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Installation, Operation and Maintenance Manual

IOM-400C (Rev. 2)
March 2000

SX-3, DX-5, TX-10 & TD-28

Power Pumps

David Brown Union Pumps (Canada), Limited

The information contained in this manual will enable CAUTION: Provides information necessary to
you to install and operate your Union Pump properly prevent damage to equipment or personal injury.
and safely. Study this manual as well as any
supplements provided in the final data package to
WARNING: Provides information necessary to
ensure satisfactory and safe operation of the pump.
prevent serious personal injury or death.
Read all instructions including cautions and
warnings carefully before starting and operating this Contact Union Pumps if you have questions
pump. The following definitions apply to the terms regarding the installation, operation, maintenance or
CAUTION and WARNING as used in this manual. storage of this pump.

Table of Contents
Section 1 Installation 1
Section 2 Piping 2
Section 3 Preparing for Operation 6
Section 4 Starting the Pump 8
Section 5 Trouble Checklist 10
Section 6 Maintenance & Overhaul 12

Figure 1 Belt Tensioning 6
Figure 2 Fluid Cylinder Torque Sequence 16
Figure 3 Valve Seat Removal 17
Figure 4 Crankshaft Removal 18
Figure 5 Crankshaft End Play Adjustment 19
Figure 6 Centering Connecting Rod 20

Pump Description
The Model SX-3, DX-5, TX-10, and TD-28 are low capacity, high-pressure reciprocating power pumps.

IOM-400C Rev 2
Section 1 - Installation
Handling NOTE: Environmental extremes cause a
condensation build-up in the internal pump
Lift the pump assembly using the eye bolts in the cavities which can result in premature pump
top of the power frame or baseplate, or by slings failure.
under the power end.
Short Term Storage (Up to 6 weeks)
CAUTION: Lifting eyes may be provided on the
motor. These are designed for lifting the motor 1. Remove power end breather and oil filler plug.
only. Never lift the pump assembly using these 2. Spray a heavy fog of a light preservative in oil
lifting eyes. filler hole until fog comes out breather hole.
3. Plug holes and store breather in the plunger well
CAUTION: Never lift the pump by the fluid area.
cylinder. Lifting by the fluid cylinder is likely to
4. Place a heavy plastic or canvas cover over the
cause misalignment and improper pump
complete unit.
Long Term Storage (Over 6 weeks)

WARNING: The pump assembly may not be 1. The fluid end has been disassembled and blown
balanced when lifting. Always provide proper dry prior to shipment. Both suction and
support so that the pump cannot tip. discharge openings are sealed with a plastic
Storage 2. Spray internal power end machined surfaces
Prior to shipment, the pump was prepared for a six- with a light rust preventative. Coat all external
month storage period in an average environment. If, machined surfaces with a suitable rust
prior to start-up, the pump will be exposed to more preventative, such as CRC, SP-400 or equal.
severe conditions, such as high humidity or salty 3. Place a heavy plastic or canvas cover over the
air; or if the idle period will exceed six months, the complete unit.
pump should be prepared for long term storage as
outlined below. 4. Inspect unit each six months (or as required by
environmental conditions), using the following
If the pump is idle for a period of time, protect it procedure:
from moisture, sand and other foreign matter using
the following procedures. 1. Drain oil from the crankcase.
2. Remove crankcase cover using care to
If the pumpage is water or a similarly corrosive prevent gasket damage.
liquid, it should be completely removed from fluid 3. Remove plunger cover and clear the plunger
end. This may be accomplished by removing well of parts or packages that may interfere
suction valves or stuffing boxes and drying the with the crosshead stubs when the
cylinder, or by forcing a suitable non-corrosive liquid crankshaft is rotated.
from the suction manifold into the pumping 4. Rotate crankshaft by hand approximately 1-
chambers, thereby forcing the corrosive liquid 1/3 turns, examining internal parts. Rust on
through the discharge valves and into the discharge any part must be removed and a suitable rust
line. preventative applied.
5. Inspect external surfaces, especially
NOTE: The following storage recommendations
unpainted machined parts (couplings, shafts,
apply only to the pump and may not be
crosshead stubs, etc.) and restore broken or
appropriate for furnished auxiliary equipment.
damaged coatings.
Consult the manufacturer's instructions for
6. Place parts and packages back in plunger
auxiliary equipment supplied with this pump.
well and install plunger cover.
General Considerations 7. Install crankcase cover and gasket.
8. Pour vapor emitting oil into crankcase.
1. Store the pump off of the ground on skids or a 9. Check all openings to see they are properly
pallet. sealed.
2. Store in a clean dry place away from blowing 10. Place heavy plastic or canvas cover over unit.
dust or sand. If plastic or canvas cover is not used, reduce
inspection period to three months.
3. Do not expose stored pump to temperature
Page 1
IOM-400C Rev 2
Location necessary, sufficient allowance must be made for
pressure loss through strainer under the most
Install the pump in a well-lighted, clean and dry
clogged condition at which it will be used and
location as close to the fluid supply as practical.
adequate attention must be provided to avoid
Provide ample room to inspect and dismantle. Make
excessive clogging. Suction line should be kept as
the unit accessible to equipment required to lift the
short as possible.
heaviest component.
Coupling Alignment WARNING: All suction lines should be flushed
prior to connecting to the fluid cylinder. Any foreign
In cases where the pump is furnished with the driver
material not removed from the suction line will be
such as gearhead motor, or motor and speed
drawn into the cylinder. This will cause damage to
reducer connected to the pump with couplings, the
the pump, and possible injury to personnel.
pump and driver shafts or couplings must be
carefully aligned. The total NPSH (pressure above vapor pressure of
When a base is furnished, the pump and driver are liquid) required at the end of the suction line is the
aligned before shipment; however, this alignment sum of the NPSH required by the pump and the
may be impaired during shipment and handling or suction line NPSH requirements. The suction line
when setting to foundation. Alignment should be requirements consist of the friction losses and the
checked and if there is any misalignment, loosen pressure required to produce the acceleration of the
bolts which secure driver to base and realign using liquid in the line so it will follow the normal flow
shims as required for vertical alignment. Be sure pattern of the pump. The acceleration requirement is
shimming is done so that no strains will be thrown usually much greater than the friction requirement,
on pump or driver when mounting bolts are and is proportional to the pump speed (RPM), line
retightened. If there is any difficulty in avoiding velocity and the line length. Therefore as pump
strains, it will be found that the base has been speed, displacement, and line length increase, it is
strained on the foundation, in which case loosen necessary to decrease line velocity (increase pipe
foundation bolts and shim under base as required to size) to compensate, and/or to provide increased
eliminate strains in base before tightening bolts pressure at the end of the line. Keeping the suction
which secure pump and motor to base. Refer to line short minimizes these requirements.
coupling manufacturers specifications for proper An inadequate suction line or insufficient suction
tolerances. pressure for the line will result in a starved condition
Section 2 - Piping of the pump, with loss of capacity and shock
operation which may be damaging to the pump and
The piping recommendations given in this section piping system.
are of a general nature. These recommendations
should be followed whenever practical. Typical An inadequately sized discharge line in relation to
piping diagram is shown on page 5. line length will cause excessive pressure pulsation
and line vibration, due to acceleration requirements
NOTE: The responsibility for system design lies which are affected by the same factors as in the
with the system designer, not the pump suction line.
manufacturer. Disregard for the following These acceleration requirements in the suction and
guidelines has often resulted in system and pump discharge lines may be greatly reduced by the use of
problems. pulsation chambers or dampeners in the lines at or
close to the pump, and are especially helpful where
CAUTION: All piping must be supported long lines cannot be avoided. These should be of a
independently from the pump. Do not allow the type suitable to the liquid and operating conditions.
pump to support the piping. Piping must align with Pipe connections should be properly made to avoid
the pump flanges. Never force piping into place at air or liquid leaks. Piping should be arranged and
inlet or discharge flanges. supported to avoid undue strains on pump. It is
recommended that pipe couplings or flanges be
Pipe lines should generally not be smaller than pipe installed close to cylinder when making pipe
connection sizes on pump, and larger size lines, connections to pump to permit easy removal of the
with eccentric increasers at the pump, may be fluid cylinder from the pump when required.
required under some conditions. Lines should have a
minimum of turns and fittings, and if valves are used,
they should be gate valves. Strainers in suction line
should be avoided if possible, if

