR A COAL EXPORTING COMPANY IN COLOMBIA

ABSTRACT

A cargo distribution system is designed, for a company that exports coal from
Colombia, in order to find minimum cost routes from the Boyac and Cesar
production centers to the ports of Barranquilla and Santa Marta, in addition, the
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transport of cargo to the ports of Amsterdam and Philadelphia. The methodology
developed focuses on finding a solution to the problem of minimum cost flow,
which considers the capacity of production centers; the storage capacity of each
rail and river port; the costs of road, river, railway arcs; operating costs of
production centers; export costs and transshipment costs. Finally, with the help of
the Trans Cad tool, confirm the productivity of the network.

KEY WORDS: Transportation network, optimization mode, transport, least cost


route, network productivity multimodal.

1. INTRODUCTION are in the process of assembly or


exploration.
When speaking about Colombia, it is
always necessary to highlight its In 2016, 90 million tons of coal were
richness, in terms of fauna, flora, produced (historical figure),
mineralogy and many other aspects. production increased by 3% in 2015,
Of course, the coal industry can not these figures are optimistic, and show
be left behind because it has been a the reactivation of the mining sector,
source of employment, development specifically the coal industry [1].
and opportunities for years, allowing
the progress of many generations of In 2016, coal contributed $ 1.35 billion
Colombians who, through the coal in royalties, representing 80.2% of
industry, have acquired education, total mining revenues. Each ton of
housing and better life quality. In coal contributed about $ 105,000
general, coal is part of the pesos to the national GDP [2]. Among
development of the country. the most representative mining
centers for national production is that
Colombia is the main coal producer in of Cesar with 59%, and the Guajira
Latin America, ranking eleventh in the with 37%, the remaining 4% comes
world, and the fourth largest exporter. from the central area of the country as
It is the third ore with the highest Boyac and Cundinamarca. It is clear,
operating activity in the country, then, that the country's coal
followed by gold and silver. According production capacity is sufficient to
to the National Mining Agency (ANM), supply it self and even other foreign
it has 1'057,133,690 hectares used countries that do not have this mineral
for extraction throughout the country, [3]
with a total amount of 1,534 titles, of
which 552 are exploited and the rest The biggest challenge for the coal
industry in Colombia is to transport
the large tons of coal that are

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produced in the center of the country, 2. METHODOLOGY
as for the moment by aspects such as
the infrastructure in road roads, In order to implement an optimal route
fluvial, rails and operational logistics, that reduces the operational costs of
this mineral cannot be exploited to a transporting coal to be exported, an
greater extent. These are one of the optimization model is performed,
reasons why, the cost of coal in the which provides consistent results of a
center of the country is greater than transportation network that goes from
that of the Atlantic coast. two major coal production centers in
Colombia ( Boyac-Cesar) to two of
Therefore, creating alliances between the country's main seaports
important national operations centers (Barranquilla-Santa Marta), bound for
is a great help to meet the demand Amsterdam and Philadelphia.
challenges in terms of cargo planning,
transport and the costs of such Taking into account the exploitation
operations. It is necessary to find a capacity of each reservoir and the
viable strategy that minimizes the storage capacity of each transfer
costs of cargo transportation as much center, the routes and modes used for
as possible, and ensures that the this purpose are identified, evaluating
quantity demanded is the same in the which of the results is the best in
capacity to offer. To achieve this terms of cost. To begin, it is
objective, it is necessary to use necessary to recognize each activity
optimization methods by estimating center, within the system and identify
significant decision variables, with its role, and what specifically
strong information from the collection contributes to the network studied.
centers, their production capacity, For example, if it is a production
storage capacity, possible transfer center, it is important to know the tons
centers, loading mode. of coal it has available to offer, and to
establish what capacity of reception
According to the above, the following (demand) has each port, in order to
article will develop a model that will prevent inconveniences of imbalance
optimize transport costs and load in the market.
transfer, based on a multimodal
transportation network, on a particular In case of not having the previous
problem of a coal company in information of each node, it is strictly
Colombia that exports coal to necessary to carry out a market
international ports. evaluation between supply and
demand, to establish the existing
relationship in both scenarios and to

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know exactly the quantity produced month, which refers to the large
and required in each case. amount of reception they have.

For the case study, there are two The following table characterizes the
nodes of origin that depart from the arcs used in the modeled transport
departments of Boyac or Cesar, and structure, adding specific attributes
two ports of destination are such as the serial, the production
Barranquilla and Santa Marta, and schedule, the mode of transport used,
then exported to Amsterdam and among others.
Philadelphia. Table 1 illustrates the
capacity of supply and demand of Table 2.Transportation network of
each one of them. coal.

