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Calculation of refractive indices using Buchdahl's chromatic coordinate

Paul

N. Robb and R. 1. Mercado

In this paper we have completed an error analysis of the Buchdahl glass model for 813 glasses available from five manufacturers. A quadratic model has a standard deviation of 0.00002 and a maximum absolute error of 0.0001 in the visible spectral region. A cubic model has a standard deviation of 0.00005 and a maximum absolute error of 0.00026 over the full spectral region from 0.365 to 1.014 ,um. A table giving the Buchdahl fitting coefficients for all the glasses, as well as the standard deviation and maximum error for each glass, is

included for the quadratic model. The results indicate that the Buchdahl model is ideally suited for theo- retical studies of refracting optical systems.

1.

Introduction

A great variety of mathematical forms have been developed over the years to represent the index of re- fraction of optical glasses as a function of wavelength. A summary ofthese well-knowninterpolation formulas

has been given by Smith.

1

In recent

years, a power series derived from a quan-

tum model has come into nearly universal use. This

equation

has the form of a Laurent's

series wherein the

coefficients are obtained from a least-squares fit of

measured indices averaged over several melts.

equation gives the square of the index of refraction as

The

a

function

of wavelength.

All the glass manufacturers

supply these fitting coefficientsas part of the standard glass catalogs so that the designer can compute the index of refraction at wavelengths other than solar emission lines. One of the great obstacles to developing tractable theoretical models of the dispersive behavior of lens

systems has been the lack of an equation which predicts

the refractive

index in a form such as

N=ao+alX+a

2 X

2 +

+akXk,

(1)

where the ak coefficients are determined by the glass type and the independent variable X is related to wavelength. None of the historical models cited by Smith has this mathematical form, nor does the equa- tion based on the quantum model.

The authors are with Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory,

3251 Hanover Street,

Palo Alto, California

94304.

Received 23 December 1982.

0003-6935/83/081198-18$01.00/0.

©)1983 Optical Society of America.

1198 APPLIED OPTICS/ Vol. 22, No. 8 / 15 April 1983

With this problem in mind, in 1954 Buchdahl 2 in- troduced a change of variables from wavelength Xto a

chromatic

coordinate c, derived from an analysis of the

Hartmann equation, and developed a power series having the required mathematical form. In fact, Bu-

chdahl's model is simply

N =No+V1 + V22 + V3W3+

+ VkWk.

(2)

Sands 2 used a

opment of the theory of inhomogeneous lenses. It is worth noting at this point that a model designed

for theoretical studies of refracting optical systems need

not have the full accuracy of the data given in the glass

catalogs, that is,an error residual of about five parts in the sixth decimal place. What is required is that the model should be sufficiently accurate so that conclu- sions derived from its use are not misleading. Ste-

phens 4 demonstrated that

designed using catalog data for three glass types, could

indeed be manufactured provided that the design was

This suggests

modified to use the actual melt indices.

that a theoretical model should have an accuracy com- parable to that of precision glass melts, which can be supplied to an index accuracy of 0.0002.

modification of this model in his devel-

a superachromatic prism,

We have completed an error analysis of the Buchdahl

model for all the glasses available from

Hoya, 7 Corning-France, 8 and Chance 9 for a total sample size of 813 glasses. Our results indicate that a quadratic

model has a maximum absolute error of 0.0001in the

visible range from 0.4 to 0.7 gtm. This is twice as accu-

rate as precision glass melts. The inclusion of another term, to order 3, is sufficient to match the accuracy of precision melts over the extended spectral range from

0.365 Aumto 1.014 ,um.

In this paper we briefly discuss the development of the quantum power series, the origin and form of the

Schott, 5 Ohara, 6

Buchdahl model, and the results of the error analysis for the two spectral ranges of interest. Fitting coeffi-

cients for the quadratic model are included for all of the

optical glasses.

11.

Quantum

Model

constant applicable to all glasses, and that the appro-

priate value for a was, in fact, 2.5. adopted the definition

Accordingly, he

X- CO= 1 + 2.5(

o

-

o)

(8)

The quantum model of the index of refraction was

developed considering absorption frequencies as elec-

tron energy level transitions.

The equation is

where

X0is a suitably

chosen base or reference

wave-

length, usually taken as yellowlight at a wavelength of

0.5876 Am.

Buchdahl

called w a chromatic

coordinate.

