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SPECIFICATION FOR

STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

PREPARED BY

UNIT STRUKTUR
BAHAGIAN KHIDMAT PAKAR

1993
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Content Page

1. DESCRIPTION.................................................................................................................... 1

2. MATERIALS........................................................................................................................ 1
2.1 Cement .................................................................................................................... 1
2.1.1 Certificate of Test........................................................................................ 2
2.1.2 Transportation and Storage........................................................................ 2
2.2 Aggregates.............................................................................................................. 2
2.2.1 Coarse Aggregate ....................................................................................... 3
2.2.2 Fine Aggregate ........................................................................................... 3
2.2.3 Grading ...................................................................................................... 3
(1) Coarse Aggregate ........................................................................... 3
(2) Fine Aggregate ............................................................................... 3
2.2.4 Sampling and Testing of Aggregates........................................................... 4
2.2.5 Storage of Aggregates ................................................................................ 4
2.3 Water...................................................................................................................... 4
2.4 Admixtures .............................................................................................................. 4
2.5 Additional Materials ............................................................................................... 5

3. CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE MIX............................................................................. 5


3.1 Prescribed Mix ....................................................................................................... 6
3.2 Design Mix ............................................................................................................. 6
3.2.1 Target Mean Strength................................................................................. 6
3.2.2 Suitability of Proposed Mix Proportions..................................................... 7
3.2.3 Trial Mixes.................................................................................................. 7
3.2.4 Control Strength of Designed Mixes........................................................... 8
(1) Adjustment to Mix Proportions ....................................................... 8
(2) Change in Current Margin ............................................................. 8
3.3 Requirements for Concrete...................................................................................... 9
3.3.1 Workability ................................................................................................. 9
(1) Slump .............................................................................................. 9
(2) Compacting Factor ......................................................................... 9
(3) Vebe Consistometer Test.................................................................. 9
3.3.2 Concrete Grade ........................................................................................ 10
3.3.3 Cement Content......................................................................................... 10
(1) Minimum Cement Content ............................................................. 10
(2) Maximum Cement Content............................................................. 10
3.3.4 Total Chloride Content.............................................................................. 10
3.3.5 Maximum Sulphate Content ...................................................................... 11

Content Page

(i)
4. COMPLIANCE WITH SPECIFIED REQUIREMENTS....................................................... 11
4.1 Prescribed Mix ..................................................................................................... 11
4.1.1 Mix Proportion ......................................................................................... 11
4.1.2 Sampling, Concrete Cube Testing And Compliance................................... 11
4.2 Designed Mix........................................................................................................ 12
4.2.1 Characteristic Strength ............................................................................. 12
4.2.2 Sampling and Testing................................................................................ 12
4.2.3 Concrete Cube Testing And Compliance................................................... 12
4.2.4 Test of Consistency ................................................................................... 13
4.3 Additional Cubes................................................................................................... 13
4.4 Action to be Taken for Non-Compliance of Strength............................................. 14
4.5 Rectification of Defective Works........................................................................... 14
4.5.1 Failure of Core Test or Failure of Load Test ............................................ 14
4.5.2 Other Failures........................................................................................... 15

5. PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE........................................................................................ 15
5.1 Supervision........................................................................................................... 15
5.2 Batching and Mixing ............................................................................................ 15
5.3 Mixing by Hand.................................................................................................... 16
5.4 Transporting ......................................................................................................... 16
5.5 Preparation of Surfaces to Receive Concrete ....................................................... 17
5.6 Placing.................................................................................................................. 17
5.6.1 Placing of Concrete In Dry Conditions..................................................... 17
5.6.2 Placing of Concrete under Water ............................................................. 18
5.6.3 Unsuitable Weather .................................................................................. 19
5.6.4 Concreting at Night or in the Dark ........................................................... 19
5.6.5 Temperature Requirements........................................................................ 19
5.7 Separators ............................................................................................................ 20
5.8 Compaction........................................................................................................... 20
5.9 Curing and Protection .......................................................................................... 21
5.9.1 Normal Curing.......................................................................................... 21
5.9.2 Accelerated Curing................................................................................... 22
5.10 Ready Mixed Concrete .......................................................................................... 22

6. CONSTRUCTION WITH CONCRETE................................................................................ 23


6.1 Construction Joints............................................................................................... 23
6.2 Design Joints ........................................................................................................ 24
6.3 Contraction Joints................................................................................................. 24
6.4 Expansion Joints................................................................................................... 25
6.5 Design Joints in Structure in Contact with Water.................................................. 25
6.6 PVC Waterstops .................................................................................................... 25

Content Page
6.7 Joints Sealants and Fillers.................................................................................... 26
6.7.1 Polysulphide or Polyurethane Mastic Joint Sealants................................ 26
6.7.2 Preformed Flexible Strip Sealant .............................................................. 27
(ii)
6.7.3 Bitumen/Rubber Cold Applied Membrane ................................................ 27
6.7.4 Hot-Poured Rubber/Bitumen Sealing Compound ...................................... 27
6.7.5 Bituminous Sheet Filler ............................................................................. 27
6.7.6 Polyurethane Foam Backing Rods ............................................................ 28
6.8 Gate Guides, Gate Seats, Fixing Blocks, Brackets, Built in Bolts, Holes, Chases,
etc......................................................................................................................... 28
7. STEEL REINFORCEMENT................................................................................................ 29
7.1 Description ........................................................................................................... 29
7.2 Materials .............................................................................................................. 29
7.3 Construction Methods........................................................................................... 30
7.3.1 Cutting and Bending of Reinforcement ..................................................... 30
7.3.2 Fixing of Reinforcement............................................................................ 31
7.3.3 Splicing..................................................................................................... 31
7.3.4 Supporting and Spacer Blocks.................................................................. 32
7.3.5 Welding of Reinforcement......................................................................... 32
8. FORMWORK.................................................................................................................... 33
8.1 Design and Construction ...................................................................................... 33
8.1.1 Description ............................................................................................... 33
8.1.2 Form Ties.................................................................................................. 34
8.1.3 Form Lining .............................................................................................. 34
8.1.4 Projecting Reinforcement, Fixing Devices ................................................ 35
8.2 Chamfers............................................................................................................... 35
8.3 Finishes and Finishing.......................................................................................... 35
8.3.1 Irregularities in Finish.............................................................................. 35
8.3.2 Class of Finish for Formed Concrete ........................................................ 35
8.3.3 Class of Finish for Unformed Concrete .................................................... 37
8.3.4 Remedial Treatment of Surfaces................................................................ 37
8.3.5 Sprinkling with Cement............................................................................. 38
8.3.6 Staining of Concrete ................................................................................. 38
8.4 Preparation of Forms Before Concreting.............................................................. 38
8.5 Removal of Forms ................................................................................................. 38

9. MASS AND LEAN CONCRETE......................................................................................... 39

10. TOLERANCES................................................................................................................... 39
10.1 Concrete structures............................................................................................... 40
10.2 Reinforcement....................................................................................................... 41

11. APPARATUS ..................................................................................................................... 41

12. TABLES............................................................................................................................. 43

13. REFERENCES................................................................................................................... 57

(iii)
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

1. DESCRIPTION

Unless otherwise specified hereinunder this Work shall consist of the construction of all structures
or parts of structures to be composed of Portland cement with or without steel reinforcement and
shall comply with the requirements of the *Malaysian Standard Code of Practice M.S. 1195 -
"Structural Use of Concrete". The Work shall be carried out all in accordance with this
Specification and the lines, levels, grades, dimensions and cross-sections shown on the Drawings
and as required by the S.O.

2. MATERIALS

Concrete shall consist of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water and admixtures as
specified, all thoroughly mixed, placed and compacted as specified in the following clauses.

2.1 Cement

The cement to be used throughout the Work shall be Portland cement obtained from an
approved manufacturer. The cement shall be described under the following headings:-

(1) Ordinary Portland Cement to comply with M.S. 522

(2) Rapid Hardening Portland Cement to comply with M.S. 522

(3) Low Heat Portland Cement to comply with B.S. 1370

(4) Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement to comply with M.S. 1037

(5) Portland Pulverized-Fuel Ash Cement to comply with M.S. 1227

Before orders are placed the Contractor shall submit details of the proposed supplier(s)
together with such information on the proposed methods of transport, storage and
certification so that the S.O. may satisfy himself that the quantity and quality required can
be supplied and maintained throughout the construction period.

Having obtained the S.O.'s approval of the source(s) of supply, transport, storage and
certification of the cement the Contractor shall not modify or change the agreed
arrangements without first having obtained the S.O.'s permission.

2.1.1 Certificate of Test

Manufacturer's certificate of test will in general be accepted as proof of


soundness. Additional tests shall be carried out on any cement which appears to

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have deteriorated through age, damage to containers, improper storage or any
other reason including those of imported cement. The test shall be carried out at
any approved laboratory at the expense of the Contractor. Each consignment of
cement delivered to the Site shall be accompanied by a certificate showing the
place of manufacture and the results of tests carried out on the bulk supply from
which the cement was extracted. In any event, the batch of cement which has
been sampled and tested and found not to have complied with the requirements
shall be rejected and removed from the Site.

2.1.2 Transportation and Storage

The cement shall be transported to the Site in covered vehicles adequately


protected against water. If the cement is delivered in bags, the Contractor shall
provide at his own expense perfectly weather-proofed and well ventilated cement
store having a floor of wood or concrete raised at least 500 mm above the
ground. The cement shall be taken for use in the Work in the order of its delivery
into the store. Cement delivered in bulk shall be stored in silos of an approved
design at the Contractor's expense. Suitable precautions shall be taken to ensure
that condensation does not occur in silos. In addition, suitable precautions must be
taken during unloading to ensure that the resulting dust does not constitute a
nuisance.

All cement shall be used within two months of the date of manufacture. If
delivery conditions render this impossible the S.O. may permit cement to be used
up to three months after the date of manufacture, subject to such conditions,
including addition of extra cement, as he may stipulate.

2.2 Aggregates

Aggregates shall be naturally occurring sand, gravel or stone, crushed or uncrushed unless
otherwise specified, and shall comply with M.S. 29. They shall be obtained from a source
approved by the S.O. and shall be hard, strong, durable and clean. They shall be free from
adhering coatings, iron staining resulting from iron oxide and shall not contain any harmful
material in sufficient quantity so as to affect adversely the strength, durability and
impermeability of the concrete.

Marine aggregates shall not be used unless otherwise specified.

2.2.1 Coarse Aggregate

Coarse aggregate shall comply with M.S. 29. For work below ground level, only
crushed granite shall be used. Tests shall be carried out according to M.S. 30
and other specified Standards. The limits shall be as specified in Table 3. The
maximum nominal size of aggregate shall be as specified in the Drawings.

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The Contractor shall ensure that the aggregate from the approved source is free
from active silica constituents which are prone to attack from alkali found in
cement. The S.O. may request the Contractor to perform Mortar Bar Test or a
Quick Chemical Test in an approved laboratory to confirm this at his own
expense. If the source is found to be high in silica content, cement of low alkali
content or cement with deliberate addition of finely-ground material that modifies
cement-hydration reactions such as Portland Pulverized Fuel Ash cement (p.f.a.)
or Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag cement (g.g.b.f.s.) shall be used,
subject to the approval of the S.O.

2.2.2 Fine Aggregate

Fine aggregate shall comply with M.S. 29. If it is found necessary, the fine
aggregate shall be washed and screened to the approval of the S.O. The fine
aggregate shall not contain clay, silt and dust or other fine materials as specified in
Table 3 when tested to the Standard Method given in M.S. 30.

2.2.3 Grading

(1) Coarse Aggregate

The grading of coarse aggregate shall be analyzed as described in M.S. 30


and shall be within the limits specified in Table 1.