Page 2
IOM-400C Rev 2
Reciprocating Pump Piping Guidelines 5. Include a suitable pulsation dampener or
provisions for adding a dampener at a later date
adjacent to the pump cylinder.
1. Be as short and direct as possible.
6. A relief valve should be provided between pump
2. Be one or two pipe sizes larger than pump and check or shut-off valve, close to pump. It
suction connection. must be sized to pass the entire pump capacity
with a cracking pressure set about 10% over
3. For the pump, have a velocity less than:
specified discharge pressure, and an
TX-10 accumulation pressure not exceeding 10% of
TD-28 cracking pressure.
0 - 250 0.30 ft/sec 0.7 ft/sec 2.0 ft/sec
WARNING: This positive displacement machine
251 - 330 0.25 ft/sec 0.5 ft/sec 1.5 ft/sec should not be operated against a dead end
above 330 0.20 ft/sec 0.3 ft/sec 1.0 ft/sec discharge.

4. Contain a minimum number of turns. Necessary 7. A by-pass line, with a shut-off valve should be
turns should be accomplished with long-radius provided from discharge line to suction supply
elbows or laterals. source (connected between pump and check
valve). It serves the purposes of permitting
5. Be designed to preclude the collection of vapor
lubrication to reach critical pump parts during
in the piping. (No high points unless vented. Use
start-up without subjecting these parts to high
eccentric reducer at pump cylinder with FLAT
leads, permitting driver to reach full speed under
low torque conditions, and permitting all pumping
6. Be designed so that acceleration head (Ha), chambers of fluid end to become fully primed.
friction loss (Hf), and pump NPSH required
(NPSHR) do not exceed the NPSH available
(NPSHA) from the system. Acceleration head is When two or more pumps are connected to a
defined and discussed in the Hydraulic Institute common suction and/or discharge line, the capacities
Standards. In equation form: of all pumps which run simultaneously must be added
for determination of line velocities. Care must be
exercised to prevent a mutually reinforcing pressure
7. Include a suction bottle or suitable pulsation wave from multiple units. To avoid this possibility,
dampener installed adjacent to pump cylinder if independent lines are often installed.
it is found that the acceleration head is
The above guidelines represent a combination of
excessive. Care must be taken in the application
Hydraulic Institute recommendations and criteria
of dampeners to suction systems since many
established by experienced designers of systems
dampeners are not suitable for low pressure
containing reciprocating pumps.
DISCHARGE PIPING SHOULD: NOTE: The responsibility for system design lies
1. Be as short and direct as possible. with the system designer, not the pump
manufacturer. The above guidelines are offered
2. Be one to two pipe sizes larger than pump only as an aid to those involved in the system
discharge connection. design.
3. Have a velocity not exceeding three times the
suction velocity.
4. Contain a minimum number of turns, utilizing
long-radius elbows and laterals where possible.

Page 3
IOM-400C Rev 2
Acceleration Head Phenomenon
Piping for a reciprocating pump requires more If sufficient energy is not available to accelerate the
consideration than piping for a centrifugal pump. liquid in the suction line, the liquid will flash, the
Because the fluid in the suction line is pulsating suction and discharge lines may shake, and the
(accelerating and decelerating), a certain amount of pump will operate noisily. It is possible to fracture a
energy is required to produce the acceleration. This fluid cylinder with the high pressure surges that
energy is in addition to the friction loss and is occur in the cylinder when the fluid is flashing in the
usually referred to as acceleration head. suction line.

