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KISSsys Instruction 910 Rev. 0 Bevel gear differential in an axle KISSsoft AG Rosengartenstrasse 4

KISSsys Instruction 910 Rev. 0

Bevel gear differential in an axle

KISSsoft AG Rosengartenstrasse 4 8608 Bubikon Switzerland

Tel: +41 55 254 20 50 Fax: +41 55 254 20 51 info@KISSsoft.AG www.KISSsoft.AG

Rosengartenstrasse 4 8608 Bubikon Switzerland Tel: +41 55 254 20 50 Fax: +41 55 254 20

Contents

1. Introduction

 

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1.1 Basic workflow

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1.2 Licensing and support

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1.3 Supported FEM codes

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2.

Step by step instructions

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2.1 Data preparation and

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2.2 Solution

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2.3 Results

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2.4 Effect of housing stiffness on tooth contact analysis

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3.

General

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Document change record

Who

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1.4.15

Original document

1. Introduction

1.1 Structure of the model

Bevel gear differentials are commonly used in axles of vehicles. Below the schematic of such an arrangement is shown. Power is introduced into the model through the coupling cin, driving a bevel pinion shaft sin which is supported by two bearings bin1 and bin2. The bevel pinion z1 is in mesh with the bevel gear z2 which is situated on the bevel differential housing sdiff. The differential housing is supported on the two output shafts sl and sr by means of two bearings bcl and bcr. The two output shafts sl and sr are again supported by two bearings each (bl1 and bl2 for sl and br1 and br2 for sr). These bearings are mounted to the ground on their outer ring / the outer ring is not rotating.

On the differential housing sdiff, we will add a planetary coupling cpc which is rotating the bevel planet shaft sp in space. On the bevel planet shaft, the bevel planet zp is located. The planet zp is in mesh with the “sun” zl and the “ring gear” zr. The planet gears zl and zr are having an inner diameter with a spline and are mounted on the output shafts sl and sr by means of a spline connection. To model this spline connection, we will use two general type connections per side, uzl1 and uzl2 for left side and uzr1 and uzr2 for right side.

Power output is on the left and right shaft output coupling cl and cr. We will define a condition that the speed of one shaft is a function of the speed of the other shaft. If the vehicle is driving forward in a straight line, then, the condition would be that the speed of sl is equal to the speed of sr. If the vehicle is moving through a curve, then, the condition is that the speed of sl is equal a factor times the speed of sr.

For the torque, we need not give a condition, the output torque on the left side through cl and on the right side through cr is given from the input torque and the nature of the differential where left and right side torque is equal.

1.2 Modeling hints

We will use two groups, a group All including the whole model and a group Out including all the coaxial shafts.

The shaft sin is not a coaxial shaft. Also, the shaft sp is not a coaxial shafts.

All other shafts (sl, sdiff, szl, szr, sr) are coaxial shafts.

The bevel gears zl and zr will be modeled from two parts: the hollow shafts szl and szr representing the gear body and the gear elements zl and zr representing the gear teeth.

Note that when modeling a bevel differential, the kinematic calculation will only work AFTER all shafts are positioned in space and AFTER shaft geometry is modeled!

Figure 1.2-1 Structure of the model 2. Modeling, tree structure 2.1 Groups Start KISSsys, go

Figure 1.2-1 Structure of the model

2. Modeling, tree structure

2.1 Groups

Start KISSsys, go to administrator mode. Open a project by selecting a folder where you want to save your model. Then, add the group All to the root of the model and inside the group All, add the group Out

Figure 2.1-1 Starting the model 2.2 Shafts Add the coaxial shafts sl, sdiff, szl, szr,

Figure 2.1-1 Starting the model

2.2 Shafts

Figure 2.1-1 Starting the model 2.2 Shafts Add the coaxial shafts sl, sdiff, szl, szr, sr

Add the coaxial shafts sl, sdiff, szl, szr, sr to the group Out.

the coaxial shafts sl, sdiff, szl, szr, sr to the group Out. Figure 2.2-1 Adding the

