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Introduction

DRAINAGE

Rapid urbanizations and its consequent increase in impervious surfaces and changes in land use generally resulted in problem of flooding and heavy pollution of urban water system and other receiving waters. Urban drainage practice and control philosophy has been based on solving localized floods by transferring excessive flows into the drainage systems downstream. The consequence of removing the storm water from the land surface so quickly is to increase volumes and peak discharge, overloading the drainage system. This causes severe flooding to downstream areas and a threat to the ecosystem and environment. Since 2001, Urban Storm water Management Manual for Malaysia (MASMA) was introduced by Drainage Irrigation Department of Malaysia and approved by the Cabinet for the application to replace the earlier manual for storm water management in urban areas.

Several recommendations are proposed to enhance MASMA application. The size of urban areas has increased to accommodate the increase in urban population and activities that power the economic engine for country’s development. These developments has brought about several positive results such economic improvement and alleviation of poverty. Inadequate controlled development has had significant adverse impact on the environment, such as flash flooding, erosion, mudflow and sedimentation, slope failure, water pollution and ecological damage, increased floatable and debris flow and depleting water resources. These negative impacts are in most cases brought about by inadequate handling of storm water management during planning, development and maintenance resulting in much hardship to the urban community in the form of traffic jams, property damage, inconveniences, and loss of income, productivity and sometimes live.

To address the problems, Drainage and Irrigation Department of Malaysia introduced a new manual, Urban Storm water Management Manual for Malaysia or MASMA to replace the earlier guideline Urban Drainage Design and Standard and Procedures for Peninsular Malaysia published in 1975. The new manual, MASMA utilized the concept of urban storm water management control at source while the earlier drainage manual based on rapid disposal. MASMA introduces a comprehensive, broad and flexible approaches, strategies and guidelines for the current and future urban storm water management which covers management of quantity and quality for environmental enhancement and sustainable development. MASMA was approved by the Cabinet for application in storm water management throughout Malaysia from first of January 2001.

The function of the drainage is to collect water from the carriageway and surrounding areas and lead it to an exit point where it can be safely discharged. The drainage need to have sufficient capacity to collect all rainwater from the road carriageway and dispose of it quickly and in a controlled manner to minimize damage. Drainage can be constructed in three forms either V-shaped, rectangular or as a trapezoid. The V-shape is the standard shape for ditches constructed by a motor-grader. It can be easily maintained by heavy equipment. However, it carries a lower capacity than other cross-section shapes. The rectangular shape requires less space but needs to be lined with rock or concrete to maintain its shape. This shape is often used in urban areas where there is limited space for the drainage. When using labor- based work methods, it is possible to construct a trapezoid shaped side drain. This shape carries a high f low capacity and by carefully selecting the right gradients for its side slopes, will resist erosion.

Storm water Management Planning Approach

The primary goal of the storm water management plan is to facilitate coordinated management of storm water within each development to:-

Maximize ecological sustainability.

Mitigate development impacts.

Minimize the potential for future impacts.

Enhance water sensitive urban design principles.

Maximize social and economic benefits using sound storm water management practices.

Enhance aesthetic and ecological values into stormwater management infrastructure.

Provide opportunity for the community to gain an appreciation of water as essential element of the urban environment.

To overcome the multitude of issues related to storm water management of the area, a more holistic and multi-disciplinary approach is adopted to ensure that planning and design decisions are made with full understanding of the environmental, social and economic consequences of the decisions. This involved consideration of land use planning and water cycle management during the planning stage of the project development.

Method Of Determining Design Discharge

All drainage systems will be designed to accommodate the flow from the frequent storm or the flood of record, whichever is greater. The Rational Formula for computing storm water runoff is to be used for hydraulic design of facilities serving a drainage area less than 130 acres. For drainage areas larger than 130 acres, the runoff is to be calculated using the Soil Conservation Services Unit Hydrograph Method. Based on our project we have decided that we used the Rational Formula for the design of stormwater flows.

Rational Formula

The Rational Formula is one of the most frequently used urban hydrology methods in Malaysia for computing stormwater flows from rainfall. It gives satisfactory results for small catchments up to 80 hectares only. The rational formula is as follows:

Where,

Q = Peak flow, (m 3 /s)

C = runoff coefficient

Q = C* y I t *A

360

y I t = average rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

A = drainage area (ha)

All runoff calculation that we used shall be based upon a fully developed watershed and existing zoning. The rainfall intensity value, I is the intensity for a duration equal to the time of concentration (t c ) .

Assumption that we used in the Rational Method is as follows:

1. The peak flow occurs when the entire catchment is contributing to the flow.

2. The rainfall intensity is the same over the entire catchment area.

3. The rainfall intensity is uniform over time duration equal to the time of concentration, t c .

4. The ARI of the computed peak flow is the same as that of the rainfall intensity (based on our project, 5 year ARI rainfall intensity will produce 5 year ARI peak flow).