While w

where

n 2 + 2

n2

-Y_ I=

Fije2

V-V2

3irmij

n = refractive index,

~~~~(3) is related to AX, a very different result is obtained

when

the index of refraction is expanded in a power series in

as

= electronic charge, m = electronic

e

mass,

Fij = number

of dispersion

electrons,

vij = absorption frequency, and

v = frequency

(v = CIX).

The index of refraction of glasses in a spectral range not

containing absorption frequencies can be approximat-

ed 10 as a series expansion

of Eq. (3).

This gives the

following equation, which is the standard equation used

by the glassmanufacturers:

n2=

AO + A 1 X 2 + A 2 X- 2 + A 3 X- 4 + A 4 X- 6 + A 5 X-8.

(4)

The constants Ao

A 5 are computed using the method

of least squares for measured refractive indices averaged

over several melts over a spectral range from 0.365 to

1.014gm.

The formula allows the refractive index to

be computed at any wavelength within this spectral range to an accuracy of plus or minus five parts in the sixth decimal place. Refractive indices obtained from Eq. (4) were assumed to be error-free in our analysis of

the accuracy of the Buchdahl model; the error at a given

wavelength is simply the index obtained from Eq. (4) subtracted from the index obtained from Eq. (2).

111.

Buchdahl

Model

N = No + v 1 + v2W 2 + v 3 W 3 +

(9)

The series is now in a form which converges rapidly, and

this is the great advantage ofthe chromatic coordinate

w. It is this property of the Buchdahl equation which makes it possible to model the optical glasses to an ac-

curacy twice as good as precision glass melts while using

only a quadratic equation. In Eq. (9), No is the index of refraction at the base wavelength. The V1, v 2 , and V 3 coefficients are specific to each glass and predict the dispersion at wavelengths different from the base wavelength. The v, coefficient models linear dispersion and is directly related to the reciprocal of the Abbe V-number if the same wave- lengths are used. Similarly, the 2 coefficient can be regarded as the secondary dispersion coefficient. It is perhaps remarkable that a constant such as a,

discovered from analyzing only six glasses, should prove

so universally applicable. We carried out the calcula- tion of a for the 813 glasses and found that a varied within a range of from 2.299to 2.960,with an average value of 2.577. Buchdahl's adoption of 2.5 as a value for a in introducing the chromatic coordinate was vir- tually exact.

Attempts have been made to model the dispersive

properties

of glasses using a Taylor series expansion

AX, giving an equation

of the form

AN = ao(AX) + a(AX\) 2 + a 2 (AX) 3 +

in

(5)

The difficulty with Eq. (5) is that the series converges

slowly, even for small values of AX, making it necessary to carry a large number of terms to achieve satisfactory

accuracy. For theoretical studies, Eq. (5) becomes too

cumbersome for practical

applications.

As a starting point, Buchdahl 11

used the Hartmann

formula

N(X)

= N

+

c

where N 1 , c, and Xi are constants

characteristic

(6)

of the

glass.

veloped an equation of the form

Differentiating Eq. (6) with respect to X,he de-

AN=- a 2 CAX

1 +

aAX

(7)

Computing values of c and a for six glasses, Buchdahl

found that the values for a fell within rather narrow

bounds.

This suggested that a could be adopted as a

IV. Calculation of the Fitting Coefficients

Buchdahl calculated the coefficients of Eq. (9) using indicesfor N wavelengthsfor polynomialorder N, with the base wavelength chosen as yellow light at a wave- length of 0.5893 m. This procedure is very easy to implement, yielding a system of N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns, since Eq. (9) is linear in the

v coefficients.

We compared the abovemethod with a least-squares

solution, using seven wavelengths

in the visible and ten