Figure 2.2-1 Adding the coaxial shafts to group Out

Now add the input shaft sin to the group All

to group Out Now add the input shaft sin to the group All Figure 2.2-2 Adding

Figure 2.2-2 Adding a shaft sin to the group All

Finally, we add the planet bevel shaft sp. The shaft sp should rotate in space with the speed of the differential housing sdiff. Therefore, we locate the shaft sp underneath the shaft sdiff.

we locate the shaft sp underneath the shaft sdiff. Figure 2.2-3 Adding the planet bevel shaft

Figure 2.2-3 Adding the planet bevel shaft sp underneath sdiff

2.3

Other elements

We now add all the bevel gears as shown below.

elements We now add all the bevel gears as shown below. Figure 2.3-1 Adding the bevel

Figure 2.3-1 Adding the bevel gears to the shafts

Now, we add the input and output couplings.

to the shafts Now, we add the input and output couplings. Figure 2.3-2 Adding input and

Figure 2.3-2 Adding input and output coupling

Now, we add the bearings (those where the outer ring is not rotating):

Figure 2.3-3 Adding the bearings to the output shafts and the input shaft Now we

Figure 2.3-3 Adding the bearings to the output shafts and the input shaft

Now we add the connecting bearings bcl and bcr that connect the differential housing sdiff to the two output shafts sl and sr. These bearings are not placed underneath a shaft in the tree structure but directly in the group Out as they are connecting two shafts in the same group.

Out as they are connecting two shafts in the same group. Figure 2.3-4 Adding connecting bearing.
Out as they are connecting two shafts in the same group. Figure 2.3-4 Adding connecting bearing.

Figure 2.3-4 Adding connecting bearing. Select inner and outer race reference shaft.

bearing. Select inner and outer race reference shaft. Figure 2.3-5 Resulting tree structure in the model

Figure 2.3-5 Resulting tree structure in the model

Now we connect the shafts szl and szr (they represent the gear body) to the shaft sl and sr by means of the general supports uzl1, uzl2 and uzr1, uzr2. Add the connections directly into the group Out as they connect two shafts inside this group. In the dialog, define the inner and outer shaft that belong to this connection. Also, define that the rotation around the y axis is fixed (the two shafts are rotating with the same speed) for

one of the connections. For the second (per side), define that it is free, otherwise, the system is overconstrained. Do this for all four connections correspondingly.

Do this for all four connections correspondingly. Figure 2.3-6 Adding general connections to connect the bevel

Figure 2.3-6 Adding general connections to connect the bevel gears to the output shafts

Now, we add the support usp to the shaft sp (this is needed to run the shaft calculation)

the shaft sp (this is needed to run the shaft calculation) Figure 2.3-7 Adding a support

Figure 2.3-7 Adding a support to the shaft sp

And finally, we add a planetary coupling to the shaft sdiff:

And finally, we add a planetary coupling to the shaft sdiff: Figure 2.3-8 Adding the planetary

Figure 2.3-8 Adding the planetary coupling to the shaft sdiff

With this, we have now added all the elements to the model.

See file KISSsys-ANL-14-910-Bevel-Diff-Step-1.ks

2.4 Gear meshes

We now define the gear mesh between the bevel pinion and the bevel gear. Add the gear connection in the group All.

the bevel gear. Add the gear connection in the group All. Figure 2.4-1 Adding gear mesh

Figure 2.4-1 Adding gear mesh z1z2

in the group All. Figure 2.4-1 Adding gear mesh z1z2 Now, add the bevel planetary gear

Now, add the bevel planetary gear meshes zpzl and zpzr. Add these in the group Out. Note that the configuration gear/planet means that Gear 1 is the output gear (e.g. zl) and Gear 2 is the planet (zp).

Figure 2.4-2 Gear meshes definition for zpzl and zpzr Figure 2.4-3 Resulting model We have

Figure 2.4-2 Gear meshes definition for zpzl and zpzr

Figure 2.4-2 Gear meshes definition for zpzl and zpzr Figure 2.4-3 Resulting model We have now

Figure 2.4-3 Resulting model

We have now defined all kinematic constraints.