(2) Fine Aggregate

The grading of fine aggregate shall be analyzed as described in M.S. 30


and shall be within the limits of the grading zone given in Table 2.
However, grading Zone 2 shall only be used for prescribed mix

2.2.4 Sampling and Testing of Aggregates

Samples of sand and stone shall be obtained for the specified tests to be carried
out before the main orders are finally placed. Samples of fine and coarse
aggregates approved by the S.O. shall be kept on Site, and shall give a fair
indication of the general quality of the aggregates for comparison with the
aggregates delivered during the course of the Work. Tests shall be carried out on
samples of the latter taken at intervals as required by the S.O. or whenever there
is a change of source. The appropriate method of sampling and testing shall be in
accordance with M.S. 30 and other standards as specified in Table 3. Any batch
of aggregate rejected by the S.O. shall be removed from the Site.

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2.2.5 Storage of Aggregates

Separate storage facilities with adequate provision for drainage shall be provided
for each different size of aggregate used.

Aggregates shall be handled and stored so as to minimize segregation and


contamination.

2.3 Water

Water shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 28. It shall be clean and free from
materials deleterious to concrete in the plastic and hardened state and shall be from a
source approved by the S.O. If in doubt, the S.O. may instruct the Contractor to carry out
chemical test at any approved laboratory at the expense of the Contractor. The Contractor
shall make adequate arrangement to supply and store sufficient water at the work site for
use in mixing and curing of concrete. All costs for installing and maintaining the supply shall
be borne by the Contractor.

2.4 Admixtures

Suitable admixtures may be used in concrete mixes with prior approval of, or as directed by,
the S.O.

All requirements and sampling, acceptance tests, uniformity tests, independent tests,
chloride content, information to be provided by the manufacturer, compliance and storage
certificates and markings shall be in accordance with M.S. 922.

All admixtures shall be used strictly in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.

Before allowing admixtures to be used in the Work, relevant tests based on trial mixes shall
be carried out. Trial mixes shall be made using job-site materials and under job-site
conditions. A control mix shall be made using a conventional trial mix, that is without using
the admixture, to determine the free water/cement ratio and mix proportion required to give
the specified strength with the required slump. Using the same mix proportion as in the
control mix but with modified water cement ratio whenever necessary, a test shall be
carried out using the recommended dosage of the admixture. The results of the relevant
test obtained from the control mix and test mix shall be compared. The S.O. may allow the
use of admixture only when the results are found to be satisfactory and comparable to the
effects as claimed by the manufacturer. The admixture acceptance test shall comply with
the requirements specified in Table 4.

Admixtures which contain calcium chloride or calcium formate as the active constituents

4
are not permitted to be used for structural concrete containing reinforcement, prestressing
tendons or other embedded metal.

When the use of super-plasticizer is proposed by the Contractor, special control tests shall
be carried out with prior approval of the S.O. The tests shall be carried out in accordance
with the latest Standard and the manufacturer's recommendations.

If two or more admixtures are proposed to be used simultaneously in the same concrete
mix, the Contractor shall furnish the S.O. with supporting data on their suitability and
compatibility.

2.5 Additional Materials

Additional materials such as p.f.a. complying with M.S 1226, g.g.b.f.s. complying with B.S.
6699 and others may be used provided that the concrete complies with the same grade as
would be achieved by the Portland cement concrete complying with M.S. 522 and prior
approval of the S.O. is obtained. Such use shall be strictly in accordance with the latest
available Malaysian and International Standards.

3. CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE MIX

Unless otherwise stated, concrete mix shall be designed mix. However, prescribed mix may be
used provided:-

(1) The Work is of minor nature or involving a small quantity of concrete,

(2) The S.O's approval is given, and

(3) The strength of the concrete is still the responsibility of the Contractor.

When Portland Pulverized-Fuel Ash Cement or additional materials described in Subsection 2.5 is
proposed to be used, the concrete mix shall be of designed mix only.

3.1 Prescribed Mix

Unless otherwise specified, the concrete mix shall be as detailed in Table 5. The mix
prescribed in the table does not require the use of admixtures.

For small volume concreting work, volume batching is permitted provided prior approval of
the S.O. is obtained. The mix proportion shall be as specified in Table 5A.

3.2 Design Mix

For designed mix, the Contractor shall submit a mix design report covering all concrete
mixes to the S.O. for approval. The designed mix shall comply with the requirements as

5
tabulated in Table 6.

When Portland Pulverized-Fuel Ash cement is used, or when combinations of Portland


cement complying with M.S. 522 with additional materials such as p.f.a. and g.g.b.f.s. are
used, depending on the combination used, it may be necessary to increase the total cement
content to achieve concrete of equal strength development when compared with concrete
using Portland cement complying with M.S. 522. Tests on trial mixes shall be carried out in
accordance with Subsection 3.2.3 and the results shall be approved by the S.O.

In all cases, it is the responsibility of the Contractor to ensure that the designed mix shall be
durable, workable, comply with the strength grade and other requirements as specified in
the Drawings.

3.2.1 Target Mean Strength

The concrete mix shall be designed to have at least the required minimum cement
content and to have a target mean strength greater than the required grade of
concrete by at least the current margin.

The current margin for each particular type of concrete shall be determined by
the Contractor and shall be taken as the lesser of:-

(1) 1.64 times the standard deviation of cube tests on at least 100 separate
batches of concrete of nominally similar proportion of similar materials and
produced over a period not exceeding 12 months by the same plant under
similar supervision, but not less than 2.5 N/mm2 for concrete of grade 15 or
3.75 N/mm2 for concrete of grade 20 or above.

(2) 1.64 times the standard deviation of cube tests on at least 40 separate
batches of concrete of nominally similar proportion of similar materials and
produced over a period exceeding 5 days but not exceeding 6 months by
the same plant under similar supervision, but not less than 5 N/mm2 for
concrete of grade 15 or 7.5 N/mm2 for concrete of grade 20 or above.

When there are insufficient data to satisfy (1) and (2) above, the margin for the
initial mix design shall be taken as 7.5 N/mm2 for concrete of grade 15 and 12
N/mm2 for concrete of grade 20 or above. This margin shall be used as the
current margin only until sufficient data are available to satisfy (1) or (2) above.
However, subject to the approval of the S.O., when the specified characteristic
strength approaches the designed target mean strength of concrete made with a
particular aggregate, a smaller margin not less than 5 N/mm2 for concrete of
grade 15 or 7.5 N/mm2 for concrete of grade 20 or above may be used for the
initial mix design.

3.2.2 Suitability of Proposed Mix Proportions

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The Contractor shall submit for the approval of the S.O., prior to the supply of
any designed mix, the following information:-

(1) The nature and source of each material,

(2) Appropriate existing data as evidence of acceptable previous performance


for target mean strength, current margin, workability and water/cement
ratio; OR full details of tests on trial mixes carried out accordance with
Subsection 3.2.3, and

(3) The proposed quantities by weight of each material per cubic metre of fully
compacted concrete.

3.2.3 Trial Mixes

The Contractor shall give early notice to enable the S.O. to be present at the
making of trial mixes and preliminary testing of the cubes. The Contractor shall
prepare trial mixes, using samples of approved material typical of those he
proposes to use in the Work, for all grades to the approval of the S.O. prior to
commencement of concreting.

Sampling and testing procedures shall be in accordance with M.S. 26. Three
separate batches of concrete shall be made. The workability of each of the three
trial batches determined by means of the slump test or compacting factor test or
vebe consistometer test or as specified in accordance with M.S. 26, shall be
appropriate to the proposed uses and methods of placing and compaction of the
mix and shall be approved by the S.O. Six cubes shall be made from each batch.
Three from each set of six shall be tested at an age of 7 days and three at an age
of 28 days. The average strength of the nine cubes tested at 28 days shall
exceed the specified characteristic strength by the current margin minus 3.5
N/mm2. The approved trial mixes shall then be designated as the "designed mix"
and its corresponding workability as the "designed workability".

During production, the S.O. may require additional trial mixes to be made before a
substantial change is made in the materials or in the proportion of the material to
be used. Trial mixes need not be performed when adjustments are made to the
mix proportions in accordance with Subsection 3.2.4 (a).

3.2.4 Control Strength of Designed Mixes

(1) Adjustment to Mix Proportions

(a) Adjustment to mix proportions shall be made to the approval of


the S.O. in order to minimize the variability of strength and to maintain the

7
target mean strength. The specified limits of minimum cement content and
maximum free water/cement ratio shall be maintained. Changes in cement
have to be declared.

(b) An increase or reduction of cement content by greater than 20


3
kg/m , or of fine aggregate by greater than 5%, or any changes in the type
or dosage of admixture, or any changes in the type of cement or
combination containing additional materials such as p.f.a. or g.g.b.f.s., or
consistency is considered a change in mix design.

(2) Change in Current Margin

A change in current margin used for judging compliance with specified


characteristic strength becomes appropriate when results of a sufficiently large
number of tests show that the previously established margin is significantly too
large or too small.

Recalculation of the margin shall be carried out in accordance with Subsection


3.2.1. Although a recalculated margin is almost certain to differ numerically from
the previous value, the adoption of the recalculated value will not generally be
justified if the two values differ by less than 18% when based on tests on 40
separate batches or less than 11% when based on tests on 100 separate batches
or less than 5% when based on tests on 500 separate batches.

On the adoption of a recalculated margin, it shall become the current margin for
the judgement of compliance with the specified characteristic strength of concrete
produced subsequent to the change.

3.3 Requirements for Concrete

3.3.1 Workability

The workability of the fresh concrete shall be judged by its suitability for the
condition of handling and placing so that after compaction, it surrounds all
reinforcement, tendons and ducts and completely fills the formwork.

Workability of the concrete shall be within one of the following limits:-

(1) Slump

+ 25 mm or + one third of the "designed workability", whichever is greater.

(2) Compacting Factor

+ 0.03 where the "designed workability" is 0.9 or more

8
+ 0.04 where the "designed workability" is between 0.8 and 0.9.

+ 0.05 where the designed workability is 0.8 or less.

(3) Vebe Consistometer Test

+ 3 seconds or + one fifth of the "designed workability", whichever is


lesser.

3.3.2 Concrete Grade

The grade of concrete to be used in the Work shall be as stated on the Drawings
and in the Bill of Quantities.

(Concrete shall be designated as GRADE X/Y where `X' is the numerical value
of the characteristic strength at 28 days in N/mm2 as determined from test cubes,
and `Y' is the nominal maximum size of aggregates in mm. For a prescribed mix,
a suffix `P' shall be added after `X').

3.3.3 Cement Content

Cement content here refers to the total quantities of approved cement as in


Subsection 2.1 or the total quantities of cementitious materials comprising
Portland cement and p.f.a. or g.g.b.f.s. or other approved additional materials.
However, the quantity of Portland cement should be at least 65% of the total
quantities of cementitious materials used.

If p.f.a or g.g.b.f.s. is used, the type and percentage of p.f.a. or g.g.b.f.s. shall be
subject to the approval of the S.O.

(1) Minimum Cement Content

To ensure that durable concrete is produced, the minimum cement content


shall be in accordance with Table 6, unless otherwise shown on the
Drawings.

(2) Maximum Cement Content

The maximum cement content shall not exceed 550 kg/m3 unless otherwise
shown in the Drawings or as approved by the S.O.

3.3.4 Total Chloride Content

9
The total chloride content of the concrete mix arising from the aggregates or any
other source shall not in any circumstances exceed the limits in Table 7 expressed
as a percentage relationship between chloride ions and weight of cement in the
mix.

When necessary, tests shall be carried out in accordance with B.S. 1881 for each
grade of concrete, to demonstrate that these limits are not exceeded.