for the extended spectral range, and found that the maximum error could be reduced by a factor of 3 or more. Adjustment of the least-squares weights and base wavelength so as to further reduce the maximum error gave a total error reduction of 5:1. The least- squares method was adopted for all calculations. The criterion used for optimizing the least-squares

weights and base wavelength was to minimize the max-

imum error for all glasses,not to minimizethe standard

deviation.

These two criteria, while similar, do not give

identical results. The minimization of the maximum error was considered more appropriate when dealing

with glasses, which are a collection of individuals,

than

15 April 1983 / Vol. 22, No. 8 / APPLIED OPTICS

1199

Table I.

Base Wavelength andLeast-SquaresWeights forthe Visible Spectral Region

Order

Base

WavelengthWaengh(m

(pOm)

0.4047

0.4350

Wvlnt

0.4861

pn

0.5461

0.5876

0.6563

 

Least-Squares

Weights

 

1

0.630

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

2

0.574

1.7

1.5

1.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

3

0.565

2.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

4

0.589

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

5

0.589

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

 

Table II.

Base Wavelength andLeast-SquaresWeights forthe ExtendedSpectral Region

Base

Wave-

Wavelength

(pm)

 

length

Order

(pm)

0.3650

0.4047

0.4350

0.4861

0.5461

0.5876

0.6563

0.7065

0.7682

 

Least-Squares

Weights

1

0.630

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.7065

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.014

1.0

2 0.585

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

3 0.589

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

4 0.589

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

5 0.589

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

-

 

Fig. 1. Number of decimal places vs polynomial order for the visible and extended spectral regions. The number of decimal places is based

Io

W

C)

W;

W 8

Uj

2

on the maximum error for all glasses,not the standard deviation.

(a)

U)

U)

(b)

1.0001

Fig. 2. Perspective plots of the glass population density as a function of wavelength and refractive-index error for the quadratic model in the visible. The logarithm of the glass population is used in Fig. 2(b) so that the few glasses which contribute to the maximum error may be seen.

1200 APPLIEDOPTICS/ Vol. 22, No. 8 / 15 April1983

0O.0001

-0.0002

-0.0003

-0.0004

-

-0 .0005L

0.40

|

0.44

.

E

0.48

.

|

0.52

.

0.56

WAVELENGTH(m)

0.60

0.64

0.68

Fig. 3.

Error envelope as a function of wavelength for the quadratic

model. Note that the error is zero at the base wavelength.

a, 800.

j 600.

U-

e

=

400

200.

01

0.4

.00000

-I

.11 1.

4=

0.6

0.7

0.9

WAVELENGTH(m)

Fig. 4.

refractive-index error is plotted vs wavelength for the indicated

Absolute

Statistical analysis of the index error function.

number ofglasses for the quadratic model.

W4

D3

C,

2

921 =LI

o

°

O

0

4.00

0~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~0

Fig. 5.

extended

(a)

(b)

Perspective plots ofthe glass population density as a function of wavelength and refractive-index error for the cubic model over the

spectral

region.

The logarithm

of the glass population

is used in Fig. 5(b) so that the few glasses which contribute

error may be seen.

0.00030C

to the maximum

ca

Sr

x1

Fig. 6.

Error

envelope

WAVELENGTH(m)

as a function

of wavelength

for the

cubic

model. Note that the error is zeroat the base wavelength.

Fig. 7.

L_

n

'0.2

Statistical

0.4

analysis

0.6

0.8

WAVELENGTH(m)

1.0

1.2

of the

index error function.

1.4

Absolute

refractive-index error is plotted vs wavelength for the indicated

number

of glasses for the cubic model.

15 April 1983 / Vol. 22, No. 8 / APPLIEDOPTICS

1201

Table Ill.

Glass Error Data, QuadraticModel

VISIBLE SPECTRALREGION