We are able to calculate the head required to accelerate the fluid with the following empirical equation:

Ha = L V N C / 32.2 K

Ha = Head (in feet of liquid pumped) to produce the

required acceleration
L = Actual length of suction pipe, feet - (not equivalent
V = Mean velocity of flow in suction line - ft./sec.
N = RPM of pump
C = 0.400 for Simplex Single-Acting SX-3
0.200 for Duplex Single-Acting DX-5
0.066 for Triplex TX-10 and TD-28
K = 2.5 for relatively compressible liquid (ethane)
1.5 for liquid with almost no compressibility
(deaerated water)
2.0 for most hydrocarbons
1.5 for amine, glycol, water

This equation is based on a relatively short, non-elastic suction line.

It will be noted that as the pump speed is increased, both N and V increase. Therefore, Ha
varies as the square of pump speed. Ha also varies directly with L.
To determine the amount of NPSH required in the suction vessel, it is necessary to add three factors.

Total NPSHR = Pump NPSHR + Friction Loss + Acceleration Head

It is possible to reduce the acceleration head by installing a suitable pulsation dampener in the
suction line near the pump.

Page 4
IOM-400C Rev 2
System Design Considerations

Typical Piping Diagram

Page 5
IOM-400C Rev 2
Section 3 - Preparing for Operation
Removal of Protective Coating INSTALLATION

Remove all protective coatings that have been 1. Move motor toward pump until belts can be
applied to the pump which would interfere with easily installed by hand.
pump operation. All exposed machined surfaces are
coated before shipment and this coating is soluble CAUTION: Do not pry or roll belts on as this may
in petroleum solvents. Of particular importance are damage belts.
cross-head stubs. They should be clean and
smooth to prevent damage to oil seals. 2. Move motor away from pump until belts are tight.
(See Adjustment below).
Inspection After Storage
3. Check to be sure that motor and pump shafts are
If the pump has been in storage or idle for a long parallel.
period, the drive and fluid end should be inspected
to make sure that no dirt or debris has accumulated 4. Keep belts free from dirt and oil.
in them. This can be done by removing the
crankcase cover and fluid cylinder covers, and CAUTION: Do not use belt dressing.
making a visual check.
CAUTION: The importance of having the unit 1. Adjust drive to obtain all belt slack on one side
clean prior to initial operation cannot be of span.
2. Measure the span.
Final Piping Checks 3. Multiply by 1/64. (This is proper deflection)
Make sure all piping joints are tight (including
drains) so they do not permit any leakage of liquids
out of, or air into, the piping system. Verify that a
relief valve is installed in the discharge line, and is
set to the correct pressure.
Crankcase Oil
Fill crankcase to proper level indicated on oil level
gage. Use a high grade of SAE 10W40 motor oil.
Figure 1- Belt Tensioning
V-Belt Installation and Adjustment
If the pump is V-belt driven, be sure belts and 4. At the center of the span, apply a force at right
sheaves are clean (free of all paint, grease or dirt). angles to the span in accordance with the
Remove any rust or burrs in the sheave grooves following table.
caused by handling. Be sure the drive rotates freely, SMALL SHEAVE
and has sufficient clearance around all components. BELT FORCE*
Install and adjust V-belts per the following SIZE
instructions. Inches Mm Lbs. Newtons

3V 2.65-3.65 67-93 3-4 13-18

WARNING: Be sure that power to the motor is
off and locked out before removing the V-belt 3V 4.12-6.90 105-175 4-5 18-21
guard and performing maintenance on the belts
and sheaves. 5. Tighten drive until proper belt deflection is

CAUTION: Do not combine used and new belts 6. Measure each belt individually. Tension must be
on one drive. Keep used belts for emergency the same for all belts in drive.
replacement only. Use only a matched set of new
belts. *NOTE: A new set of belts should be tensioned
one-third greater than the force listed above.

Page 6
IOM-400C Rev 2
NOTE: V-belts must be operated under proper
tension. Too little tension will permit excessive
slippage resulting in loss of life and power. Too
much tension will cause short life. Proper tension
is just slightly above the point where slip is
eliminated. This can best be determined by
measuring speed ratio at no load and at full load.
The change in speed between no load and full
load should not exceed one percent. During the
first 36 hours of operation, the tension must be
adjusted to compensate for initial stretch and
wearing-in or seating of the belts in the grooves.
Spare belts should be stored in a cool, dry area.

Direction of Rotation
The proper rotation is so that the top of the
crankshaft moves toward the fluid end as indicated
by rotation arrows on the pump.

CAUTION: Fluid will be pumped in the fluid end

regardless of the direction of crankshaft rotation.
However, the wrong rotation will result in
inadequate lubrication of the power end
components and a shorter pump life.

Packing & Plungers

If the pump was shipped from the factory with
plungers and packing not installed, perform
packing/plunger installation. (Refer to Maintenance
& Overhaul section.)