3.3.5 Maximum Sulphate Content

The total estimated sulphate content of any mix, including that present in the
cement shall not exceed 4% by weight of cement in the mix. When necessary
tests shall be carried out in accordance with B.S. 1881 for each grade of concrete
to demonstrate that these limits are not exceeded.

4. COMPLIANCE WITH SPECIFIED REQUIREMENTS

4.1 Prescribed Mix

4.1.1 Mix Proportion

Compliance with the specified mix proportions shall be judged based on


observation on the batches. The mix proportion shall be within + 5% of the
values specified. The workability shall be chosen to suit the construction
requirements as described in Table 5.

4.1.2 Sampling, Concrete Cube Testing And Compliance

Notwithstanding this, strength tests shall be carried out during the progress of
work. The rate of sampling shall be as specified in Table 8. For each sampling,
three test cubes shall be made. One test cube from each sample batch shall be
tested for the 7 day compressive strength. If the cube strength falls below the
values given in Table 8A, then the S.O. may direct the Contractor to take
necessary steps to review the process of the production of concrete for future
use.

The remaining two test cubes from the sample batch shall be tested for the 28
day compressive strength. The appropriate strength requirement shall be
considered to be satisfied if at least one of the following is complied with:-

(1) none of the two test cubes is below the specified compressive strength.

(2) the average strength of the two test cubes is not less than the specified
compressive strength and the difference between the two strengths is not

10
more than 20% of the average.

4.2 Designed Mix

4.2.1 Characteristic Strength

The characteristic strength of concrete is the compressive strength below which


not more than 5% of the test results may be expected to fall. Compliance with
the specified characteristic strength shall be judged by tests made on cubes at an
age of 28 days. The workability shall be as described in Subsection 3.3.1.

4.2.2 Sampling and Testing

All sampling and testing of constituent materials shall be carried out in accordance
with the provisions of the appropriate available Malaysian Standards. In
particular, sampling and testing of fresh and of hardened concrete shall be carried
out in accordance with the provisions of M.S. 26.

The rate of sampling shall be as given in Table 8 but not less than one sample
shall be taken from each source of production on each day that concrete of any
particular grade is used. However, the actual rate of sampling may be increased
in appropriate circumstances e.g. for critical elements, when required by the S.O.

4.2.3 Concrete Cube Testing And Compliance

Three test cubes shall be made from a single sample taken from a randomly
selected batch of concrete. The sample shall be taken at the point of discharge
from the mixer or, in the case of ready mixed concrete, at the point of discharge
from the delivery vehicle. All cubes shall be clearly marked with undeletable
paint with the date of casting and serial number. A record shall be kept to
identify each cube by date and by serial number relating to the part of the work
from which they are taken.

One test cube from each sample shall be tested for the 7 day compressive
strength. If the cube falls below two-third of the 28 day compressive strength,
then the Contractor shall take the necessary steps to review the process of the
production of concrete and make certain adjustments where applicable, without
extra cost to the Government.

The remaining two test cubes from the same sample shall be tested for the 28 day
compressive strength. The average strength of the two cubes shall constitute the
28 day compressive strength of the sample. When the difference between the

11
two results divided by their mean exceeds 15%, the test results shall be deemed
invalid.

For compliance with the specified compressive strength, both of the following
conditions shall be met:-

(1) the mean strength determined from the first two, three or four consecutive
test results, or from any group of four consecutive test results complies
with the appropriate limits in column A of Table 8B. In this respect,
consecutive samples are samples taken at intervals for the day of
concreting or one complete continuous process of concreting.

(2) any individual test result complies with the appropriate limits in column B of
Table 8B.

In all cases, at least four samples (12 cubes) shall be taken of concrete on the
first day of concreting for each grade of concrete to be used in the Work,
irrespective of the volume of concrete produced or the sampling rate.

4.2.4 Test of Consistency

While work on concreting is in progress, tests on workability of the mix shall be


carried out at suitable interval and in addition whenever any materials or the
proportions of the mix are changed, or when directed by the S.O. The test shall
consist of either the Slump test, the Compacting Factor test or Vebe
Consistometer test where applicable as described in M.S. 26. The workability
shall be as described in Subsection 3.3.1.

4.3 Additional Cubes

Additional cubes may be required for various purposes. These shall be made and tested in
accordance with M.S. 26 but the methods of sampling and the conditions under which the
cubes are stored shall be varied according to the purpose for which they are required.

For determining the cube strength of prestressed concrete before transfer or of concrete in
a member before striking formwork, sampling shall be at the point of placing and the cubes
shall be stored under the same conditions as the concrete in the members.

The extra cubes shall be identified at the time of marking and shall not be used for normal
quality control or compliance procedures.

4.4 Action to be Taken for Non-Compliance of Strength

In the event that the compressive strength results of the test do not meet the specified
requirements mentioned in Subsection 4.1.2 and 4.2.3, the S.O. shall determine the action to

12
be taken in respect of the concrete structural member represented by the samples batch
test cubes.

For 7 day non-compliance of compressive strength, the S.O. reserves the right to order
further concreting to stop and the Contractor shall provide additional and prolonged propping
until the 28 day cube strength becomes available.

For 28 day non-compliance of compressive strength, the quality of the suspected concrete
shall be assessed by carrying out test on hardened concrete in the structure. The test may
include non-destructive methods (M.S. 26), taking cored samples (M.S. 26), load test or
combination of several methods as illustrated in Table 9 and Table 9A. The results of any
such tests shall not nullify the establishment of non-compliance with the compliance
requirements provided that this was based on valid cube test results. All expenses incurred
in carrying out such sampling, testing and remedial works shall be borne by the Contractor
irrespective of whether the tests proved the structure to be sound or otherwise.

4.5 Rectification of Defective Works.

4.5.1 Failure of Core Test or Failure of Load Test

The action to be taken in respect of the concrete which fails to meet either of the
requirements in Subsection 4.1.2 and 4.2.3 and the assessment specified in
Subsection 4.4 shall be determined by the S.O. They may range from:

(1) qualified acceptance in less severe cases whereby the Contractor shall
provide protective coating against carbonation and other aggressive
environment if the affected concrete can be certified to be structurally
sound by a Professional Engineer engaged by the Contractor.

If the average values of the core tests falls below the strength level
specified in Table 9, or in the event of failure of a load test, then

(2) the Contractor shall carry out at his own expense any necessary approved
remedial measures to the approval of the S.O. Remedial measures shall be
designed, supervised and certified by Professional Engineer engaged by the
Contractor, or

(3) the Contractor shall remove and make good the affected portion of the
concrete. All costs incurred shall be the responsibility of the Contractor.

4.5.2 Other Failures

All defective concrete works such as badly constructed concrete members with
poor alignment and plumb, honey combing, badly formed surfaces, and failure
during construction such as sagging of beams and slabs shall be removed and

13
make good or otherwise rectified according to the instructions of the S.O. at the
Contractor's expense.

5. PRODUCTION OF CONCRETE

5.1 Supervision

The Contractor shall ensure the required standard of control over materials and
workmanship. The S.O. shall be afforded all reasonable opportunity and facility to inspect
the constituent materials and the production of concrete and to take samples or to make
tests.

5.2 Batching and Mixing

The quantities of cement, fine aggregate and various sizes of coarse aggregate shall be
measured by weight unless otherwise approved by the S.O. A separate weighing machine
shall be provided for weighing the cement. Alternatively, the cement may be measured by
using a whole number of bags in each batch. The quantity of water shall be measured by
volume or by weight. Any solid admixtures to be added shall be measured by weight but
liquid or paste admixtures may be measured by volume or weight.

The batch weight of aggregate shall be adjusted to allow for the moisture content of the
aggregate being used. The accuracy of the measuring equipment shall be within:-

+ 3% of the quantity of cement per batch.

+ 3% of the quantity of water per batch.

+ 3% of the quantity of total aggregate per batch.

+ 3% of the quantity of admixture per batch.

The mixer shall comply with the requirements of B.S. 1305 where applicable. The mixing
time shall be not less than two minutes or more than five minutes or any other time
recommended by the mixer manufacturer after all the ingredients have been placed in the
mixer. For cements other than the Ordinary Portland Cement, the mixing time shall not be
less than that recommended by the mixer manufacturer and to the S.O.'s approval of the
trial mix.

Mixers that have been out of use for more than 30 minutes shall be thoroughly cleaned
before any fresh concrete is mixed. Unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., the first batch of
concrete through the mixer shall then contain only two thirds of the normal quantity of
coarse aggregate. Mixing plant shall be thoroughly cleaned before changing from one type
of cement to another.

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The water content of each batch of concrete may be adjusted so as to produce a concrete
of the workability required. However care shall be taken to ensure the free water/cement
ratio is maintained. The total amount of water added to the mix shall be recorded. For this
purpose, a simple and convenient system of accurately carrying the water supply to the
concrete mixers shall be installed with gauges marked in litres and half-litres.

5.3 Mixing by Hand

Where it is not possible to employ machine mixing and approval has been obtained from the
S.O., concrete may be mixed by hand as near as practical to the site where it is to be
deposited. Clean mixing bankers or platforms of sufficient area for the proper execution of
the work shall be provided. These platforms if constructed of timber shall consist of planks
closely jointed to avoid the loss of any grout or liquid from the wet concrete. The whole of
the aggregate and cement shall be turned over on the banker in a dry state at least twice.
The water shall then be added gradually through a rose head, after which the materials shall
again be entirely turned over in a wet state at least three times before leaving the banker.

The amount of cement used where hand-mixing is employed shall be 10 % more than that
used in machine mixing.

5.4 Transporting

Concrete shall be transported from the mixer to the formwork as rapidly as practicable by
methods which will prevent segregation or loss of any constituents or ingress of foreign
matter or water and maintain the required workability. It shall be deposited as near as
practicable in its final position to avoid rehandling or moving the concrete horizontally by
vibration. Concrete shall not be conveyed by chutes or concrete pumps unless prior
permission has been obtained from the S.O.

5.5 Preparation of Surfaces to Receive Concrete

Reinforced concrete shall not be laid directly on to earth surfaces. A blinding layer of 50
mm minimum thickness of lean concrete shall be laid on well prepared firm ground before
any reinforcement is placed in position.

Before depositing concrete on or against a surface of rock, masonry, brickwork, old


concrete or the like, all loose material shall be removed and the surface washed down; all
seepage of water emerging at the surface shall be stopped as far as possible or suitably
channelled or piped away from the work. On upward facing horizontal or near horizontal
surfaces an adequate layer of 2:1 sand-cement mortar shall be spread over the surface of
the section to be concreted.

5.6 Placing of Concrete

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5.6.1 Placing of Concrete In Dry Conditions

For all concrete whether mixed on or off the Site of the Work, each batch shall
be placed and compacted within 2 hours of adding the cement to the dry
aggregates and within 45 minutes (or any other period of time as approved by the
S.O. if admixture is used) of adding water to the cement and aggregate.
Concrete shall not be placed in any part of the structure until the approval of the
S.O. has been obtained. if concreting is not started within 24 hours of approval
given, approval shall again be obtained from the S.O.

The arrangements for placing concrete are to be such that in all cases the
material may be conveniently handled and placed in the required position without
segregation. In no case is any layer to slope except where specified and all
temporary joints are to be formed square to the work.

All formwork and reinforcement contained in it shall be clean and free from
standing water immediately before the placing of concrete. Concreting shall be
carried out continuously between and up to predetermined construction joints in
one sequence of operation. It shall be thoroughly compacted by both hand
tamping and mechanical vibration and shall be thoroughly worked into the corners.
After tamping into place the concrete shall not be subjected to disturbance other
than such as incidental to compaction by vibration. In the event of unavoidable
stoppage in positions not predetermined, the concreting shall be terminated on a
horizontal plane and against vertical surfaces by the use of stopping off boards.
However the location for concreting termination shall be decided or agreed by the
S.O.