EXTENDEDSPECTRALREGION

MANUFACTURER

NUMBER

STD. DEVIATION

MAX. ERROR

GLASS

STD. DEVIATION

MAX. ERROR

GLASS

Schott

238

0.000016

Ohara

227

0.000017

Hoya

206

0.000017

Chance

62

0.000015

Corning-France

80

0.000014

0.000095

TIF6

0.000073

0.000463

TIF6

0.000114

SFS1

0.000073

0.000471

LASF24

0.000087

NBFD8

0.000071

0.000589

FDll

0.000069

850322

0.000075

0.000456

805254

0.000084

865401

0.000073

0.000375

865401

Total

813

0.000016

0.000114

Ohara SFS1

 

Table IV.

GlassError Data, Cubic Model

VISIBLE

SPECTRALREGION

MANUFACTURER

NUMBER

STD. DEVIATION

MAX. ERROR

GLASS

0.000072

0.000589

oya FD1 1

EXTENDEDSPECTRALREGION

STD. DEVIATION

MAX. ERROR

GLASS

Schott

238

0.000004

0.000044

SF59

Ohara

227

0.000004

0.000030

SFS1

Hoya

206

0.000004

0.000058

FD1l

Chance

62

0.000003

0.000011

785258

Corning-France

80

0.000004

0.000019

785259

0.000051

0.000199

SF59

0.000054

0.000194

LAK01

0.000053

O.000269

FDll

0.000056

0.000197

641601

0.000056

0.000183

616444

TOTAL

813

0.000004

0.000058

Hoya FDll

0.000053

0.000269

oya FDl1

the more usual method of minimizing the standard deviation or the average error. The wavelengths, base

wavelengths,

and least-squares weights used for the two

spectral ranges are tabulated in Tables I and II.

V. Accuracy

of the Buchdahl Model

The fitting coefficients for Eq. (9) were computed

for

all glassesfor polynomial orders from the first through the fifth order. The number ofdecimal places obtained is plotted based on the maximum error, not the stan- dard deviation, against the order of the equation in Fig.

1. The plots in Fig. 1 illustrate clearly that Eq. (9) ini- tially convergesrapidly and then the rate slows. It can be seen from the figure that the quadratic model is en- tirely adequate for work in the visible region, and that

it would generally not be necessary to go beyond a cubic

even over the extended spectral range, since the accu- racy of the series increases slowlywith order past the third. Because the goal of this work was to obtain a

power series suitable for the theoretical

therefore containing as fewterms as possible-we have selected the quadratic model as the preferred form for

work in the visible and the cubic model for work over the

extended spectral range.

studies-

VI. Quadratic and Cubic Models

A feature of the Buchdahl model, which is obvious

but

easy to overlook, is that the error is always zero at the base wavelength because cois zero and the index of re- fraction is thus the index at the base wavelength[seeEq.

(9)].

The error over the rest of the spectral region, while

small, is not zero and varies rather

markedly with

wavelength. For this reason, we have chosen to display the error function in a variety of forms so that readers

can draw their ownconclusions.

1202 APPLIED OPTICS/ Vol. 22, No. 8 / 15 April 1983

In Fig. 2, two perspective plots are used to showthe

number

of glasses having a given error as a function

of

wavelength. The leftmost plot in Fig. 2 is a plot ofthe number of glasses vs wavelength, and it illustrates

clearly that the vast majority of glasses have errors less

than about five parts in the fifth decimal place. The

perspective

plot on the right-hand

side of Fig. 2 has the

logarithm of the number of glasses plotted against wavelength so that the few glasseswhich contribute to the maximum error may be seen. Figure 3 is a plot of the error envelope of the glass

population;

all glasses analyzed fit within this envelope,

and the function may be regarded as a vertical view of the perspective plots of Fig. 2. Figure 4 is a plot of the

absolute index error as a function of wavelength, and the

curves shown for 776 and 810 glasses correspond

to the