Page 7
IOM-400C Rev 2
Section 4 - Starting the Pump
Priming The Pump CAUTION: Avoid starting the pump under load.
To operate properly, all pumping chambers of the Starting a power pump under load is a poor
pump fluid end must be fully primed. practice and should be avoided. The
disadvantages of starting under load are:
CAUTION: A pump which is not completely
a. Oil is not flowing through pump lubrication
primed will cause piping to vibrate, gages to
flutter excessively, and may be noisy. Capacity
will also be low. Continued operation will damage b. Bearings have not had an opportunity to
the pump and piping components. establish an oil film.
c. The load on bearings (and other power end
The following start-up procedure will normally prime
components) and on fluid end components will be
the pump satisfactorily. Before the pump is started
higher than operation loads because of the inertia
the suction line must be filled and pressurized with
of all rotating parts and the inertia of all fluid in
pumpage, forcing the pumpage to flow completely
suction and discharge lines. This fluid inertia can
through the fluid end and into the discharge and by-
be quite large for long lines.
pass lines.
d. Drive components (gears, belts, and couplings)
will be loaded above their design because of
After all checks have been made, you are ready to inertia mentioned above.
start the pump.
e. Motor may be loaded beyond its capacity.
Prior to start-up, the by-pass valve, suction block
f. All pumping chambers of the fluid end do not
valve, and discharge block valve MUST BE FULLY
have an opportunity to become primed. This can
OPEN. Start pump and operate a few minutes with
lead to reduced capacity and severe vibration in
no load to allow lubrication to reach power end
suction and discharge piping.
components and to allow fluid end to become
completely primed. Then slowly close by-pass
valve, allowing pump to be gradually loaded.

Page 8
IOM-400C Rev 2
Break-In Period 2. Dusty Conditions
Each pump has been run tested prior to shipment. Air-borne abrasives will deposit themselves on
It is not necessary that an additional break-in test plungers and crosshead stubs, shortening the
be imposed. However, the maximum allowable oil lives of plungers, packing, stubs, and seals; and
temperature in the power frame should not exceed may be drawn through the power end breather,
160F (73C). contaminating oil and shortening bearing life.
Efforts should be made to protect the pump
CAUTION: Do not run pump under load when against dust and grit.
crankcase oil temperature is below 30F (0C) or
3. Corrosive Vapors
above 160F (73C). Pump can be run at no load
until oil temperature reaches 30F (0C). Efforts should be made to minimize the
exposure of the pump to corrosive gases to
Any unit that has undergone a major repair to the prevent contamination of power end and
power frame requires a break-in period before it is lubricator lubricants.
placed back into service. The break-in procedure
should consist of the following steps. 4. High Humidity

1. Run the unit for 15 minutes with no load (0 psi Pumps exposed to high humidity, unless
differential pressure). operated continuously, will accumulate
condensation in the power end and lubricator.
2. Run the unit for 15 minutes with 1/4 load (25% of Periodic samples of oil should be taken from
the specified discharge pressure). drain connections, and when water is detected,
3. Run the unit for 30 minutes at 1/2 load (50% of the oil should be changed.
the specified discharge pressure). 5. Pressurizing Power End
4. Run the unit for 30 minutes at 3/4 load (75% of Pressurizing the power end to exclude
the specified discharge pressure). contaminants requires a special oil level gage.
If the pump operates satisfactorily at each of the
CAUTION: Do not attempt pressurization of power
pressures, it may be operated at full load (100% of
end with the standard oil level gage. All oil will be
specified discharge pressure).
forced out through the vent hole in the top of the
Abnormal Environmental Conditions gage.
1. Freezing Conditions
To prevent freezing of liquids in fluid cylinder and
lubricating oils from becoming too viscous, the
pump should be protected from freezing
temperatures. If exposure to temperatures below
30F (0C) is unavoidable, provisions must be
made to warm the power end, fluid end. If
pumpage will freeze during shut-down periods,
the entire system must be drained to prevent
damage to pump and piping.

Page 9
IOM-400C Rev 2
Section 5 - Trouble Checklist
Symptom or Trouble and Probable Causes/Remedies (Refer to next page)
Low Discharge Pressure: Excessive Packing Wear
1. Clogged suction system. 7 1. Improper packing. 27
2. Worn nozzles or orifices. (Jet cleaning 1 2. Improper packing installation. 17
applications) 3. Plunger misaligned with stuffing box. 22
3. Worn seat or stem in pressure regulator or 3 4. Abrasives in fluid. 20
relief valve. 5. Excessive fluid temperature. 20
4. Pump not fully primed. 10 6. Improper packing lubrication. 17
5. Low pump speed. 2 7. Rough or scored plungers. 21
6. Motor improperly wired. 28 8. Worn stuffing box bushings. 21
7. Excessive packing leakage. 5 9. Worn stuffing box. 21
8. Foreign material under pump valves. 6 10. Excessive pump pressure. 18

Low Capacity Excessive Temperature In Power End

1. Clogged suction system. 7 1. Too much or too little oil in power end. 11
2. Foreign material under pump valves. 6 2. Ambient temperature too high. 23
3. Low pump speed. 2 3. Power end exposed to suns rays or to 24
4. Gas entering fluid cylinder. 8 heat radiating from nearby equipment.
5. Insufficient suction pressure. 9 4. Pump overloaded. 18
6. Pump not fully primed. 10 5. Running too fast. 2
6. Suction pressure too high. 15

Knocking In Power End

V-Belts Slip
1. Low oil level. 11
2. Crankshaft bearings out of adjustment. 12 1. Belts are loose. 2
3. Loose plunger or plunger stub. 13 2. Discharge pressure too high. 18
4. Pump running backwards. 25 3. Belts are worn out. 21
5. Worn crosshead pin bearings. 14 4. Sheaves are worn out. 21
6. Loose sheaves or bushings. 4 5. Motor shaft and pump shaft not 26
7. Sound being transmitted from fluid end. parallel.

Knocking Or Pounding In Fluid End Or

Excessive Pulsations
1. Insufficient NPSHA 9
2. Gas entering fluid cylinder. 8
3. Broken valve spring or foreign material 6
under valve.
4. Excessive valve lift. 21
5. Relief valve or other accessories in 19
discharge piping causing noise.