See file KISSsys-ANL-14-910-Bevel-Diff-Step-2.ks

2.5 Adding the KISSsoft calculations

Add a coaxial shaft calculation to the group Out and a normal shaft calculation to the shafts sin and sp

Figure 2.5-1 Adding shaft calculations Now, add the bevel gear calculations to all bevel meshes:

Figure 2.5-1 Adding shaft calculations

Now, add the bevel gear calculations to all bevel meshes:

Now, add the bevel gear calculations to all bevel meshes: Figure 2.5-2 Adding the bevel gear

Figure 2.5-2 Adding the bevel gear calculations

With this, we have added all necessary calculations.

See file KISSsys-ANL-14-910-Bevel-Diff-Step-3.ks

3. Modeling, shafts and gears

3.1 Add input and output

Add the input and output elements and connect them to the corresponding couplings:

Figure 3.1-1 Input and ouptut elements 3.2 Adding gear data Add gear data for the

Figure 3.1-1 Input and ouptut elements

3.2 Adding gear data

Add gear data for the gear mesh z1z2 as follows (double click on z1z2_calc, enter the data and close the window again)

on z1z2_calc, enter the data and close the window again) Figure 3.2-1 Adding gear data for
on z1z2_calc, enter the data and close the window again) Figure 3.2-1 Adding gear data for

Figure 3.2-1 Adding gear data for mesh z1z2

Now, add gear data for zpzl and zpzr.

Figure 3.2-2 Adding gear data for the two meshes zpzl and zpzr 3.3 Modeling the
Figure 3.2-2 Adding gear data for the two meshes zpzl and zpzr 3.3 Modeling the
Figure 3.2-2 Adding gear data for the two meshes zpzl and zpzr 3.3 Modeling the
Figure 3.2-2 Adding gear data for the two meshes zpzl and zpzr 3.3 Modeling the

Figure 3.2-2 Adding gear data for the two meshes zpzl and zpzr

3.3 Modeling the shafts and bearings

Now, model the shafts and the bearings, e.g. as shown below.

Figure 3.3-1 Model of input shaft Figure 3.3-2 Bevel planet shaft. Note that the support

Figure 3.3-1 Model of input shaft

Figure 3.3-1 Model of input shaft Figure 3.3-2 Bevel planet shaft. Note that the support is

Figure 3.3-2 Bevel planet shaft. Note that the support is constrained in all degrees of freedom excep for the rotation around y axis (so that the shaft can rotate).

Figure 3.3-3 Output shaft 07.04.2015 14 / 20

Figure 3.3-3 Output shaft

Figure 3.3-4 Modelling of connections between output shafts sl and sr and gear shafts szl
Figure 3.3-4 Modelling of connections between output shafts sl and sr and gear shafts szl

Figure 3.3-4 Modelling of connections between output shafts sl and sr and gear shafts szl and szr.

See file KISSsys-ANL-14-910-Bevel-Diff-Step-4.ks

3.4 Positioning

Let us position the input shaft sin with respect to the output shaft:

the input shaft sin with respect to the output shaft: Figure 3.4-1 Positioning of input shaft
the input shaft sin with respect to the output shaft: Figure 3.4-1 Positioning of input shaft

Figure 3.4-1 Positioning of input shaft sin with respect to output shafts using z2.