Fresh concrete shall not be placed against in-situ concrete which has been in
position for more than 45 minutes (or any other period of time as approved by the
S.O. if admixture is used) unless a construction joint is formed in accordance
with Subsection 6.1. When in-situ concrete has been in place for 4 hours, no
further concrete shall be placed against it for a further 20 hours.

Except where otherwise approved by the S.O., concrete shall be deposited in


horizontal layers to a compacted depth not exceeding 450 mm when internal
vibrators are used or 300 mm in all other cases. The surface of the concrete shall
be maintained reasonably level during placing.

The Contractor shall maintain an experience steel fixer at the site of reinforced
concrete works during the placing of concrete to reposition any reinforcement
which may be displaced.

5.6.2 Placing of Concrete under Water

No concrete shall be placed in flowing water. Underwater concrete if deemed

16
unavoidable, shall be placed in position by tremies or pipelines from the mixer.
Concrete to be placed under water shall be of an approved mix with the amount
of cement increased by 20%. During and after concreting under water, pumping
or dewatering operations in the immediate vicinity shall be suspended until the
S.O. permits them to continue. Where the concrete is placed by a tremie, the
following requirements shall be applicable:-

(1) Unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., when concreting of bored piles is
being carried out under water, temporary casing shall be installed to the full
depth of the bore-hole so that fragments of soil cannot drop from the sides
of the hole into the concrete as it is placed.

(2) The hopper and tremie pipe shall be a closed system. The bottom of the
tremie shall be kept as far as practicable beneath the surface of the placed
concrete.

(3) The tremie pipe shall be large enough with due regard to the size of
aggregate. For 20 mm aggregate the tremie pipe shall be of diameter not
less than 150 mm and for larger aggregate, larger diameter tremie pipe
shall be required.

(4) Unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., the first charge of concrete shall be
placed with a sliding plug pushed down the tube ahead of it to prevent
mixing of concrete and water.

(5) The tremie pipe shall always penetrate well into the concrete with an
adequate margin of safety against accidental withdrawal if the pipe is
surged to discharge the concrete.

(6) The concrete shall be deposited wholly by tremie and the method of
deposition shall not be changed part way up to prevent the laitance from
being entrapped within the structure.

(7) All tremie pipes shall be scrupulously cleaned after use.

5.6.3 Unsuitable Weather

No concreting shall be allowed in the open during storms or rains.

5.6.4 Concreting at Night or in the Dark

Where approval has been given to carry out concreting operations at night or in
places where daylight is excluded the Contractor shall provide adequate lighting to
all points where mixing, transportation and placing of concrete are in progress.

17
5.6.5 Temperature Requirements

During hot weather, additional precautions shall be taken to prevent premature


setting and loss of water during placing of concrete in the formwork. These
precautions shall include:-

1) No concrete having an internal temperature exceeding 36oC shall be


deposited.

2) Concrete shall not be placed in forms or around reinforcement whose


temperature exceeds 36oC.

3) Newly placed concrete shall be protected from direct sunlight and from
loss of moisture by covering, shading or other means.

4) No concrete shall be placed when the air temperature at the point of


deposition exceeds 36C

However, higher temperature may be allowed provided it can be proven that it


shall not result in any detrimental effect to the concrete work.

5.7 Separators

Where the design calls for two different classes of concrete for the facing and the hearting,
the two classes shall be placed at the same time so that they can be thoroughly incorporated
with each other. The Contractor may either use a separator which will gradually be
withdrawn as the two classes are placed on either side of it or he may place batches of one
class then the other alternatively without separators. Care must be taken that, if any
irregularity of the division place occurs, the specified thickness of the richer class is
everywhere maintained.

5.8 Compaction

Unless otherwise approved by the S.O., concrete shall be thoroughly compacted by


vibration and thoroughly worked around the reinforcement, tendons or duct formers, around
embedded fixtures and into corners of the formwork to form a dense homogenous mass
free from voids and have the required surface finish when the formwork is removed.
Vibration shall be applied continuously during the placing of each batch of concrete until the
expulsion of air has practically ceased and in a manner which does not promote segregation
of the ingredients.

The concrete maintained between the two walls of formwork shall be compacted by
internal vibrator and concrete in slabs with no formwork on its upper surface shall be
compacted either by vibrators of the pan type or by a vibrating screen.

18
The internal vibrators shall be inserted as vertically as possible and be withdrawn slowly
and at a uniform pace of approximately 75 to 100 mm per second. Compaction shall be
deemed to be completed when cement mortar appears in an annulus around the vibrator.
Over vibration leading to segregation of the mix must be avoided. The internal vibrators
shall be inserted at points judged by the area of mortar showing after compaction, with a
certain allowance made for overlapping and they shall not be allowed to come into contact
with the formwork or the reinforcement and shall be inserted at a distance of not less than
75 mm from the formwork.

The pan vibrator shall be placed on the surface of the concrete which shall have previously
been tamped and levelled leaving an allowance in height for compaction until the cement
mortar appears under the pan. The vibrator shall then be lifted and placed on the adjoining
surface and this operation shall be repeated until the whole surface has been compacted.
Alternatively a vibrating screen spanning the full width of the surface may also be used.

Whenever vibration has to be applied externally, the design of formwork and disposition of
vibration shall receive special consideration to ensure efficient compaction and to avoid
surface blemishes. The mix shall be such that there will be no excess water on the top
surface on completion of compaction.

External vibrators shall be firmly secured to the formwork which must be sufficiently rigid
to transmit the vibration and strong enough not to be damaged by it.

Internal vibrators shall be capable of operating at not less than 10,000 cycles per minute and
external vibrators at not less than 3,000 cycles per minute. Sufficient vibrators in
serviceable condition shall be on site so that spare equipment is always available in the
event of breakdown.

Concrete shall not be subjected to any disturbance within 24 hours after compaction. No
standing or flowing water shall be allowed to come into contact with exposed concrete
surfaces during the first two hours after placing and compaction of the concrete.

The vibrator shall be operated by workmen skilled in their use.

In the event where inadequate or improper compaction is suspected, the S.O. has the right
to inspect and to carry out further tests. The tests may include non-destructive and
destructive methods as specified in Subsection 4.4. All expenses incurred in carrying out
such sampling, testing and remedial works shall be borne by the Contractor irrespective of
whether the tests proved the structure to be sound or otherwise.

5.9 Curing and Protection

All concrete work shall be protected from damage by shock, overloading, falling earth,
flowing water, waves, etc.

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5.9.1 Normal Curing

Exposed concrete surfaces, immediately after compaction, shall be protected


from the sun and rain in a manner approved by the S.O. All concrete, after it has
set shall be kept continuously damp until thoroughly cured. Provision shall be
made for adequate water distribution to all parts of the concrete members so that
if required, this treatment can be continued efficiently throughout the whole period
of construction. In order to keep the concrete continuously damped, all exposed
surfaces shall be covered with continuously damp gunny bags or shall have water
impounded on them for the full period of curing which shall be not less than 5
days.

In the event where proper curing is not done by the Contractor, the S.O. has the
right to inspect and to carry out further tests. The tests may include non-
destructive and destructive methods as specified in Subsection 4.4. All expenses
incurred in carrying out such sampling, testing and remedial works shall be borne
by the Contractor irrespective of whether the tests proved the structure to be
sound or otherwise.

Other methods of curing may be used to the approval of the S.O.

5.9.2 Accelerated Curing

Elevated temperature curing may be used only with ordinary Portland Cement.
After the completion of the placing of concrete, 4 hours shall elapse before its
temperature is raised, unless the Contractor is able to prove that curing can start
earlier by furnishing all the relevant supporting data to the S.O. The rise in
temperature within any period of 30 minutes shall not exceed 10 C and the
maximum temperature attained shall not exceed 70 C unless it can be proven that
any deviation from this provision shall not result in any detrimental effect to the
concrete work. The rate of subsequent cooling shall not exceed the rate of
heating. The use of accelerated curing methods for concrete containing other
types of cement or any admixture or any additional materials shall be to the
approval of the S.O.

5.10 Ready Mixed Concrete

Ready mixed concrete may be used with the approval of the S.O.

Ready mixed concrete shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 5231. The concrete shall
be carried in purpose made agitators operating continuously or truck mixers. The agitation
speed of the mixer shall be between 2 to 4 revolutions per minute whereas the mixing speed
shall be between 7 to 16 revolutions per minute. The total number of revolutions during
both mixing and agitating shall not exceed 300.

20
1
Currently under revision. Reference shall also be made to B.S. 5328:1990.

The concrete shall be compacted in its final position within 2 hours of the introduction of
cement to aggregate and within 45 minutes (or any other period of time as approved by the
S.O. if admixture is used) after the addition of water to the cement aggregate mix unless
otherwise agreed by the S.O. The time of such introduction shall be recorded on the
Delivery Note.

Ready mixed concrete delivered to the job site shall be accompanied by manufacturer's
certificates stating the details of mix proportions by weight, grade of concrete, type and size
of aggregate, date and time of production, type and dosage of chemical admixtures and
other relevant production details in suitable format. In addition the manufacturer shall
supply to the S.O. test certificates for testing of materials, indicating the sources of supplies
and other relevant details.

6. CONSTRUCTION WITH CONCRETE

6.1 Construction Joints

The position and detail of any construction joints not described in the Drawings shall be to
the approval of the S.O. and shall be so arranged as to minimize the possibility of the
occurrence of shrinkage cracks.

If for any reason the Contractor has to interrupt a planned pour for more than 45 minutes
(or any other period of time as approved by the S.O. if admixture is used), additional
construction joints shall be positioned and constructed as directed by the S.O.

The number of construction joints shall be kept as few as possible consistent with
reasonable precautions against shrinkage. Concreting shall be carried out continuously up
to construction joints. The joints shall be at right angles to the general direction of the
member and shall take due account of shear and other stresses.

Concrete shall not be allowed to run to a feather edge and vertical joints shall be formed
against a stop board. The top surface of a layer of concrete shall be level and flat unless
design considerations make this undesirable. Joint lines shall be so arranged that they
coincide with features of the finished work, wherever possible.

At horizontal construction joints, gauge strips about 25 mm width shall be placed inside the
forms along all exposed surfaces to ensure a straight joint on those surfaces.

Where a kicker (i.e starter stub) is used for the construction of walls and columns, it shall
be at least 50 mm high, to be constructed monolithically with the base concrete. Where
possible, the formwork shall be designed to facilitate the preparation of the joint surface, as
the optimum time for treatment is usually two to four hours after placing.

21
Where vertical construction joints are necessary in mass concrete structures, reinforcing
bars shall be placed across the joints so as to make the structure monolithic, all to the
approval of the S.O.

Prior to recommencement of concreting on a joint, the surface of the concrete against


which new concrete will be cast shall be free from laitance and shall be roughened to the
extent that the coarse aggregate is exposed but not disturbed. Care shall be taken to avoid
damaging the lines of the joint. Care shall also be taken that the joint surface is clean and
damp but not wet. Immediately before the fresh concrete is placed against the joint, fresh
rich cement mortar (1:2) shall be applied to the exposed surface.

Where the S.O. considers that special preparation is necessary, e.g for an in-situ structural
connection, preparation shall be carried out, preferably when the concrete has set but not
hardened, by spraying with a fine spray of air and water or brushing with a stiff brush
sufficiently to remove the outer mortar skin and expose the larger aggregates without
disturbing them. Where this treatment is impracticable, sand blasting or a needle gun shall
be used to remove the surface skin and laitance. Hardened surfaces shall be chipped
manually or mechanically to be free from laitance and properly roughened to the extent that
the coarse aggregates are being exposed.