Page 10
IOM-400C Rev 2
Probable Cause & Remedy
1. Oversized or worn nozzles will discharge a 13. Tighten plunger to stub. Connections have right
capacity, at the required pressure, greater than hand threads, torque value is listed in Torque
the pump capacity. This causes the pressure to Chart 2.
drop until the nozzle capacity equals the
14. Check crosshead pin bearings and replace if
delivered capacity of the pump. Recheck nozzle
worn beyond tolerance shown in Clearance
size and number of nozzles.
Chart Section 6.
2. Correct speed to proper value. If belts are
15. Reduce suction pressure.
slipping, tighten or replace.
16. Install packing in accordance with instructions.
3. Check overflow or relief valve or pressure
regulator, if liquid is escaping - shut pump off 17. Follow manufacturers recommendations for
and check seat and stem for foreign material or packing lubrication in Section 6.
a bad seating surface.
18. Reduce discharge pressure.
4. Inspect sheaves and bushings - tighten if
19. A rapidly closing valve, solenoid valve, or shutoff
valve will produce a water hammer effect. This
5. Replace packing. If worn, replace stuffing box pressure wave being transmitted back to the
bushings. If weakened, replace stuffing box pump will cause knocking. A pulsation dampener
spring. on the pump side of the valve may be required. A
different valve may be required.
6. Inspect valve assemblies. Clean, relap, or
replace components if necessary. 20. Packing is selected for its suitability to the fluid
and the pumping conditions. If conditions have
7. Clean suction filter or strainer. Check suction
changed or if corrosive or abrasive fluids, or
piping and supply tank for obstruction or
fluids at elevated temperatures are being
partially closed valves.
pumped, special packing may be required.
8. Check for air leaks in suction piping. Check
21. Replace worn parts.
pipe joints, packing around valve stems, and
instrument connections. Check suction tank for 22. Replace parts causing misalignment.
vortexing. If air is entering through stuffing box,
23. Reduce ambient temperature.
adjust or replace packing and/or increase
lubrication rate. 24. Install heat shield between pump and heat
9. Increase suction pressure by one or more of the
following methods: 25. Correct rotation.
Reduce the fluid temperature. 26. Adjust motor support legs so that motor shaft is
parallel to pump shaft.
Reduce suction left or increase the fluid level in
the supply tank. 27. Install packing recommended for the service.
Add a booster pump. 28. Recheck motor nameplate for proper wiring
10. Prime all pumping chambers. For a suction lift,
a positive suction pressure may be required to
remove trapped air in the fluid cylinder.
11. Fill to proper oil level.
12. Check crankshaft bearing endplay. Remove or
add shims as required. This is not normally
required unless a crankshaft, bearings, shims,
or frame caps have been replaced.

Page 11
IOM-400C Rev 2
Section 6 Maintenance & Overhaul
Performance Records b. Check strainers and other piping components
to see that they are not clogged. This can be
A daily record of pump performance should be kept,
done by monitoring the pressure drops
particularly when more than one person operates
across these devices.
the unit. The first clue that performance is
c. Check belt tension. Adjust if needed.
deteriorating usually comes from a written record or
log. Records should include any unusual changes WARNING: Make sure power is off and locked in
in temperature or pressure, or strange noises. the off position.
These indicate that servicing may be needed.
d. Check plungers to see that they are all still
Routine Inspection And Servicing
securely fastened to the stubs.
No piece of machinery can be expected to continue
in satisfactory operation unless it receives proper WARNING: Make sure power is off and locked in
and periodic attention. The following are the off position.
recommendations for routine inspection and
servicing under normal conditions. 3. Monthly or every 750 hours of operation:
a. Check all bolting, especially those on the
1. Daily or every 24 hours of operation check the
fluid end of pump. Tighten if necessary. (Refer
pump to assure that:
to the bolt torquing requirements in Torque
a. Operation is quiet and smooth.
Chart 1.)
b. Operating temperatures are normal in both
b. Check the crankcase breather. Clean if
the power end and the fluid end.
c. Oil level in the crankcase, and gearpac (if so
equipped) is proper. NOTE: It should be noted that depending on
d. There is no gasket leakage. environmental conditions, this may need to be done
e. The packing is not leaking excessively. more frequently.
(Some leaking is preferred for cooling and
lubrication.) 4. Every 3 months or 2250 hours of operation:
f. There is no fluid accumulation in the plunger a. Change the oil in the pump. During the oil
well. change, the crankcase cover should be
g. Packing lubricator is filled to proper level. removed, the interior wiped clean, and a
h. V-belts are not slipping. visual check made for worn parts and other
i. Operating pressures are not above specified abnormal conditions. Also, the torque on
values. connecting rod bolts should be checked.
(See bolt torquing requirements in Torque
2. Weekly or every170 hours of operation:
Chart 2.)
a. Check the oil in the crankcase, and gearpac
b. Replace plunger packing and bushings (if
(if so equipped), for water or other contam-
worn) if leakage is excessive.
inants. This can be done, if necessary, while
the pump is running, by drawing a small 5. Every 6 months or 4500 hours of operation:
sample from the drain connection. a. If needed, the sealing surfaces of the fluid
If the pump is new or if new parts have been cylinder valves and valve seats are to be
installed in the power end, the oil should be refinished.
changed after about 170 hours of operation. b. Replace any compressed or broken valve
Prior to filling with new oil, the crankcase springs.
cover should be removed and the interior c. Replace plungers if worn, scored or otherwise
wiped clean. damaged.
d. Replace crosshead stub seals.
OIL CAPACITY e. Replace belts if slipping excessively.
6. Yearly or every 9000 hours of operation:
SX-3 1.75 1.7 It is recommended that the pump disassembled
DX-5 4.0 3.8 and thoroughly inspected.

TX-10 3.5 3.4 7. Adjusting Periods for Inspection and Servicing

TD-28 3.5 3.4 NOTE: Severe environmental or operating
conditions may require that the time intervals for
Use SAE 10W40 for 0-115F (-18 -44C)
inspection and servicing be shortened.
ambient temperature range.