And let us position shaft sp:

Figure 3.4-2 Positioning of sp with respect to output shaft using gear zl Now add
Figure 3.4-2 Positioning of sp with respect to output shaft using gear zl Now add
Figure 3.4-2 Positioning of sp with respect to output shaft using gear zl Now add

Figure 3.4-2 Positioning of sp with respect to output shaft using gear zl

Now add the 3D graphics to the model and press “Refresh”

Now add the 3D graphics to the model and press “Refresh” Figure 3.4-3 3D graphics Use

Figure 3.4-3 3D graphics

the model and press “Refresh” Figure 3.4-3 3D graphics Use the settings to change the graphics:
the model and press “Refresh” Figure 3.4-3 3D graphics Use the settings to change the graphics:

Use the settings to change the graphics:

3.4-3 3D graphics Use the settings to change the graphics: Figure 3.4-4 Cut view We do

Figure 3.4-4 Cut view

We do some fine-tuning

- Add inner diameter on the bevel gear z2 - Increase shaft size of sp

diameter on the bevel gear z2 - Increase shaft size of sp Figure 3.4-5 Model after

Figure 3.4-5 Model after some tuning

See file KISSsys-ANL-14-910-Bevel-Diff-Step-5.ks

4. Kinematic calculation

4.1 Input load

For the input, we have defined the following load condition:

For the input, we have defined the following load condition: Figure 4.1-1 Load condition on input

Figure 4.1-1 Load condition on input

4.2 Speed condition

Figure 4.1-1 Load condition on input 4.2 Speed condition We now need to add a condition

We now need to add a condition that the one of the output shafts is rotating with a speed that is equal to the speed of the differential housing sdiff, times a factor.

First, we assume the factor is 1, so, the differential housing speed is equal to the left output shaft speed which again is equal to the right output shaft speed.

Let us define that the speed of shaft sl is equal to the speed of the differential housing.

First, we define for the outl (right mouse click on outl and select dialog)

Figure 4.2-1 We define that the output (left) speed is constrained While the right side

Figure 4.2-1 We define that the output (left) speed is constrained

While the right side is not constrained

speed is constrained While the right side is not constrained Figure 4.2-2 Right side is not

Figure 4.2-2 Right side is not constrained

Now, we go to the properties of outl and ad an equation as follows:

go to the properties of outl and ad an equation as follows: Figure 4.2-3 Defining the
go to the properties of outl and ad an equation as follows: Figure 4.2-3 Defining the

Figure 4.2-3 Defining the left side speed as a function of the differential shaft speed

We can now run the kinematic calculation – which will take some time as some iteration takes place – to find:

take some time as some iteration takes place – to find: Figure 4.2-4 Resulting speeds on

Figure 4.2-4 Resulting speeds on the two outputs.

See file KISSsys-ANL-14-910-Bevel-Diff-Step-6.ks

4.3 Different speeds on the two shafts

We may also introduce a factor, let us call it “k”, to make the speeds different on each output shaft.

First, add a new variable “k” e.g. in the group Out. Let us use a value of k=0.5 to define that the output shaft sl has a speed of 0.5 times the speed of the differential housing sdiff:

of 0.5 times the speed of the differential housing sdiff: Figure 4.3-1 Adding a variable k
of 0.5 times the speed of the differential housing sdiff: Figure 4.3-1 Adding a variable k

Figure 4.3-1 Adding a variable k of type real and value 0.5 to the group Out

Now we change the formula for the calculation of the left output speed:

the formula for the calculation of the left output speed: Figure 4.3-2 Multiplying the speed of

Figure 4.3-2 Multiplying the speed of the left side shaft by factor k

If we now re-calculated the kinematics, we find the following speeds:

re-calculated the kinematics, we find the following speeds: Figure 4.3-3 Speeds on the two outputs. Note

Figure 4.3-3 Speeds on the two outputs.

following speeds: Figure 4.3-3 Speeds on the two outputs. Note that the bevel differential shaft sdiff

Note that the bevel differential shaft sdiff speed is 266.6666RpM (use right mouse click on sdiff and select properties to find the below informaiton)

Figure 4.3-4 Speed of shaft sdiff See file KISSsys-ANL-14-910-Bevel-Diff-Step-7.ks 07.04.2015 20 / 20

Figure 4.3-4 Speed of shaft sdiff

Figure 4.3-4 Speed of shaft sdiff See file KISSsys-ANL-14-910-Bevel-Diff-Step-7.ks 07.04.2015 20 / 20

See file KISSsys-ANL-14-910-Bevel-Diff-Step-7.ks