2 and 3 sigma points in the distribution. The jagged behavior of the latter curve is due to the sparse glass population at some of the wavelengths and to the size of the wavelength sampling interval. Figures 5-7 present the same information for the cubic glassmodel over the extended spectral region from 0.365 to 1.014

,um.

Tables III and IV list the standard deviation and maximum errors for the quadratic and cubic models for each of the five manufacturers. Table V lists the Bu- chdahl fitting coefficients for all the glasses and gives the standard deviation over the wavelength band, the maximum error, and the wavelength at which the

maximum

error occurred for the quadratic model in the

visible spectral region from 0.4 to 0.7 ,um. A similar table for the cubic model over the extended spectral region from 0.365 to 1.014,umis available from the au- thors on request.

Table V. BuchdahlFittingCoefficients,QuadraticModel, VisibleSpectral Region

SCHOTT GLASS CATALOGUE:

OUADRATIC MODEL.VISIBLE

SPECTRAL REGION

GLASS

BASE INDEX

NU1

NU2

FK1

1.471198

-. 38875-01

-. 36901-02

FK3

1.465014

-. 39261-01 -.

33436-02

FK5

1.487994

-. 38556-01

-. 44290-02

FK51

1.486979

-. 31926-01

.18194-02

FK52

1.486484

-.32911-01

.15370-02

FK54

1.437351

-. 26753-01

-. 22200-02

PK1

1.504329

-. 41887-01

-. 42218-02

PK2

1.518790

-. 44266-01

-. 36043-02

PK3

1.526010

-. 45145-01

-. 35301-02

PK50

1.521083

-. 41516-01

-. 38248-02

PK51

1.529052

- .38005-01 -. 11653-02

PSK2

1.569385

-. 50031-01

-. 29459-02

PSK3

1.552954

-. 48312-01

-. 29585-02

PSK50

1.558131

-.45989-01 -. 29606-02

PSK52

1.603769

-. 51089-01 -. 21857-02

PSK53

1.620848

-. 54024-01 -. 11192-02

BK1

1.510673

-

.44595-01

-. 24933-02

BK3

1.498869

-.42620-01 -. 43814-02

BK6

1.531750

-. 47399-01

-. 23435-02

BK7

1.517385

-. 44736-01

-. 32737-02

UBK7

1.517385

-. 44657-01

-. 32511-02

BK8

1.520745

- .45353-01 -. 30058-02

BK10

1.498363

-. 41386-01

-. 43619-02

BALK1

1.527057

-.48527-01 -. 55659-03

BALKN3

1.519112

-. 47654-01

-. 10567-02

K3

1.518866

- .48601-01 -. 27367-03

K4

1.519606

- .50014-01 -. 87388-04

K5

1.523126

-.48603-01

.51732-03

K7

1.511734

-.46850-01

.10421-02

K10

1.502014

-.49146-01

.59641-03

K 11

1.500720

-.45114-01

.13796-02

K50

1.523201

-.48094-01

.13039-02

UK50

1.523199

-.47942-01

.14241-02

K51

1.505795

-.47055-01

19302-02

ZK1

1.533815

-. 50846-01

.93678-04

ZK5

1.534448

-. 53260-01

.17842-02

ZKN7

1.509073

-.46135-01

.28023-02

BAK 1

1.573219

-. 54951-01

.73080-03

BAK2

1.540615

-. 50025-01

.48440-03

BAK4

1.569563

-. 55980-01

.12009-02

BAK5

1.557397

-. 52474-01

.60790-04

BAK6

1.575176

-.56261-01

.12602-02

BAK50

1.568446

-.54167-01

.61838-03

SKI

1.611029

-.59425-01

.11338-02

SK2

1.608157

-.59206-01

.10459-02

SK3

1.609558

-.57147-01 -. 36092-03

SK4

1.613477

-. 57797-01 -. 18846-03

SK5

1.589828

- .53293-01

.20681-02

SK6

1.614537

- .60082-01

. 12725-02

SK7

1.608030

- .56513-01

.70747-03

SK8

1.611961

- .60331-01

.15222-02

SK9

1.614854

- .61419-01

.21966-02

SK10

1.623593

- .60458-01

.92315-03

SK 1I

1.564512

- .51347-01

-. 14156-02

SK12

1.583842

- .54263-01

-. 64832-03

SK13

1.592544

- .56101-01

.22876-03

SK14

1.603832

-. 55115-01

.15170-02

SK15

1.623767

- .59330-01

.39821-04

SK16

1.621157

- .56964-01

16415-02

SKN18

1.639374

- .63613-01

.17595-02

SK19

1.614195

- .59075-01

.75367-03

SK20

1.560294

- .50643-01

.16275-02

SK51

1.621646

-. 56913-01

.64482-04

SK52

1.639373

- .63551-01

.66661 -03

KF1

1.541174

- .58252-01

.48432-02

KF3

1.515220

- .51934-01

.16171-02

KF6

1.518136

- .54676-01

.32096-02

KF9

1.524146

- .56040-01

.38714-02

KF50

1.531630

- .57241-01

.39921-02

BALF3

1.572132

- .59480-01

.36697-02

BALF4

1.580348

- 59505-01

.29782-02

STD DEV

MAX

ERROR

WVL

.000004

.000007

.505

.000004

.000006

.505

.000005

.000010

.490

.000005

.000014

.400

.000006

.000015

.400

.000003

.000008

.400

.000005

.000009

.495

.000004

.000006