Page 12
IOM-400C Rev 2
Disassembly & Assembly Stuffing Box Removal and Packing Installation

WARNING: Before starting disassembly or WARNING: If the pumpage is toxic, flammable,

assembly of any components make sure that the or corrosive take proper precautions.
power to the motor is turned off and locked in the
off position. 1. Disconnect plunger from crosshead stub as
NOTE: Refer to the specific drawings supplied in With an open end 1-1/8 wrench, unscrew
the final data package when using the following plunger coupling nuts (125) from crosshead
Assembly/ Disassembly procedure. The number stubs (122), push plungers (353) into fluid
in parentheses after certain steps refer to cylinder (300) as far as possible.
component parts as identified on the drawings.
CAUTION: Do not use a pipe wrench or pliers to
Packing, Plungers And Stuffing Boxes hold stub as it will cause burrs which will
adversely affect the life of the crosshead stub
Pumps are shipped from the factory without
plungers and packing installed, unless otherwise
2. Unbolt the stuffing box flange (366) and remove it
with plungers (353) and stuffing boxes (337) from
CAUTION: If pump is shipped with plungers and
the plunger well.
packing installed, and is not going to be started
for 60 days or more, plungers and packing should 3. With the assembly on a suitable work surface,
be removed to prevent corrosion of plunger and remove stuffing box flange (366), plungers (353),
stuffing box surfaces. packing (601), and bushings.

The stuffing box most commonly used is a NOTE: It may be necessary to press bushings
manually adjusted non-lubricated packing design. and packing out of stuffing boxes. This should be
Under severe operating conditions an optional done using a wooden dowel and a suitable
mechanical lubricator is available to automatically hammer.
provide lubrication to the stuffing box. If this option
is ordered, specific packing instructions will be 4. Wash the stuffing boxes and bushings
provided. thoroughly in a clean water solvent.

Packing Ring Forms 5. Inspect surfaces of all parts. Any damaged or

worn parts should be replaced.
Two types of packing designs are generally used
depending upon the service requirements. NOTE: Do not reuse worn plungers, packing,
bushings or stuffing boxes.
1. V Ring type packing (Chevron).
2. Die formed cut square type packing. 6. Install the throat bushing (usually shorter of two
bushings in the bottom of the stuffing box.
NOTE: See stuffing box and packing information
sheet supplied with your specific pump. NOTE: See stuffing box layout drawing in final data
Packing Joints
7. For V ring packing, place male adapter ring in
V ring packing is supplied with male and female on top of throat bushing. Place proper number of
adapter rings and must be installed with lips facing rings individually into stuffing box, firmly seating
fluid cylinder. each ring with fingers. Place female adapter ring
into stuffing box, then the follower bushing.
CAUTION: Endless V ring packing should not
be split, as it would weaken this type of ring. CAUTION: Care should be taken not to bend, tear
or cut rings as premature packing failure will result.
Square type packing must be installed with split
V rings must be installed with the lips facing the
joints staggered 90 to 120 degrees apart to prevent
fluid cylinder (bottom of stuffing box).
a leakage path.

Page 13
IOM-400C Rev 2
8. For square packing, install proper number of 16. For square packing, the gland nut applies
rings individually into stuffing box with joints pressure to compress the rings for sealing. The
staggered approximately 90 to 120 apart. gland nut should be tightened only enough to
Place follower bushing against last ring of control excessive leakage. During operation a
packing. slight leakage should not be objected to as it
will serve to lubricate the plunger and lengthen
9. Slide the stuffing boxes (337) into stuffing box
the plunger and packing life, on both styles of
flange plate (366).
10. Start the gland nut (338) onto the threads of the
The packing is now ready to be seated in by
stuffing box, but do not tighten.
running the pump. When the pump starts up
11. Gently work plunger (353) through packing and is running idle with little or no pressure,
(601). some leakage may occur. This leakage
normally will subside as pressure is applied to
12. Install new gasket on stuffing box.
the pump. The temperature of plungers and
13. Install the complete assembly onto fluid stuffing boxes should be monitored (by touch)
cylinder (300). (See torque requirements and during the seating in period. If excessive
values in Torque Chart 1.) heating occurs, the stuffing box gland nut
should be backed off or loosened. Water may
14. Tighten plunger coupling nuts onto the
be squirted on the plungers occasionally
crosshead stubs using a 1-1/8 open end
outside of the stuffing box during the seating in
wrench. Tighten to approximately 20 lb-ft.
period to further assure proper seating of the
15. Rotate the crankshaft by hand and while the packing.
plunger is moving toward the fluid end, tighten
When readjusting the gland nut to compensate
gland nut by hand. V ring type chevron
for wear and/or excessive leakage, tighten the
packing is automatically sealed, meaning
gland only as required to reduce leakage to an
spring pressure against the lips provides the
acceptable level, making sure not to overtighten
sealing effect.
and cause packing and plunger failure.
CAUTION: High gland pressure is not required to
assure a seal. Pressure on the packing rings is
only required to eliminate gaps between them.
Overtightening the gland nut may damage sealing
lips and assure early packing failure and plunger