6.2 Design Joints

Design joints such as contraction and expansion joints shall be formed in the position and
manner shown on the Drawings and shall be shuttered square to the work to provide a
smooth surface to the concrete.

6.3 Contraction Joints

Contraction joints shall be located and constructed as shown on the Drawings. The joints
shall be made by forming the concrete on one side of the joints and allowing it to set before
concrete is placed on the other side of the joints. The surface of the concrete first placed
at contraction joints shall be coated with two coats of approved bituminous paint to break
the bond before the concrete on the other side of the joint is placed.

6.4 Expansion Joints

Expansion joints shall be formed in the same way as contraction joints, but, instead of
painting the joints, an approved joint filler as shown on the Drawings shall be supplied and
placed in the joint to provide freedom for the two adjacent concrete slabs or blocks to
expand.

6.5 Design Joints in Structure in Contact with Water

Where a design joint occurs in a structure in contact with water or where shown on the

22
Drawings or otherwise ordered, the joint shall be made watertight by the provision of an
approved PVC waterstop as shown on the Drawings, fixed across the joint. Other types of
waterstops may be used subject to the prior approval of the S.O.

Design joints as specified above shall be sealed with an approved sealing compound as
shown on the Drawings. The joint sealants shall be applied in full accordance with the
manufacturer's instructions and to the approval of the S.O..

6.6 Waterstops

The Contractor shall store waterstops in such a way that the material does not deteriorate
during storage.

Waterstops shall be of sufficient stiffness so that they remain in their correct position during
concreting. The type shall suit the particular location in the structure in which the waterstop
is to be placed and the pattern shall be such that concrete can be placed all around it with
complete consolidation and no voids or crevices.

Waterstops shall be installed and butt jointed according to BS 8007 and the manufacturer's
recommendations. Waterstops shall be securely positioned in the formwork to prevent
displacement during concreting.

In no case shall waterstops be pierced to assist in fixing. Special care shall be taken to
ensure that the concrete is well worked against the embedded part of the strips and is free
from honey-combing, while avoiding any displacement of the waterstops. Precautions shall
be taken to protect the waterstops from damage during the progress of the works and from
sunlight and heat.

The Contractor shall at his expense replace or repair any waterstops punctured or damaged
during the course of the work to the satisfaction of the S.O.

6.6.1 PVC Waterstops

Unless otherwise specified on the Drawings, PVC waterstops shall be 250 mm


wide and 4.5 mm thick minimum. The width of the waterstops shall be within a
tolerance of 10 mm of the nominal width. The waterstops shall be the centre bulb
type of polyvinyl chloride with the following physical properties:

Specific gravity: 1.33 + 0.03 at 25oC ASTM D792;

Tensile strength: 14 MPa to 16 MPa at 25oC ASTM D412;

Ultimate elongation: 310% to 350% at 25oC ASTM D412.

6.7 Joints Sealants and Fillers

23
Joint sealants and fillers shall be placed in joints where shown on the Drawings or as
directed.

The Contractor shall submit a sample of all proposed sealants and fillers and the details of
the proposed method of application for approval before intended use.

6.7.1 Polysulphide or Polyurethane Mastic Joint Sealants

Polysulphide or polyurethane mastic joint sealants shall be placed in joints as


shown on the Drawings and elsewhere as directed. The joint sealant shall be an
approved two-part polysulphide or two-part polyurethane liquid polymer.

Two-part polysulphide or two-part polyurethane sealant shall comply with the


following requirement:-

(a) Conforming to BS 4254 : 1983;

(b) Min. Joint movement capacity of + 25% of


joint width at 25o C;

(c) Shore `A' Hardness of 25 + @ 25o C;

(d) Resistance to dilute acids, alkali and all


kinds of fuel.

6.7.2 Preformed Flexible Strip Sealant

Preformed Flexible Strip Sealant shall only be used in horizontal joints and shall be
subjected to pressure throughout its length, and shall comply with the following
requirements:-

(a) Have good adhesion;

(b) Water resistant;

(c) Non-staining.

6.7.3 Bitumen/Rubber Cold Applied Membrane Sealant

Bitumen/rubber cold applied membrane shall comply with the following


requirements:-

(a) Min. joint movement capacity of + 10% of

24
joint width at 25o C;

(b) Contains 90% solid content;

(c) Resistant to dilute acid and alkali.

6.7.4 Hot-Poured Rubber/Bitumen Sealing Compound

Hot-poured rubber/bitumen sealing compound shall comply with BS 2499.

6.7.5 Bituminous Sheet Filler

Bituminous sheeting with asbestos or similar fibre shall comply with the following
requirement:-

(a) Resistant to lime water (no visual effect


after two weeks immersion);

(b) Max. water absorption of 10% of dry weight;

(c) Min. tensile strength of 50 kg/cm2;

(d) Ozone and ultra-violet resistant.

The strip shall be applied to the joints by burning and affixing on each side of the
joint to a width not less than 70 mm leaving the middle part free to take any
movement at the joint without damage.

The bituminous fibre sheet shall be nominally 10 mm thick or the same thickness
as the joint width as shown in the Drawings and shall conform to ASTM D1751-
60T for preformed expansion joint fillers for concrete paving and structural
construction.

Furthermore, the Contractor shall demonstrate to the satisfaction of the S.O. that
the installed and expanded material will be capable of additional expansion, upon
appropriate post construction treatment, of not less than 20 per cent of its original
thickness. The material shall be installed in as wide and as long a strip as
possible.

The exposed edges of the bituminous fibre sheet shall be installed flush with either
the back of the recess formed by chamfers on the corners of the concrete or the
finished concrete surface as shown on the Drawings or as directed.

6.7.6 Polyurethane Foam Backing Rods

25
Polyurethane foam backing rods used as mortar stops in panel joints shall have
the following properties:-

(a) Min. compressibility of 75% of original volume at


25oC;

(b) Excellent resilient properties;

(c) Density of between 35 kg/cm3 and 45 kg/cm3;

(d) Totally resistant to common acids, lubricants


and detergents;

(e) Totally resistant to water infiltration by


capillary action;

(f) Suitable up to 70oC.

6.8 Gate Guides, Gate Seats, Fixing Blocks, Brackets, Built in Bolts, Holes, Chases, etc.

All gate guides, gate seats, fixing blocks, brackets, built in bolts, holes, chases, etc. shall be
accurately set out and formed and carefully sealed prior to the concrete being placed. It is
the responsibility of the Contractor to obtain all such information for these items of work
and obtain the permission of the S.O. before incorporating such work prior to the concrete
being placed.

Bolts and other inserts to be cast into the concrete shall be securely fixed to the formwork
in such a way that they are not displaced during the concreting operations and that there is
no loss of materials from the wet concrete through holes in the formwork.

Unless shown otherwise on the Drawings or instructed by the S.O., reinforcement shall be
locally moved so that the minimum specified cover is maintained at the locations of inserts,
holes, chases, etc. In the event where the minimum cover cannot be maintained, the
Contractor shall take the necessary precautions to protect the reinforcements against
corrosion. Approved coating materials shall be applied to the reinforcements and the
concrete cover.

Temporary plugs shall be removed and the threads of built in bolts shall be proved to be free
and shall be greased before handing over any part of the Work.

7. STEEL REINFORCEMENT

7.1 Description

26
The Work shall consist of furnishing and placing reinforcing steel in accordance with this
Specification and in conformity with the Drawings or as directed by the S.O.

7.2 Materials

Hot rolled mild steel and high yield bars shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 146 as
denoted on the Drawings. Cold worked steel bars shall comply with the requirements of
B.S. 4461. Hard drawn mild steel wire shall comply with the requirements of M.S. 144.

Steel fabric reinforcement shall comply with the requirement of M.S. 145 and shall be
delivered to the Site in flat sheets, unless otherwise specified.

Dowel bars shall be plain round bars conforming to the requirements of M.S. 146. They
shall be free from burring or other deformations restricting slippage in the concrete. Dowel
bar sleeves used for debonding shall be of approved synthetic material. The closed end of
the sleeve shall be filled with 25 mm thick compressible foam filler and the sleeve shall fit
tightly over the length of bar to be debonded.

Before any reinforcement steel is brought to site, the Contractor shall furnish the
manufacturer's certificates of test and these shall be submitted for acceptance by the S.O.
In addition the Contractor shall on request, furnish the S.O. with a test sheet from approved
laboratory for any batch of bars, giving the results of each of the mechanical tests and/or
chemical composition analysis required under the Malaysian Standards or any equivalent
international standards approved by the S.O. The specified characteristic strength of steel
reinforcement shall be as given in Table 10.

During the course of the Work, any reinforcement being found to be not in accordance with
the Malaysian Standards or British Standards, may be rejected by the S.O. not withstanding
any previous acceptance on the strength of the test certificates, and the S.O. may call for
additional tests to be made at the Contractor's expense on sample taken from the batch of
bars, from which the defective reinforcement came. If the samples do not comply with the
Malaysian Standards or British Standards then the S.O. may reject the whole batch and
instruct its removal from the Site.

Steel reinforcement shall be stored in clean and dry conditions. When placed in the Work it
shall be clean and free from loose rust, mill scale, oil, grease, paint, dirt or anything which
may reduce its bond with concrete. If directed by the S.O., the steel bars shall be brushed
or otherwise cleaned before use, at the Contractor's expense.

Binding wire shall be 1.6 mm diameter soft annealed steel wire complying with the
requirement of B.S. 1052.

7.3 Construction Methods

27
7.3.1 Cutting and Bending of Reinforcement

Bars shall be of their correct lengths and bent to the exact shapes required before
being fixed in the work.

Bars shall be cut and bent cold by the application of slow, steady pressure or in an
approved bar-bending machine. Bending at temperatures in excess of 100oC may
only be carried out with the S.O.'s approval and under his supervision. Except
where otherwise indicated on the Drawings, bars shall be bent and measured in
accordance with B.S. 4466.

Cold worked and hot rolled bars shall not be straightened or bent again once
having been bent. Where it is necessary to bend mild steel reinforcement already
cast in the concrete, the internal radius of bend shall be not less than twice the
diameter of the bar.

Special care shall be taken that the overall length of bars with multiple bends is
accurate and that after bending and fixing in position the bars remain in place
without wrap or twist.

7.3.2 Fixing of Reinforcement

The number, size, length, shape, type and position of all reinforcing bars, links,
spacer bars and other parts of the steel reinforcement, shall be in accordance
with the Drawings.

Reinforcements shall be secured against displacement. Unless specified


otherwise, the actual concrete cover shall be taken as the distance between face
of concrete to the nearest steel surface. All intersecting bars shall be tied
together with binding wire and the ends of the wire shall be turned into the main
body of the concrete.

Reinforcements temporarily left projecting from the concrete at construction or


other joints shall not be bent out of position during the periods in which concreting
is suspended except with the approval of the S.O.

The Contractor shall take particular care that the reinforcement is laid out
correctly in every respect and temporarily suspended by annealed wire or
supported on concrete blocks or other approved spacers in the forms to prevent
displacement during the placing and compacting of concrete. Links shall tightly
embrace the longitudinal reinforcement to which they shall be securely wired or
spot welded. The top reinforcement in slabs shall be rigidly supported on mild
steel "chairs" or equivalent spaced in each direction to prevent sagging during
concreting.

28
No concrete shall be placed until the reinforcement has been inspected and
approved by the S.O.

7.3.3 Splicing

Laps and joints including lapping bars, sleeving, threading and other mechanical
connections shall be made strictly in accordance with the method specified and at
the positions shown on the drawings or as otherwise approved by the S.O.