.640

.000004

.000006

.640

.000004

.000006

.640

.000008

.000021

.400

.000004

.000008

.400

.000004

.000007

.400

.000004

.000009

.400

.000007

.000017

.400

.000009

.000024

.400

.000004

.000008

.400

.000005

.0000 10

.495

.000004

.000009

.400

.000004

.000006

.640

.000004

.000006

.640

.000004

.000006

.640

.000005

.000010

.495

.000007

.0000 19

.400

.000005

.000014

.400

.000007

.0000 19

.400

.000005

.000015

.400

.000006

.000018

.400

.000005

.000014

.400

.000005

.000012

.400

.000004

.000007

.400

.000005

.000015

.400

.000005

.000012

.400

.000004

.000006

.510

.000007

.000020

.400

.000011

.000029

.400

.000004

.000006

.510

.00001 1

.000029

.400

.000008

.000021

.400

.000009

.000025

.400

.000009

.000024

.400

.000009

.000024

.400

.000007

.000020

.400

.000012

.000032

.400

.000012

.000031

.400

.000009

.000024

.400

.000009

.000025

.400

.000005

.000015

.400

.000013

.000034

.400

.000008

.000023

.400

.000013

.000034

.400

.000012

.000033

.400

.000011

.000030

.400

.000007

.000018

.400

.000008

.000023

.400

.0000 10

.000028

.400

.000006

.000018

.400

.000009

.000026

.400

.000006

.000018

.400

.0000 10

.000027

.400

.000011

.000029

.400

.000006

.000017

.400

.0000 10

.000026

.400

.000010

.000028

.400

.000009

.000024

.400

.000008

.000021

.400

.000007

.0000 19

.400

.000007

.000020

.400

.000009

.000025

.400

.000013

.000035

.400

.400 Continued

.000012

.000031

15 April 1983 / Vol. 22, No. 8 / APPLIED OPTICS

1203

BALF5

1. 548128

BALF6

1.589843

BALF8

1.554389

BALF50

1.589758

BALF51

1.574727

SSK1

1.618028

SSK2

1.623147

SSK3

1.615703

SSK4

1.618460

SSKN5

1.659373

SSKN8

1.618614

SSK50

1.618802

SSK51

1.604421

SSK52

1.659372

LAKN6

1.643302

LAKN7

1.652407

LAK8

1.713962

LAK9

1.691917

LAK10

1.721031

LAK11

1.659134

LAKN12

1.678788

LAKN13

1.694440

LAKN14

1.697711

LAKN16

1.734527

LAK20

1.694458

LAK21

1.641269

LAKN22

1.651973

LAK23

1.669660

LAK28

1.745347

LAK31

1.697628

LLF I

1.549001

LLF2

1.541544

LLF3

1.560985

LLF4

1.562272

LLF6

1.532505

LLF7

1.549700

BAF3

1.583571

BAF4

1.606609

BAF5

1.608175

BAFN6

1.589874

BAF8

1.624694

BAF9

1.644242

BAFN10

1.671054

BAFN1 1

1.667712

BAF12

1.640316

BAF13

1.669988

BAF50

1.683828

BAF51

1.653284

BAF52

1.609531

BAF53

1.671053

BAF54

1.667716

LF1

1.574055

LF2

1.590243

LF3

1.583143

LF4

1.579448

LF5

1.582460

LF6

1.568270

LF7

1.576004

LF8

1.565361

F1

1.627133

F2

1.621258

F3

1.614114

F4

1.617794

F5

1.604555

F6

1.637644

F7

1.626616

F8

1.596597

F9

1.621616

FN1 1

1.622185

F13

1.623605

F14

1.602525

F15

1.606796

BASF1

1.627210

BASF2

1.665783

TableV.

Continued

-.56270-01

-.61244-01

- 59555-01

-. 63148-01

-. 60703-01

-.63137-01

-.64536-01

-. 66155-01

-. 61819-01

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-.68297-01

-.64715-01

-.62050-01

-.71256-01

-.61300-01

-.61612-01

-. 73273-01

-. 69861-01

-. 78844-01

-.63610-01

-.67795-01

-.59043-01

-. 71714-01

-.69620-01

-. 78462-01

-. 74111-01

-. 64358-01

-. 64458-01

-.80938-01

-. 68416-01

-.65813-01

-.63031-01

-.65294-01

-.68146-01

-. 60016-01

-. 66401-01

-. 68850-01

-. 75587-01

-. 67598-01

-. 66866-01

-. 72882-01

-.73705-01

-.78140-01

-. 75705-01

-.77646-01

-. 81612-01

-. 84203-01

-.73775-01

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-. 71924-01

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-. 72623-01

-.75945-01

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- .90439-01

-. 91970-01

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-. 93650-01

-. 94290-01

-. 86037-01

-.87531-01

-. 87845-01

-.10118+00

.32670-02

.000010

.000028

.400

.36201-02

.000012

.000032

.400

.50505-02

.000011

.000030

.400

.47336-02

.000012

.000032

.400

.42462-02