Page 14
IOM-400C Rev 2
Fluid Cylinder Disassembly Fluid Cylinder Assembly
The fluid cylinder may be removed from the power Prior to reassembly, all mating surfaces must be
end as an assembly or may be disassembled prior clean and smooth. Paint, dirt, and burrs must be
to removal. If removed as an assembly, step 6 can removed from all mating surfaces to provide proper
be deleted. If the fluid cylinder is disassembled alignment and sealing. Reassemble the fluid
while in position all of the following steps apply. cylinder in the reverse order from that described
above for disassembly.
1. Turn power off and lock in the off position.
Fluid Cylinder Bolt Torquing
WARNING: Be sure that the power to the motor
The following chart and diagrams list the proper
is off and locked out before beginning
torque values and torquing sequence for fluid end
disassembly procedures.
2. Close suction and discharge gate valves. Torque Specifications
3. Disconnect suction and discharge piping. To avoid non-uniform gasket loading, use the torque
sequences shown in Figure 2 below. Torque bolts to
WARNING: If the pumpage is toxic, flammable, or within -10% of the listed torque requirement (see
corrosive take proper precautions. torque requirements on the following page), and
then repeating the sequence, tighten all bolts in the
4. Remove plungers, unscrew plungers (353) from pattern to full torque requirements. Stuffing box
crosshead stubs (122). (337) should be metal to metal contact with the fluid
5. Install two eye bolts in the diagonally opposite cylinder (300).
outside discharge valve cover bolt holes.
WARNING: It is important to have all bolting
6. Attach hoist or chainfall and remove slack in torqued properly, but it is most important to have
lifting chains. the cylinder studs torqued to the proper
7. Remove the two cylinder tie stud nuts (two specification listed. If they are not, the tie studs
located on each side of the power frame). may break because of the high cyclic loading
imposed on them. Failure of these studs will
8. Carefully pull the fluid cylinder away from the result in separation of the fluid cylinder from the
power frame. power frame; a fracturing of the side of the power
frame, damage to plungers, stubs, stuffing box
CAUTION: In the face of the power frame on each components, and possible injury to personnel.
side, between the two cylinder tie stud holes, is a
dowel pin. These dowel pins align the fluid cylinder
to the power frame. Use caution to avoid damage to
the pins in the power frame or the alignment holes
in the fluid cylinder.

9. If stuffing box is to be removed and replaced

follow instructions on removal of stuffing boxes in
this section.

Page 15
IOM-400C Rev 2
Torquing Sequence
Torquing sequence for the stuffing box flange plate,
discharge valve cover, and cylinder head cover, on
vertical valve cylinders are shown below.

Figure 2- Fluid Cylinder Torquing Sequence


lb-ft N-m

DX-5, TX-10 Stuffing Box Flange Nut 5/8-18 UNF 130 176
Cylinder Tie Stud Nut 5/8-18 UNF 130 176
#5/8 FLUID
CYLINDER** Discharge Valve Cover Nut 5/8-18 UNF 130 176

Stuffing Box Flange Nut 5/8-18 UNF 130 176

SX-3, DX-5,
TX-10, TD-28 Cylinder Tie Stud Nut 5/8-18 UNF 130 176
#1 or #1-1/2
FLUID Discharge Valve Cover Nut 5/8-18 UNF 130 176
CYLINDER** Cylinder Head Nut*** 5/8-18 UNF 130 176

DX-5, TX-10 Stuffing Box Flange Cap Screw 1/2-20 UNF 80 108
Cylinder Tie Stud Nut 5/8-18 UNF 130 176
CYLINDER** Discharge Valve Cover Nut 5/8-18 UNF 130 176

*** When vertical valve fluid cylinders used on the DX-5 or TX-10.
** Apply to standard steel construction.
* Apply to standard construction.

Torque Chart 1

Page 16
IOM-400C Rev 2
Valve Assemblies Inspection of Valve Parts
The valves are a wing guided type as shown in the All valve parts should be inspected for wear and
sectional drawing found in the final data package. The damage. Excessively worn or eroded valves, valve
valve seat is designed with an interference fit to be seats, springs, and valve stops should be replaced.
shrunk into the fluid cylinder. Suction and discharge
Refinishing Valves and Seats
valve assemblies are interchangeable but should be
lapped to form proper mating sealing pairs. Seating surfaces of valves and seats will occasionally
require refinishing; the frequency depends on operating
Valve and Seat Removal
conditions and the liquid being pumped. Abrasives or
other foreign matter in the liquid will shorten valve life. If
CAUTION: Valves have stamped numbers
a scratch, groove, or eroded area extends across the
corresponding to stamped numbers on the cylinder.
seating surface, the surfaces must be refinished prior
Valves should be reinstalled on their proper position
to reassembly. Refinishing is done by lapping each
value to the corresponding seat until a uniform seating
The valves can be removed as follows: surface is obtained. For best results start with a
coarse compound and use a fine compound for final
1. The discharge valves are removed by removing the finishing. Under normal operating conditions very little
discharge valve cover nuts, discharge valve cover valve maintenance is required.
(317), and discharge valve stops (320).
Valve Seat Installation
2. The suction valves are accessible by removing the
stuffing box flange nuts, stuffing box flange (366), Valve seats are a straight wall interference fit and can
stuffing box (337), and valve stops (369). be installed as follows:
1. After cleaning all components and the machined
CAUTION: It is necessary to use valve springs on bores in fluid cylinder, make sure they are free of
suction and discharge valves, replacement springs burrs and other contamination. The valve seats can
should be the same as springs being replaced. The be installed by carefully placing it into seat bore and
usage of improper springs will cause erratic pump placing a flat and smooth steel plate of suitable size
operation. that has no burrs over the top of the valve seat and
rapping it firmly with a hammer or bar.
3. Should it become necessary to remove valve
seats, they can be removed using a puller device 2. The valves (321/320), springs (335/334), valve stops
consisting of a threaded rod, a collar, washers, nut (370/369), covers (317), and stuffing boxes (337)
and a draw bracket. To remove the discharge valve can now be installed.
seats, install the threaded rod into the collar
NOTE: New gaskets should be installed each time
through the discharge seat, place the draw bracket
cylinder covers have been loosened and removed.
over the top of fluid cylinder and threaded rod. Start
the draw screw nut and thread it down to the draw
bracket. Tightening this nut will apply tension to
the draw screw and remove the valve seat from the
fluid cylinder. (See Figure 3.) Follow the same
procedure for the suction valve seats except as the
seats are pulled loose they are removed through
the cylinder bore.