7.3.4 Supporting and Spacer Blocks

Supporting and spacer blocks required for ensuring that the reinforcement is
correctly positioned shall be as small as possible consistent with their purpose, of
a shape approved by the S.O. and designed so that they will not overturn when
the concrete is placed. They shall be made of concrete with 10 mm maximum
aggregate size and they shall be of at least the same strength and material source
as the adjacent concrete. Wire cast in the block for the purpose of tying it to the
reinforcement shall be as described in Subsection 7.2. Other types of spacers
may be used only with the approval of the S.O.

7.3.5 Welding of Reinforcement

Reinforcement in structures shall not be welded except where detailed on the


Drawings or required by the Specification.

Welding shall be carried out in accordance with B.S. 5135 and B.S. 638. Butt
welds shall be of the double V type and two butt weld bond tests shall be carried
out on a specimen prepared to represent each form of butt welded joint used in
welding the reinforcement and for each position of welding. The method of
making butt weld tests shall be as laid down in B.S. 709. The specimen shall pass
the test to the approval of the S.O. before using the joint which the specimen
represents.

Welded joints shall not be made at bends in reinforcement. Unless otherwise


approved by the S.O., joints in parallel bars of the principal tensile reinforcement
shall be staggered in the longitudinal direction at a distance not less than the end
anchorage length for the bar.

All welding shall be performed by a competent welder approved by the S.O.

The S.O. shall be informed in advance of when welding is to be carried out so


that he may supervise and inspect the work. Welding shall not be performed in
the field during rain or other adverse conditions.

29
8. FORMWORK

8.1 Design and Construction

8.1.1 Description

Formwork shall include all temporary or permanent forms required for forming
the concrete, together with all temporary construction required for their support.

The design and construction of formwork shall be carried out by competent


person. Where required by the S.O., strength and deflection calculations and
drawings of the proposed formwork certified by a Professional Engineer shall be
submitted by the Contractor for prior approval. Not withstanding any approval by
the S.O. with respect to the design submitted by the Contractor, the responsibility
for the adequacy and safety of the design shall remain with the Contractor.

When the use of proprietary type of formwork is proposed by the Contractor, the
design shall be certified by a Professional Engineer.

The Contractor may use precast concrete blocks or masonry left permanently
embedded in the structure as a substitute for temporary formwork with prior
approval of the S.O. Where such permission is given the blocks shall have
positive anchorage with the structure and all joints shall be made properly tight
with mortar or other means to prevent leakage of grout and shall provide an
exposed face of the necessary quality. The blocks of concrete or masonry shall
stand outside the limits of concrete shown on the Drawings unless otherwise
agreed by the S.O.

Formwork shall be sufficiently rigid and tight to prevent loss of grout or mortar
from the concrete at all stages of construction and shall be appropriate for the
methods of placing and compacting.

Formwork (including supports) shall be sufficiently rigid to maintain the forms in


their correct position, shape, profile and dimensions. The supports shall be
designed to withstand the worst combination of forces due to self weight,
formwork weight, formwork forces, reinforcement weight, wet concrete weight,
construction and wind loads, together with all incidental dynamic effects caused
by placing, vibrating and compacting the concrete. Vertical propping to formwork
shall be carried down sufficiently far to provide the necessary support without
overstressing the completed concrete structure. The Contractor is deemed to
have made a study of the Drawings at tender stage and is aware of all areas of
construction, requiring heavy and specially designed propping to provide the
support and the necessary bracing for the stability of such propping.

Panels shall have true edges to permit accurate alignment and provide a neat line

30
with adjacent panels and at all given construction joint. All panels shall be fixed
with their joints either vertical or horizontal, unless otherwise specified or
approved. When chamfers are to be formed the fillets shall be accurately cut to
size to provide a smooth and continuous chamfer.

The formwork shall be so arranged as to be readily dismantled and removed from


the cast concrete without shock, disturbance or damage. Where necessary, the
formwork shall be so arranged that the soffit form, properly supported, can be
retained in position for such period as may be required by the condition of the
maturing concrete or the Specification. If a component is to be prestressed whilst
still resting on the soffit form, provision shall be made to allow for elastic
deformation and any variation in weight distribution. As far as practicable,
formwork joints shall coincide with construction joints.

8.1.2 Form Ties

Where internal metal ties are permitted, their removal parts shall be extracted
without damage to the concrete and the remaining holes filled with mortar of the
same strength as the cast concrete. No permanently embedded metal parts shall
have less than the specified cover to the finished concrete surface. Except for
ties used for anchoring void formers, all ties shall be at least 1.2 metres apart and
through bolts will not be permitted on exposed faces. All holes left by ties shall be
made good within one day of the removal of the formwork using a mortar of the
same strength as the cast concrete. Metal ties which allow for holes through the
concrete being cast shall not be permitted to be used in concrete for water-
retaining structure, and in roof slabs and walls.

8.1.3 Form Lining

The type and treatment of any lining (plywood, metal, plastic, etc) of the forms
shall be appropriate to the concrete finish required.

8.1.4 Projecting Reinforcement, Fixing Devices

Where holes are needed in forms to accommodate projecting reinforcement or


fixing devices, care shall be taken to prevent loss of grout when concreting or
damage when removing forms.

8.2 Chamfers

Unless otherwise detailed, edges of all concrete shall be finished to a 20 mm x 20 mm


chamfer.

31
8.3 Finishes and Finishing

8.3.1 Irregularities in Finish

(1) Concrete surface irregularities are classified as "abrupt" or "gradual" and


are measured relative to the actual concrete surface.

(2) Abrupt surface irregularities: Offsets caused by displaced, misplaced form


sheathing or lining or form sections, loose forms, loose knots in form
lumber, or other similar forming faults will be considered as abrupt surface
irregularities. Abrupt surface irregularities are measured using a short
straightedge, at least 150 millimeters long, held firmly against the concrete
surface over the irregularity, and the magnitude of the offset is determined
by direct measurement.

(3) Gradual surface irregularities: Bulges and depressions resulting in gradual


changes on the concrete surface will be considered as gradual surface
irregularities. Gradual surface irregularities are measured using a template
conforming to the design profile of the concrete surface being examined.
The templates shall be at least 2.5 meters in length.

Templates for surface irregularities shall be furnished by the Contractor


and shall be available for use by the S.O. at all times.

8.3.2 Class of Finish for Formed Concrete

The classes of finish for formed concrete surfaces shall be designated by symbols
F1, F2, F3 and F4 as described below. Unless otherwise specified on the
Drawings, all exposed concrete surfaces shall be of Class F2, and all unexposed
surfaces shall be of Class F1. Class F3 and Class F4 shall be used only where
specified on the Drawings.

Class F1. This finish shall be obtained by the use of properly designed forms of
closely joined sawn timber or other approved material. Small blemishes caused
by entrapped air or water may be expected but the surface shall be free from
voids and honeycombs. Correction of surface irregularities will be required for
depressions only, and only for those which, when measured as described in
Subsection 8.3.1, exceed 25 mm.

Class F2. This finish shall be obtained by the use of properly designed forms of
closely joined wrought boards, approved plywood or other approved material.
Except as hereinafter provided, surface irregularities, measured as described in
Subsection 8.3.1, shall not exceed 5 mm for abrupt irregularities, and 10 mm for
gradual irregularities.

32
Class F3. This finish applies to formed surfaces the appearance of which is of
special importance, such as those prominently exposed for public inspection, and
shall be obtained by the use of properly designed steel forms or plastic coated
plywood, wrought boards or other approved material. Surface irregularities,
measured as described in Subsection 8.3.1, shall not exceed 5 mm for gradual
irregularities and 3 mm for abrupt irregularities, except that abrupt irregularities
will not be permitted at construction joints. Abrupt irregularities at construction
joints, abrupt irregularities elsewhere in excess of 3 mm and gradual irregularities
in excess of 5 mm shall be reduced by grinding to conform to the specified limits.
Abrupt irregularities at construction joints shall be ground on a bevel of 1 to 20
ratio of height to length.

Class F4. This finish applies to formed surfaces for which accurate alignment
and evenness of surface are of paramount importance from the standpoint of
eliminating destructive effects of running water and shall be obtained in a similar
way as for Class F3 finish, except that surface irregularities, measured as
described in Subsection 8.3.1, shall not exceed 3 mm for abrupt irregularities
parallel to the direction of flow. Gradual irregularities shall not exceed 5 mm.
Abrupt irregularities not parallel to the direction of flow, and offset into the flow,
exceeding the 3 mm specified shall be eliminated by grinding on a bevel of 1 to 20
ratio of height to length. Except as otherwise specified, abrupt irregularities
parallel to the direction of flow or offset away from the flow greater than 3 mm
and gradual irregularities greater than 5 mm shall be reduced by grinding so that
they are within that limit. Bevels produced by such grinding, that are steeper than
the bevel specified shall be reduced by grinding so they conform with such bevel.

8.3.3 Class of Finish for Unformed Concrete

The classes of finish for unformed concrete surfaces are designated by the
symbols U1, U2 and U3. Surfaces which will be exposed to the weather and
which are nominally level shall be sloped for drainage approximately 2 per cent
unless the use of other slopes or level surfaces is indicated on the Drawings, or
directed. Unless otherwise specified or indicated on the Drawings, these classes
of finish shall apply as follows:-

Class U1 (Screeded Finish). This finish applies to unformed surfaces that will
be covered by fill material or by concrete. Finish U1 is also used as the first
stage of finish U2. The surface shall be levelled and screeded sufficiently to
produce even, uniform surfaces. Gradual surface irregularities shall not exceed
10 mm.

Class U2 (Floated Finish). This finish applies to unformed surfaces not


permanently concealed by fill material or concrete. Floating may be performed
by use of hand or power-driven equipment. Floating shall be delayed until the

33
screeded surface has stiffened sufficiently to prevent the formation of laitance,
and shall be the minimum necessary to produce a surface that is free from screed
marks and is uniform in texture. Gradual surface irregularities shall not exceed 5
mm. Joints and edges shall be tooled down where shown on the Drawings or
where directed.

Class U3 (Steel-trowelled Finish). This finish applies to the tops of parapet


walls, bases and exposed vertical surfaces of spillways and stilling basins, and
elsewhere as shown on the Drawings. When the floated surface has hardened
sufficiently to prevent excess of fine material from being drawn to the surface,
trowelling shall be performed with firm pressure, such as will flatten the sandy
texture of the floated surface and produce a dense uniform surface, free from
blemishes and trowel marks. Gradual surface irregularities shall not exceed 3
mm.

8.3.4 Remedial Treatment of Surfaces

Approved remedial treatment of surfaces shall be carried out at the expense of


the Contractor where necessary as determined by the S.O., following inspection
immediately after removing the formwork and shall be carried out without delay.

Any concrete, the surface of which has been treated before being inspected by
the S.O., shall be liable to rejection.

8.3.5 Sprinkling with Cement

Sprinkling of the surfaces with dry cement or any other material during finishing
operations for drying off the concrete, to facilitate trowelling or for any other
purpose will not be permitted.

8.3.6 Staining of Concrete

For concrete surfaces for which F1, F2, F3 and F4 formwork is specified, care
shall be taken that accumulation of foreign materials or staining due to any cause
does not occur on the finished surface. Any accumulation or staining shall be
cleaned off by the Contractor using an approved method at the Contractor's own
expense.

8.4 Preparation of Forms Before Concreting

Before concreting, all forms shall be thoroughly cleaned out, free from sawdust shavings,
dust, mud or other debris.