COAL TRANSPORT NETWORK


Table 1.Characteristics of each node.
Transport mode arcs
ATTRACTION/ Railway 2
CAPACITY Truck 4
NODE PRODUCTION
(TON/MONTH) River 2
/ STORAGE
Transhipment truck to rail 4
100000
PRODUCTION Transhipment truck to river 2
BOYACA 800000
Transhipment to reach ports 2
STORAGE 20000
Arc of daytime production 2
220000
PRODUCTION Arc of night production 2
CESAR 1800000
Storage arches 2
STORAGE 70000
Export arcs from Ports 4
SANTA MARTA ATTRACTION 1000000 Total of arcs 26
B/QUILLA ATTRACTION 1000000
MSTERDAM ATTRACTION 250000 After this, it is pertinent to identify
PHILADELPHIA ATTRACTION 420000 each route of transport of the load
carried out on the infrastructure
It is essential to establish that the
network of the country, to establish
information of the production nodes in
the centers of loading and unloading
the optimization model must be
of the product; studying in detail each
evaluated, depending on the
possibility of transhipment occurred
operating schedule (day or night),
between the links, without forgetting
because the costs, depending on the
the costs that each operation entails.
case, have different values. As the
Not least, it is the way in which the
capacity of the seaports is unlimited,
cargo is transported, therefore it is
to estimate the demand of the
also necessary to take into account its
seaports, an arbitrary capacity value
cost.
was estimated as 1000000 Ton /

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The transport modes used for each
node are shown below.

Fig 2. Direct Route since


Boyac/Cesar to Barranquilla/ Santa
Marta in truck

Fig 1. Modes of transport in the


network.

The following illustrations are taken


from Google earth and show the
possible routes to take the cargo from
Fig 3. Route since Boyac with
the Department of Boyac to the ports transfer fluvial.
of destination, Barranquilla and Santa
Marta.

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Fig.4 Rout since Boyac, with
transfer ferrous.
Fig 7. Route since Cesar with transfer
It also represents the routes that are
fluvial
carried out to transport the cargo
coming from the department of Cesar, In the images it is possible to
to the seaports. observe, which are the routes that are
taken and the mode with which they
are crossed, likewise, each
transshipment carried out to change
the load of mode, generates an
additional node of transfer, called
transfer node.

Based on the information previously


analyzed in google earth, a graph is
presented that structures the arcs and
nodes and clearly identifies the mode
of transport used for each with its
respective cost. Subsequently, in
order to facilitate the analysis and
Fig.5 Rout since Cesar, with transfer obtain the minimum cost of the flow
ferrous. path, the node-arc incidence matrix is
presented in Excel where an objective

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function is formulated with minimum of the route. The illustration __ shows
height constraints and flow the results obtained by the program.
conservation.
3. FORMULATION OF THE
In order to verify the result obtained in PROBLEM
Excel, the graph was also developed
in Matlab 6.1. In this program the data Understanding the whole system as a
are entered in the form of vectors, set of nodes and arcs that work in
and the node-arc incidence matrix, common, and share a transport
some of the vectors that are infrastructure with limited capacity. An
introduced are the cost and capacity optimization problem was formulated
vector. that takes into account the most
important attributes of the nodes and
When everything is ready for arcs that comprise it, in order to
development, the lingprog function maximize the capacity of the network
was used, this function solves and reduce its costs.
problems of linear programming,
which consists in optimizing a linear OBJECTIVE FUNCTION
equation subject to a series of (1)
constraints conformed by linear
inequalities, and from this function we
obtain the value of the route of
minimum cost flow and is compared MINIMUM QUOTATION
to that obtained in Excel. RESTRICTION