Figure 3 - Valve Seat Removal

Page 17
IOM-400C Rev 2
Power End Disassembly
WARNING: Pump components may be heavy.
1. In order to completely dismantle the power frame Use proper lifting devices to avoid personal injury.
(100), the coupling or sheave must be removed
from the crankshaft. 7. Remove the connecting rod and crosshead
assemblies. If the crosshead assembly is to be
WARNING: Before beginning the disassembly of reused, it must be reassembled in the same
any moving parts, make sure the power to the crosshead bore that it was removed from.
motor is turned off and locked in the off position.
8. The crosshead pins are press fit into the
connecting rod and are a clearance fit in the
2. Drain the oil from the crankcase.
crosshead. Use a suitable press to
3. The plungers (353) will have to be removed. disassemble.
Follow the same procedure as described in the
9. The crosshead stub is a press fit in the
fluid end disassembly Section 6.
crosshead and pinned. The crosshead and stub
4. Remove crosshead stub deflectors (123), are factory assembled as a unit because of the
crosshead stub seal caps (141), and crankcase importance of proper alignment between the stub
cover (154). and crosshead.
5. Disconnect connecting rods from the crankshaft
CAUTION: No attempt should be made to install
by removing the connecting rod bolts and rod
a new stub in a crosshead.
bearings. Then, push the connecting rod and
crosshead assembly as far as possible toward Main Bearings
the fluid end.
Main bearings are tapered roller bearing type. The
CAUTION: Keep the bearing halves together with outer race (cup) is a slip fit in the power frame and
their respective cap so they can be reassembled may be removed by gently tapping the crankshaft
in the same position if reused. When as described above in Step 6.
reassembling, match the set numbers (1,2,3, The inner race (cone) and roller assembly is
etc.) stamped on the connecting rods and caps installed with an interference fit on the crankshaft
and must be removed with a puller, press or torch.
6. Remove the crankshaft frame end caps, keeping
the shims intact with each cap for reassembly. CAUTION: If a torch is used, care must be
The crankshaft may now be removed from either exercised not to damage or overheat the
side by gently tapping on the crankshaft using a crankshaft.
block of wood to protect the crankshaft. (See
A new bearing must be installed as a unit, that is,
Figure 4.)
a new bearing cone should not be installed in an
old race (cup) or vice versa. To install a new
bearing on the crankshaft, it is recommended that
the inner race/bearing assembly be heated to
300F (150C), no hotter, and slipped over the
shaft. The outside cup is then placed over the
bearing once it has cooled and then assembled
into the power frame.

Connecting Rod Bearings

The connecting rod bearings (116) (inserts) are made
in two halves and clamped into position between the
connecting rod and cap. The bearing is steel with a
heavy layer of babbitt on the wearing surface. Upon
final assembly of the connecting rod (112), lubricate
the threads and heads of the bolts (113), then torque
Figure 4 - Crankshaft Removal to the specified lb-ft per Torque Chart 2.

Page 18
IOM-400C Rev 2
Power End Assembly A good method of measuring end play is by
mounting a dial indicator on power frame and
Reassemble power frame in reverse order of
placing indicator button on any vertical surface of
disassembly. It is a good practice to install new oil
crankshaft. The crankshaft is then pried to one side,
seals (630) and (632) as well as new gaskets (620)
and then the other, noting the total travel of the dial
and (623).
indicator. To establish proper end play, add or
remove shims at crankshaft frame caps.
CAUTION: Care should be taken in tightening
the plunger coupling nut to the crosshead stub as
excessive force could damage the connecting

Review the lubrication plate on the pump or in this

manual, Section 3, for the proper lubricating oil for
the crankcase. The crankshaft rotation should be
checked as proper rotation is essential for
lubrication of the power end components.
Crankshaft End Play
When the pump is built, the crankshaft end play is
set at 0.001 (0.03 mm) to 0.003 (0.12 mm). Only
when replacing a crankshaft or a main bearing does
this end play need to be reset to these limits.

Figure 5 - Crankshaft End Play Adjustment

The following are the clearances when all parts are new:



Inch mm Inch mm

Crosshead (117) in power frame .002 - .006 .05 - .15 .009 .23

Crosshead pin (119) in crosshead .0007 - .0015 .018 - .038 .0025 .0635

Connecting rod bearing (116) over

.0014 - .0035 .036 - .089 .005 .13

Page 19
IOM-400C Rev 2
Centering Connecting Rod in Crosshead
When shimming is complete, connecting rods and
pin bearings should be positioned near center of
crosshead opening. If any pin bearing rubs on inside
of any crosshead, transfer shims from one side of
pump to other to shift crankshaft.

Figure 6 - Centering Connecting Rod

Power End Torque Requirements

Torquing of the bolts on the power end is less
critical than on the fluid end, and is usually
satisfactorily accomplished by an experienced
mechanic without the use of torque wrenches. For
those who wish to use torque wrenches, specific
power end torque values are shown in Torque Chart




lb-ft N-m

Connecting Rod Cap Screw/Nut 5/16-24 UNF 20 27

Frame Cap Cap Screw 3/8-16 UNC 15 20

Crankcase Cover Cap Screw 3/8-16 UNC 15 20

Stub Seal Cap Screw 3/8-16 UNC 15 20

Plunger-to-Stub Nut 7/8-14 UNF 20 27

Torque Chart 2

Page 20
IOM-400C Rev 2
Maintenance Record

Date Work Performed

To maintain peak pump performance...

Insist on Genuine UNION PUMP Parts

Swift Service from Warehouses in

Burlington, Ontario, Canada
Calgary, Alberta, Canada

David Brown Union Pumps (Canada), Limited

4211 Mainway 352562nd Avenue S.E.

Burlington, Ontario L7L 5N9 Calgary, Alberta T2C 1P5
Phone: (905) 335-2580 Phone: (403) 236-8725
Fax: (905) 336-2693 Fax: (403) 236-7224