The inside surfaces of forms shall, except for permanent formwork, or unless otherwise
approved by the S.O., be coated with an approved non-staining form oil or other approved

34
material to prevent adhesion of the concrete. Such release agents shall be applied strictly in
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and shall not come into contact with the
reinforcement or prestressing tendons and anchorages. For any exposed surface only one
release agent shall be used throughout the entire area.

All formwork shall be inspected by the S.O. after preparation and immediately prior to
depositing concrete and no concrete shall be deposited until approval of the formwork has
been obtained.

8.5 Removal of Forms

The Contractor shall inform the S.O. and obtain his approval before striking any formwork,
but such approval shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibilities for the safety of the
Work. The removal shall be done in such a manner as not to damage the concrete, and
shall take place at times to suit the requirement for its curing.

Where the concrete compressive strength is confirmed by tests on concrete cubes stored
under conditions that simulate the field conditions, formwork supporting concrete in bending
may be struck when the cube strength is 10 N/mm2 or twice the stress to which it will be
subjected, whichever is the greater provided that striking at this time will not result in
unacceptable deflection. In the absence of such tests, the minimum periods between
concreting and the removal of forms are given in Table 11. The periods stated in the table
are based on the use of ordinary Portland cement. They may be changed if other types of
cement are used to the S.O.'s approval.

For prestressed in-situ decks, temporary supports shall not be removed until the deck is
stressed to the approval of the S.O.

Where it is intended that forms are to be reused, it shall be cleaned and made good to the
approval of the S.O.

Following the removal of forms, no further loads shall be imposed upon concrete until at
least after the completion of the curing period or until such later time as in the opinion of the
S.O. the concrete shall have attained sufficient strength to safely withstand such loads. Full
design loads shall not be applied to any structure until all load bearing concrete is at least 28
days old.

9. MASS AND LEAN CONCRETE

Mass and lean concrete shall compose of cement, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate in the
nominal ratio by volume of 1:3:6 and 1:4:8 respectively. Where however a denser and more
workable concrete can be produced by a variation in the ratio of the fine aggregate to that of coarse
aggregate, this ratio may be varied within the limits 1 to 1and 1 to 3, provided that the volumes of
fine and coarse aggregate, each measured separately, shall nevertheless equal the sum of the

35
volumes of fine and coarse aggregate appropriate to the nominal mix. The concrete shall be mixed
as described for reinforced concrete.

10. TOLERANCES

Allowable deviations from plumb or level and from the alignment, profile, grades and dimensions
shown on the Drawings are defined as "tolerances". Tolerances shall be inclusive of surfaces
irregularities as defined in Subsection 8.3.1. The intent of this Subsection is to provide tolerance
limits that are consistent with modern construction practice, yet governed by the effect that
permissible deviations will have upon the structural action or operational function of the structures.
Deviations from the established grades and dimensions will be permitted to the extent set forth in
this Subsection.

Notations of specific tolerances on the Drawings in connection with any dimensions shall be
considered as supplementary to the tolerances specified in this Subsection.

The Contractor shall be responsible for setting and maintaining concrete forms sufficiently within
the tolerance limits and shall ensure that the work is completed within the tolerances specified in this
Subsection. Concrete work that exceeds the tolerance limits specified in this Subsection shall be
remedied or removed and replaced by and at the expense of the Contractor.

10.1 Concrete structures

(1) Variation from the plumb:

Trash-rack and gate slots In 3 m or more 3 mm

In the lines and surfaces In 3 m 12 mm


of columns, piers and walls In 6 m 16 mm

(2) Variations from the level or from the grades indicated on the Drawings:

Sills of hydraulic gates, 3 mm


trash-rack gate slots

In floors and inverts 15 mm

(3) Variation in locations of


floor openings and wall openings 12 mm

(4) Variation in cross-sectional dimensions

(a) columns, wall thickness 8 mm


(b) beams 13 mm

36
(c) slab thickness 10 mm

(5) Footings:

Variation of dimension in plan Minus 10 mm


Plus 50 mm

Misplacement or eccentricity 2% of footing width


in the direction of
misplacement but
not more than 50 mm

Thickness Minus 5% of
specified
thickness

10.2 Reinforcement

(1) Length of splice - 25 mm

(2) Variation of protective cover + 5 mm

(3) Variation in indicated


position of reinforcement:

Starter bars One bar


diameter

Slabs and walls 0.25 the


indicated
spacing

Beams and columns + 5 mm

(4) Dimensions of bent bars

Stirrups and ties + 5 mm

Other bars + 10 mm

These tolerances shall apply provided that the number of bars required by the
specified spacing is not varied.

37
(5) Embedded Metal-work

Tolerances for placing embedded metal-work + 5 mm

11. APPARATUS

The Contractor shall provide the following apparatus for use on the Site at all times:-

(1) Concrete slump test apparatus complying with M.S. 26. One set of the apparatus shall be
provided for each concreting location.

(2) At least twelve nos. of 150 mm steel or cast iron moulds complete with tamping bars and
base plates in accordance with M.S. 26 for casting 150 mm concrete test cubes and six
nos. of 100 mm mortar or grout test cubes moulds. A minimum number shall be provided
such that no stripping of cube is required prior to 24 hours setting and hardening period.

(3) Three measuring cylinders of 250 ml capacity, graduated to measure to the nearest 2.0 ml,
for determination of silt content (field setting method).

(4) One concrete rebound hammer.

(5) One set of sieves in compliance with BS 410.

(6) Scale or balance 25 kg maximum capacity and weights.

(7) Trowel, shovel, spanner and other tools.

(8) One electronic calculator

38
12. TABLES

TABLE 1 - GRADING FOR COARSE AGGREGATE

% Passing By Weight
Nominal Size of graded Nominal Size of graded
B.S 410 aggregate aggregate
Test Sieve 40mm 20mm 14mm
to to to 40 mm 20 mm 10 mm
5mm 5mm 5mm
75.0 mm 100 - - - - -

63.0 mm - - - 100 - -

37.5 mm 95-100 100 - 85-100 100 -

20.0 mm 35-70 95-100 100 0-25 85-100 -

14.0 mm - - 90-100 - - 100

10.0 mm 10-40 30-60 50-85 0-5 0-25 85-100

5.0 mm 0.5 0-10 0-10 - 0-5 0-25

2.36 mm - - - - - 0-5

39
TABLE 2 - GRADING FOR FINE AGGREGATE

B.S 410 % Passing By Weight


Test Sieve * Grading Grading
Zone 2 Zone 3

10.0 mm 100 100

5.0 mm 90-100 90-100

2.36 mm 75-100 85-100

1.18 mm 55-90 75-100

600 m 35-59 60-79

300 m 8-30 12-40

150 m 0-10 0-10

* For prescribed mix only Grading Zone 2 is


applicable.
See also sub-section 2.2.3(2).

40
TABLE 3 - TESTING OF AGGREGATES

Properties Type of Test Methods Limits


Aggregate

Grading Both M.S. 30 Table 1 & Table 2

Elongation Index Coarse M.S. 30 not exceeding 30%

Flakiness Index Coarse M.S. 30 not exceeding 35%

Water Absorption Both M.S. 30 not exceeding 8%

Clay Lumps Coarse M.S. 30 not exceeding 1% by weight

Clay, Silt and Dust Fine M.S. 30 not exceeding 3% by weight or


8% by vol.

Organic Impurities Fine M.S. 30 not exceeding 0.4%

Aggregate Crushing Value Coarse M.S. 30 not exceeding 40%

Los Angeles Coarse ASTM C 131 not exceeding 40% by mass


Abration or ASTM C 535 at 500 revolutions

Soundness Test Coarse ASTMC 88 loss in mass after 5 cycles


should not be more than 12%
for sodium sulphate or 18%
for magnesium sulphate

Chloride Content Both B.S. 812 not exceeding 0.06% by weight


Part 117 of chloride ions

Sulphate Content Both B.S. 812 not exceeding 0.44% by weight


Part 118 of SO3

41
TABLE 4 - ADMIXTURE ACCEPTANCE TEST REQUIREMENTS

Stiffening Time Minimum Length Change,

Category Water Strength as Maximum shrinkage


of Admixture Reduction Time from completion of mixing to reach a a percentage Age

resistance to penetration of :- of the % of


control mix Control Increase
2 2 2
0.5N/mm 3.5N/mm 27.5N/mm Compressive

Type 1: - More than 1 hr. Within 1 hr. and 3 At least 1 hr. 125 24 hrs.

Accelerating hrs. earlier than earlier than 125 3 days 135 0.010
control mix control mix 100 7 days
100 28 days

Type 2: - At least 1 hr. Within 1 hr. and 3 Not more than 3 90 3 days
later
Retarding than control mix hrs. later than hrs. later than 90 7 days 135 0.010
control mix control mix 95 28 days

Type 3: At least Within + 1 hr. Within + 1 hr. and Within + 1 hr. 110 3 days
and and
Normal 5% - 1 hr. of control - 1 hr. of control - 1 hr. of control 110 7 days 135 0.010
water- mix mix mix 110 28 days
reducing

Type 4: At least More than 1 hr. Within 1 hr. and 3 At least 1 hr. 125 24 hrs.
Accelerating 5% hrs. earlier than earlier than 125 3 days 135 0.010
water- control mix control mix 100 7 days
reducing 100 28 days

Type 5 At least At least 1 hr. Within 1 hr. and 3 Not more than 3 110 3 days
later
Retarding 5% than control mix hrs. later than hrs. later than 110 7 days 135 0.010
water- control mix control mix 110 28 days
reducing

42
TABLE 5 - PRESCRIBED MIXES FOR GENERAL USE PER CUBIC
METRE OF CONCRETE BY WEIGHT BATCHING

28-day Nominal Max. Size 20


Charac- of Aggregate (mm) Max.
Grade of teristic free
Concrete Strength of water/
Concrete Workability Medium High cement
(N/mm2) ratio
Slump Limits 25-75 75-125
(mm)

15P 15 Cement (kg) 280 310


Total aggregate(kg) 1,800 1,750 0.6
*Fine aggregate(%) 35-50 35-50

20P 20 Cement (kg) 320 350


Total aggregate(kg) 1,800 1,750 0.55
*Fine aggregate(%) 25-40 20-45 -0.6

25P 25 Cement (kg) 360 390


Total aggregate(kg) 1,750 1,700 0.5
*Fine aggregate(%) 25-40 30-45

30P 30 Cement (kg) 400 430


Total aggregate(kg) 1,700 1,650 0.45
*Fine aggregate(%) 25-40 30-45

* Fine aggregate is expressed as a percentage by weight to the total weight of


the dry aggregate.

43
TABLE 5A - PROPORTIONS AND STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR
PRESCRIBED MIXES BY VOLUME BATCHING

Cubic Meters of Characteristic


Aggregate Per Max. Quantity Strength of
50 kg of cement Free of Water Concrete
Mix Slump Water/
proportions Limits Cement
(mm) Fine Coarse Ratio (Litres) At 7 At 28
(20 mm) Days Days
(N/mm2) (N/mm2)

1:1.5:3 25-50 0.05 0.1 0.5 25 17 25


(25P)

1:2:4 25-50 0.07 0.14 0.55-0.6 27.5-30 14 20


(20P)

1:3:6 25-50 0.10 0.20 - As - -


Approved
by S.O.