( ) (2)
In Transcad we draw the graph taking
into account the nodes, arcs and (3)
flows raised in Excel, then we
introduce the costs of each arc, the
costs of nodes of producers and
attractors. It is checked that the nodes RESTRICTION ON FLOW
carry the same order as the one that CONSERVATION
had been raised in the graph. In the = 0 (4)
end a logical network is created (it
depends on capacity capacity, Where:
producing nodes and attractors), we
$
run the program that gives us the = ( )

minimum cost flow path and the cost
=

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= ,

= ,

4. RESULTS

When the optimization was applied to


the minimum cost flow problem, for
the coal deposits in Boyac and
Cesr to the demand ports in
Amsterdam and Philadelphia, it was
obtained that the minimum route has Fig 8. Optimal route modeled in
a total cost of network is US$ TransCAD.
27,545,000 dollars, taking into
account the use of several modes of Taking into account the figure N4, it is
transport such as rail-road-fluvial. possible to observe the solution to the
initially proposed problem, which
In solving the optimization problem, seeks to find the optimal route, where
there was a penalty for non- the costs involved and the capacity of
compliance with the terms of the each starting node will be taken into
contract, at a cost of US $ 65 / ton, account. Highlighting the most
which would not be exported to feasible route with a thicker contour,
Philadelphia, and US $ 75 / ton for and analyzing that the port to which
Amsterdam, which was not applied the most coal is carried to load is the
because the quantity demanded for one in Santa Marta, because in this
these ports, was satisfied. route the costs will be less expensive
than those to transport through
The use of different software such as
Barranquilla.
Matlab, Transcad and Excel allows
making a comparison of results of the Having the minimum cost flow, that
minimum route, in which it is possible the program Transcad gives to know,
to do an analysis for each arc and to allow its identification, it will be
node that constitute the network, shown below how it would be
which are disclosed in the following arranged in a case presented in the
tables, and shown below. following Colombias map. Which was
developed with the use of Google
maps, giving an approximation of the

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place where each district and port that Philadelphia and Amsterdam, and
are part of the solution of the problem nodes 1, 3, 5 and 6 are the supply
will be found. nodes and storage respectively.

Fig 10. Costs of the network.

Figure 11 and 12 and 13, shows the


result thrown in all three programs
worked(excel, TransCAD, Matlab
6.1), and confirms the value of the
path of least cost.

Fig 9. Map of optimal routes.

Figure 9 shows the optimal routes


dropped by the program, and the
most appropriate modes and transfers
to optimize costs. For example, direct
routes in truck, leading to Fig 11. Optimal solution of excel.
Barranquilla, from the two sources are
not feasible economically, nor use the
fluvial transport to reach the port of
Barranquilla from Boyac.

The mode that had more participation


was the Road mode with a
participation of 46%, followed by the Fig 12. Optimal solution of Matlab 6.1
railway mode with 30%, and finally
the fluvial mode with 24%.

The figure below shows the minimum


costs reported by the Transcad
program, in which it can observe the
nodes 16 and 17, which are Fig 13. TransCAD

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5. CONCLUSIONS towards the port of Barranquilla, the
amount of coal that arrives is very
For the optimal solution to a problem small compared to Santa Marta,
of flow of minimum cost, three modes which has a large influx of
of transport are considered, which are merchandise transported. Which
rail, road and fluvial. With a respective indicates that it is more profitable to
participation in each case of: 30% rail, transfer most of the merchandise to
46% truck and 24% of fluvial mode. the maritime port of Santa Marta, from
These will carry a total of 670000 tons where it is going to be distributed to
in the month of study, and that will Amsterdam and Philadelphia.
have a cost of 27545000 dollars.
In order to address this problem, the
The mode of transport that gained the distance between districts and ports
most participation was the load that could also be taken into account. As
was taken through the truck, for which this can significantly influence costs,
it is vital to have the best road because they can have higher costs,
infrastructure. This so that the cargo and it would be inherent to give
can be transported with greater meaning to the travel time taken by
efficiency, with better conditions of each route. This is because in many
comfort and security for both the cases, it is a factor with which to
plaintiffs and the bidders of said make the greatest decision-making.
merchandise.
REFERENCES
The conditions of demand and supply
fulfilled the conditions of equilibrium. [1]Colombia. Unidad de Planeacin
Therefore, it was not necessary to Minero Energetica, UPME.
apply any kind of penalty to the Indicadores de la mineria en
exporting companies, since the export Colombia. Bogota: Ministerio de
quantities were optimal. Minas y Energia, 2014.127p.

The optimal route of loading of goods [2]Colombia. Agencia Nacional de


of minimum cost employs the three Mineria. Caracterizacin de la
modes of transport; this result actividad minera departamental de
indicates that to the extent that the Cesar. 2017. 2p.
system is multimodal, the costs will be
optimized. [3]Colombia. Agencia Nacional de
Mineria. Caracterizacin de la
Observing the route in the programs actividad minera departamental de
used for the development of the Boyaca. 2017. 2p.
project, it can be observed that

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