General Procedure that we followed for estimating peak flow using Rational Method is shown:

1. Select design ARI

Design ARI was selected for both minor and major drainage systems

2. Divide sub-catchment

We Divide sub-catchment into segments of homogeneous land use or surface slope

3. Estimate time of concentration, t c

Overland flow time was estimated

Flow time for all other flow components within the sub-catchment such as kerb gutters, pipe, and channel was estimated

4. Determine average rainfall intensity, y I t

y I t design ARI of y years was calculated and duration t equal to the time of concentration, from IDF data for area of interest

5. Estimate runoff coefficients

C values for each segments was estimated if there are different land covers

6. Calculate average runoff coefficient

7. Calculate the peak flow rate Q y for the sub-catchment

peak flow rate based on equation of Q y calculated

Calculation of drainage

Example calculation for drain section 1:

1)

Rainfall intensity where, t c < 30min

Location = Johor

Ln(10It) = a + bLn(t) + c(Ln(t)) 2 + d(Ln(t)) 3

So, by using the above equation with the data from table,

2)

Design of Drainage

Calculation of storm water runoff

A.) OVERLAND FLOW TIME, t o = 107.n.L 1/3

S 1/2

B.) CHANNEL FLOW TIME, t d = Length,L

Velocity, V

C.) TIME OF CONCERNTRATION, tc = t o + t d D.) POLYNOMIAL APPROXIMATION OF IDF CURVES.

ln ( R I t ) = a + bLn(t) + c(Ln(t)) 2 + d(Ln(t)) 3

Discharge, Q = C* y I t *A

360

Proposed drain section

H

= 0.6 m

From proposed section;

B

= 0.3 m

   
     

S

= 1: 300

 

R

= wetted perimeter

H
H

R

= A/P

A

= 0.6 x 0.3

= 0.18 m²

 
B
B

P

= 0.6 m + 0.6 m + 0.3 m

 

= 1.5 m

R

= A/P

= 0.18/1.5

= 0.12 m

TIME OF CONCENTRATION, t c = t o (overland) + t ch (drain)

Time of concentration, t ch (drain) -from proposed section

t o

= travel time in the channel (minutes)

L ch

= length of reach (drain)

n

= manning’s roughness value for the surface

S

= friction slope (m/m)

R

= hydraulic radius

V

= Average velocity (m/s)

V

= R⅔ S½

n

t ch = n L ch

60 R⅔ S½

PROPOSED BUILD AND FINISHED “MAAHAD TAHFIZ SAINS DARUL TAKZIM”

1.0 Objective

To check the adequacy of open space provided in the overall layout plan.

2.0 Introduction

The purpose of the report is to propose a storm water management option for the layout plan approval for the proposed to build and finished “Maahad Tahfiz Sains Darul Takzim”

3.0

Catchment

The proposed development is located at PARIT BOTAK 83200 SENGGARANG JOHOR DARUL TAKZIM, MALAYSIA

The land area of the development is about 3435.8 meter square

4.0

Existing Catchment Conditions

The existing site is grown with the trees. The site is generally hilly at approximately RL 66.50m. This site is proposed to be more cut and little part fill of the site. The access to the site will generally be at about the same level of the existing main road.

5.0 Proposed Development

The site is proposed to be developed into a 1 block academic. There will be 1 units will be provided. The central sewage treatment plant reserve done by Developer selected Consultant Engineers approved with JPP.

6.0 Storm Water Management Practice.

As outline in the Urban stormwater management manual, stormwater flow rates after development should approximately equals to the pre-development conditions. As such we propose that the additional runoff after development shall be directed to a suitable detention facility for this purpose.

7.0 Proposed drainage

During the construction phase, it is necessary to provide earth drain at site. Earth drains ensure that the rainwater does not stag on the construction site. If the flowing of rainwater does not handle well, it will affect the saturation of soil. Thus, the soil is not suitable for construction. However, every site must install silt trap. Silt trap is to trap unnecessary soil particle during storm water. As the storm water pass through the silt trap, then it will discharge the water contain small particle of soil and avoid flooding. However, there is a standard and objective to construct or develop drainage. The objectives is to minimize the impact of urbanization on the stormwater environment and to strike a balance between social, economic and environmental concerns to achieve sustainable development. In order to achieve this, the construction shall meet the specific objectives of urban stormwater management are as follows:

i. To formulate the long term solution for the flooding, drainage and stormwater management problems in the existing built-up areas in order to reduce the adverse effects of flooding on people and property and to protect the existing and proposed development by

implementation of an integrated stormwater management by providing an appropriate level of affordable flood protection to community expectations.

ii. To optimise the effectiveness of the existing stormwater infrastructure network within the study area in a way thet meets the needs of the community and where possible, by providing and maintaining stormwater management infrastructure at an acceptable quality of service, taking into account environmental effects and public expectations.

iii. To control the excessive sediment in watercourses to acceptable levels by managing the catchment activities using at source control measures to prevent any acceleration of the rate of erosion from construction site, upland and in the stream channel.

iv. Collect and convey stormwater from a catchment to its receiving waters with minimal impact by managing and improving the quality of stormwater runoff from urbanized catchment and its pollution loads in order to reduce the adverse effects of contamination on the receiving water environment and by recommending ways to eliminate pollution discharges to stromwater systems and receiving waters.

Propose sump Propose drain

Propose sump

Propose drain

Propose sump Propose drain