44
TABLE 6 - MINIMUM CEMENT CONTENT AND MAXIMUM FREE
WATER/CEMENT RATIO FOR DESIGNED MIX

Prestressed Reinforced Plain


Concrete Concrete Concrete
Nominal max. Nominal max. Nominal max. Max. Free
Exposure size of size of size of Water/
aggregate aggregate aggregate Cement
(in mm) (in mm) (in mm) Ratio
40 20 10 40 20 10 40 20
Surface sheltered from severe (kg/m3) (kg/m3) (kg/m3)
rain:-
(1) surface protected by a
water-proof membrane;
(2) internal surfaces,
whether or not subject to 300 320 360 300 320 360 250 280 0.55
condensation
(3) surfaces continuously
buried and/or submerged
under water.
(1) soffits;
(2) surfaces exposed to
driving rain, alternate 330 350 390 330 350 390 270 300 0.5
wetting and drying, eg. in
contact with backfill.
(1) surfaces exposed to the
action of sea water with 360 380 420 360 380 420 320 350 0.45
abrasion having a pH of
4.5 or less.
(1) surfaces exposed to References shall be made to M.S. 1226, M.S. 1227,
sulphate attack. B.S. 6699 and *Table 6.1- M.S. 1195 Part 1 : 1991

* Table 6.1- B.S 8110 shall be refered to until this Malaysian Standard Code of Pratice is available.

45
TABLE 7 - MAXIMUM TOTAL CHLORIDE

Type or Use of Concrete Maximum Total Percentage of


Chloride Ions by Weight of Cement

Concrete containing embedded metal


and made with cement complying with M.S. 522,
B.S. 1370 or combinations with additional 0.4
materials (p.f.a or g.g.b.f.s).

Concrete containing embedded metal


made with cement complying with B.S. 4027. 0.2

Prestressed Concrete and Heat-Cured Concrete 0.1


containing embedded metal.

Plain non-structural concrete. No limit

Notes on Table 7:-

(1) % Chloride ions x 1.648 = % equivalent sodium chloride

(2) % Chloride ions x 1.56 = % equivalent anhydrous calcium chloride

46
TABLE 8 - MINIMUM RATE OF SAMPLING

Rate Volume of concrete from which


a sample shall be taken

Rate 1
Columns, Footings, Bridge Every 10.0 m3
Decks, Gate Operating Platforms, Masts, or every group of 10 batches *
Pile Caps, Cantilevers, Shear Walls,
Retaining Walls And Prestressed Concrete

Rate 2
All reinforced concrete structures not Every 20.0 m3
covered by Rate 1 or every group of 20 batches *

Rate 3
Mass Concrete Every 50.0 m3
or every group of 50 batches *

* The sample shall be taken from one single batch randomly selected from the group of
batches.

47
TABLE 8A - COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR
PRESCRIBED MIX AT 7 DAYS

Concrete Grade Characteristic Strength


of Concrete
(N/mm2)

30P 20

25P 17

20P 14

48
TABLE 8B - COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH COMPLIANCE
REQUIREMENTS FOR DESIGNED MIX AT 28 DAYS

A (Global) B

Specified Group of
grade Test The mean of first 2, or Any individual test
result first 3 or of any 4 result is not less than
consecutive, test result the specified
exceeds the specified compressive strength
compressive strength less:
by at least:

N/mm2 N/mm2

20 and first 2 1 3
above first3 2 3

consecutive 4 3 3

7.5 to first 2 0 2
15 first 3 1 2

consecutive 4 2 2

49
TABLE 9 - ACTION TO BE TAKEN FOR NON-COMPLIANCE OF
28-DAY CONCRETE CUBE STRENGTH

Designed Mix Prescribed Mix

Grade Average 28-day Grade Average 28-day Test on Structure after


Compressive Compressive 28 days
Strength (N/mm2) Strength (N/mm2)

20 17.0 to below 23.0 20P 17.0 to below 20.0 )

25 22.0 to below 28.0 25P 22.0 to below 25.0 )

30 27.0 to below 33.0 30P 27.0 to below 30.0 ) Non-destructive


method

35 32.0 to below 38.0 ) and/or core test

40 37.0 to below 43.0 ) (Refer to B.S. 6089)

45 42.0 to below 48.0 )

50 47.0 to below 53.0 )

50
TABLE 9A - ACTION TO BE TAKEN FOR NON-COMPLIANCE OF
28-DAY CONCRETE CUBE STRENGTH

Average 28-day
Grade Compressive Strength Test on Structure after 28 days
(N/mm2)

20 , 20P below 17.0 )

25 , 25P below 22.0 )

30 , 30P below 27.0 ) Non-destructive method

35 below 32.0 ) and core test and/or

40 below 37.0 ) load test

45 below 42.0 ) (Refer to B.S. 6089)

50 below 47.0 )

51
TABLE 10 - CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH
OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT

Nominal Specified
Designation Sizes Charateristic
(mm) Strength, fy
(N/mm2)

Hot rolled grade 250 All sizes 250


(M.S. 146)

Hot rolled grade 460 All sizes 460


(M.S. 146)

Cold worked All sizes 460


(B.S. 4461)

Hard drawn steel wire Up to and 485


(M.S. 144) including 12

TABLE 11 - MINIMUM PERIODS BETWEEN CONCRETING


AND REMOVAL OF FORMS

Vertical faces of beams, walls, columns, piles, 3 days


and foundation plinths

Underside of slabs 14 days

Underside of beams 28 days

52
13. REFERENCES

At the time of publication, the following references are referred to. However, for compliance
with specified requirements the latest editions current at the time of Tender shall be followed.

BS 12 : 1989 Specification for Portland Cement.

BS 146 Specification for Portland-blastfurnace Cement.

BS 146:Part 2: 1973 Metric Units.

BS 638: Arc Welding Power sources, Equipment and Accessories.

BS 638:Part 1:1979 Specification for Oil Cooled Power sources for Manual, Semi-
automatic and Automatic Metal Arc Welding and for TIG
Welding.

Part 2:1979 Specification for Air Cooled Power Sources for Manual Metal-
arc Welding With Covered Electrodes and for TIG Welding.

Part 3:1979 Specification for Air Cooled Power Sources for Semi-automatic
and Automatic Metal-arc Welding.

Part 4:1979 Specification for Welding Cables.

Part 6:1984 Specification for Safety Requirements for Construction.

Part 7:1984 Specification for Safety Requirements for Installation and Use

Part 8:1984 Specification for Electrode Holders and Hand Held Torches and
Guns for MIG,MAG and TIG.

BS 709: 1971 Method of Testing Fusion Welded Joints and Weld Metal in Steel.

BS 812: Part 117:1988 Testing Aggregates.


- Method for The Determination of Water Soluble Chloride
Salts.

BS 812: Part 118:1988 Testing Aggregates.


- Method for the Determination of Sulphate Content.

BS 877 Specification for Foamed or Expanded Blast-furnace Slag


Lightweight aggregate for Concrete.

53
BS 877: Part 2:1975 (1977) Metric Units.

BS 882:1983 Specification for Aggregate From Natural sources for Concrete.

BS 1047:1983 Specification for Air-cooled Blast-furnace Slag Aggregates for Use In


Construction.

BS 1052:1980 (1986) Specification for Mild Steel Wire for General Engineering
Purposes.

BS 1165:1985 Specification for Clinker and Furnace Bottom Ash Aggregate for
Concrete.

BS 1305:1974 Batch Type Concrete Mixers.

BS 1370:1979 Specification for Low Heat Portland Cement.

BS 1881: Part 101:1983 Method of Sampling Fresh Concrete On Site.

Part 102:1983 Method for Determination of Slump.

Part 103:1983 Method for Determination of Compacting Factor.

Part 104:1983 Method for Determination of Vebe Time.

Part 106:1983 Method for Determination of Air Content of Fresh Concrete.

Part 107:1983 Method for Determination of Density of Compacted Fresh Concrete.

Part 108:1983 Method for Making Test Cubes From Fresh Concrete.

Part 111:1983 Method of Normal Curing Test Specimen


(20o C Method).

Part 116:1983 Method for Determination of Compressive Strength of Concrete Cube.

Part 124:1988 Methods for Analysis of Hardened Concrete.

Part 125:1986 Method for Mixing and Sampling Fresh Concrete in the Laboratory.

Part 201:1986 Guide To The Use of Non-destructive Methods of Test for Hardened
Concrete.

Part 202:1986 Recommendations for Surface Hardness Testing By Rebound Hammer.

54
BS 2499 : Part 1 : 1993 Specification for joint sealants

BS 2499 : Part 2 : 1992 Code of Practice for the application of and use of joint sealants

BS 3416:1975 Specification for Black Bitumen Coating Solutions for Cold Application.

BS 3797 Specification for Lightweight Aggregate for Concrete.

BS 3797: Part 2:1976 (1982) Metric Units.

BS 3892: Part 1:1982 Pulverized Fuel Ash for Use In Concrete.

BS 4027:1980 Specification for Sulphate-Resisting Portland Cement.

BS 4246 Specification for Low Heat Portland-blast-furnace Cement.

BS 4246: Part 2:1974 Metric Units.

BS 4248:1974 Specification of Supersulphated Cement.

BS 4254:1983 Specification for Two-part Polysulphide-based Sealants.

BS 4360:1972 Weldable Structural Steels.

BS 4461 Cold Worked Steel Bars for The Reinforcement of Concrete.


BS 4466:1981 Specification for Bending Dimension and Scheduling of Reinforcement for
Concrete.

BS 5135:1984 Specification for Arc Welding of Carbon and Carbon Manganese Steels.

BS 6089:1981 Guide To Assessment of Concrete Strength In Existing Structures.

BS 6349: Part 1:1984 Maritime Structures (General Criteria).

BS 6699:1986 Specification for Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slug for Use With
Portland Cement.

BS 8007:1989 Code of Practice for The Structural Use of Concrete for Retaining
Aqueous Liquids.

BS 8110:1985 Structural Use of Concrete.

BS 8110: Part 1: 1985 Code of Practice for Design and Construction.

55
MS 26: Pt 1:1971 Methods of Testing Concrete-Part 1:
Method of Sampling Fresh Concrete.

MS 26: Pt 2:1971 Methods of Testing Concrete-Part 2:


Methods of Testing Fresh Concrete.

MS 26: Pt 3:1971 Methods of Testing Concrete-Part 3:


Methods of Making & Curing Test Specimen.

MS 26: Pt 4:1971 Methods of Testing Concrete-Part 4:


Methods of Testing Concrete for Strength.

MS 26: Pt 5:1971 Methods of Testing Concrete-Part 5:


Methods of Testing Hardened Concrete for Other Than
Strength.

MS 28:1985 i) Test for Water for Making Concrete.

ii) Methods of Test for Water for Making Concrete (First


Revision).

MS 29:1971 Coarse & Fine Aggregates From Natural Sources.

MS 30:1971 Methods for Sampling and Testing of Mineral Aggregates, Sands


and Fillers.

MS 144:1987 Cold Reduced Mild Steel Wire for The Reinforcement of Concrete (First
Revision).

MS 145:1987 Steel Fabric for The Reinforcement of Concrete


(First Revision).

MS 146:1988 Hot Rolled Steel Bars for The Reinforcement Concrete


(First Revision).

MS 522:1989 Portland Cement (Ordinary and Rapid Hardening)


Part 1.

MS 522:1989 Portland Cement (Ordinary and Rapid Hardening)


Part 2: Physical Tests.

MS 522:1989 Portland Cement (Ordinary and Rapid Hardening)


Part 3: Chemical Analysis.

MS 523:19771 Ready-Mixed Concrete.

56
MS 922:1984 Concrete Admixture
Part 1: Accelerating Admixtures, Retarding Admixtures and
Water Reducing Admixtures.

MS 1037 Specification for Sulphate-Resisting Portland Cement.

MS 1195:1991 Structural Use of Concrete.

MS 1226:1991 Pulverized-Fuel Ash


Part 1: Specification for Pulverized-Fuel Ash for Use as
Cementitious Component in Structural Concrete.

MS 1227: 1991 Specification for Portland Pulverized-Fuel Ash Cement.

1
Currently under revision. Reference shall also be made to B.S. 5328:1990.

57