.0000

1

.000030

.400

.30332-02

.000012

.000033

.400

.37295-02

.000013

.000034

.400

.55202-02

.000015

.000038

.400

.20500-02

.000012

.000033

.400

.60741-02

.000014

.000036

.400

.68995-02

.000011

.000029

.400

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.000013

.000035

.400

.33812-02

.000012

.000031

.400

.51897-02

.000015

.000039

.400

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.000010

.000027

.400

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.000008

.000023

.400

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.000009

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.000010

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.000010

.000028

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.000009

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.000014

.000039

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.000017

.000045

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.000008

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.000012

.000032

.400

.43019-02

.000019

.000049

.400

.18276-02

.000006

.000017

.400

.89933-03

.000012

.000033

.400

.27334-03

.000010

.000028

.400

.24433-02

.000013

.000036

.400

.19279-02

.000006

.000016

.400

.91193-02

.00001

1

.000029

.400

.76472-02

.000010

.000027

.400

.80677-02

.000009

.000025

.400

.99742-02

.00001

1

.000030

.400

.60793-02

.000009

.000024

.400

.91764-02

.000011

.000029

.400

.96106-02

.000015

.000038

.400

.12949-01

.000017

.000044

.400

.71220-02

.000015

.000039

.400

.76376-02

.000010

.000027

.400

.96512-02

.000016

.000041

.400

.88647-02

.000018

.000045

.400

.10138-01

.000014

.000037

.400

.85411-02

.000015

.000038

.400

.12235-01

.000014

.000036

.400

.13170-01

.000016

.000039

.400

.12325-01

.000018

.000045

.400

.11933-01

.000017

.000044

.400

.10507-01

.000016

.000039

.455

.95482-02

.000015

.000038

.400

.80052-02

.000014

.000038

.400

.13170-01

.000014

.000036

.400

.15822-01

.000015

.000038

.400

.13984-01

.000013

.000033

.400

14328-01

.000013

.000034

.400

.15525-01

.000015

.000038

.400

.12614-01

.000012

.000032

.400

.14413-01

.000013

.000035

.400

.11648-01

.000013

.000033

.400

.25490-01

.000018

.000045

.455

.23802-01

.000019

.000048

.455

.22200-01

.000017

.000044

.400

.23170-01

.000017

.000043

.455

.20038-01

.000017

.000042

.400

.26916-01

.000020

.000050

.455

.26344-01

.000019

.000048

.455

.18132-01

.000016

.000040

.400

.21281-01

.000015

.000037

.455

.28110-01

.000002

.000005

.400

.24767-01

.000018

.000044

.455

.19636-01

.000017

.000042

.400

.20666-01

.000018

.000045

.400

.20655-01

.000018

.000046

.400

.28293-01

.000020

.000050

.455 Continued

1204 APPLIEDOPTICS/ Vol. 22, No. 8 / 15 April 1983

BASF5

1.604248

BASF6

1.668691

BASF10

1.651348

BASF 12

1.671202

BASF13

1.698903

BASF14

1.701107

BASF50

1.711586

BASF51

1.725087

BASF52

1.703037

BASF54

1.737899

BASF55

1.701248

BASF56

1.658426

BASF57

1.652589

LAFN2

1.745195

LAFN3

1.718074

LAFN7

1.751034

LAFN8

1.736465

LAF9

1.797027

LAF10

1.785717

LAFN1 1

1.758620

LAF 13

1.776974

LAF20

1.683496

LAF2 1

1.789509

LAF22

1.783297

LAF23

1.690005

LAF24

1.758334

LAF25

1.785634

LAF26

1.747309

LAF28

1.774263

LASFN3

1.809432

LASF8

1.809228

LASF9

1.852133

LASF 11

1.802962

LASF13

1.857116

LASF15

1.879649

LASF18

1.915494

LASF30

1.804429

LASF31

1.882209

LASF32

1.805371

LASF33

1.807636

SF1

1.719087

SF2

1.649053

SF3

1.741863

SF4

1.757142

SF5

1.674185

SF6

1.807421

SF7

1.641120

SF8

1.690503

SF9

1.655847

SF10

1.730067

SF11

1.786872

SF12

1.649675

SF13

1. 742671

SF14

1.763850

SF15

1.700602

SF16

1.647464

SF17

1.651546

SF18

1.723262

SF19

1.668239

SF50

1.656144

SF51

1.661675

SF52

1.690119

SF53

1.730102