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Test Review Form & Function

Digestive, Circulatory, & Respiratory Systems


Name __________________________________

1. Label the parts of the following diagrams

2. Pathways
a. Food through the body
i. Passageway
ii. Where is each type of nutrient digested
iii. Chemical v mechanical digestion
b. Air from nasal passage/mouth to lungs and back out
c. Blood through the heart
d. Systemic, pulmonary systems
3. Form and function: You should be able to describe the function of each of the
following.

Mouth Gall Alveoli


Salivary bladder Plasma
glands Pancreas Red blood
Epiglottis Rectum cells
Esophagu Anus White
s Villus(villi) blood cells
Stomach Nose Platelets
Small Pharynx Veins
intestine Larynx Capillaries
Large Trachea Arteries
intestine Bronchus Atrium
Liver (bronchi) ventricle
Bronchiole

4. malfunctions- Describe how each of the following is a failure of a homeostasis

ulcer asthma
constipation emphysema
diarrhea anemia
appendicitis cholesterol
gall stones atherosclerosis
heart burn Heart attack
bronchitis
Digestive System
Part A.

In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best
answers each question.

_____ 1. A substance needed by the body for energy, growth, repair and maintenance is called

a(n)
a. fatty acid. c. nutrient.
b. amino acid. d. calorie.

_____ 2. The unit used to measure the amount of energy available in food is the
a. calorie. c. gram.
b. meter. d. liter.

____ 3. A diet high in saturated fats can be linked to


a. diabetes. c. anorexia nervosa.
b. bulimia. d. high blood cholesterol levels.

_____ 4. Amylases begin the breakdown of carbohydrates into


a. fatty acids. c. amino acids.
b. polypeptides. d. simple sugars.

_____ 5. In the stomach, single protein strands are cut into smaller amino acid chains by the
digestive enzyme called
a. amylase. c. lipase.
b. pepsin. d. gastrin.

_____ 6. The products of digestion are absorbed into the bloodstream through the
a. villi and microvilli of the small intestine.
b. rectum of the large intestine.
c. gall bladder.
d. sphincter of the stomach.

_____ 7. Bile, which emulsifies fat globules, is produced by the


a. pancreas. c. liver.
b. gallbladder. d. duodenum.
Digestive System
Part B.

Matching Questions

From the list below, select the term that best fits each of the following descriptions. Each
term may be used more than once, but there is only one correct answer for each
question.

a. digestion c. peristalsis
b. pepsin d. liver

1. digestive enzyme in gastric juice

2. alternate waves of relaxation and contraction in the walls of the alimentary


canal

3. substance that breaks down large protein molecules into polypeptides

4. process by which food molecules are broken down

5. Detoxifies the human bodys metabolic wastes and poisons in food.

Questions 6 - 9 refer to the illustration at the right.

6. The sequence of food passing through the


digestive system is
a. 2, 1, 3, 5, 9, 6, 7 c. 1, 3, 4, 9, 6, 7
b. 1, 3, 5, 9, 6, 7 d. 1, 3, 5, 6, 9, 8

7. In which of the following does water reabsorption


occur?
a. 3 c. 8
b. 5 d. 9

8. In which of the following does mechanical


digestion occur?
a. 1, 2, and 11 only c. 3, 9, and 10 only
b. 1, 3, and 5 only d. 4, 5, and 6 only

9. Which organ produces lipase?


a. 3 c. 5
b. 4 d. 9

10. Excess sugar is stored as glycogen in structure


a. 3 c. 10
b. 8 d. 11

11. The human epiglottis


a. closes during swallowing
b. closes during breathing.
c. prevents food from passing through the esophagus.
d. allows food to pass through the windpipe.
12. Which of the following are coenzymes that participate with enzymes to catalyze
reactions?
a. acids c. mucus
b. vitamins d. amylases

13. Which of the following is NOT associated with the stomach?


a. chyme c. villi
b. ulcer d. hydrochloric acid

14. The most energy per gram would be found in


a. carbohydrates c. nucleic acids
b. fats d. proteins

15. In which of the following ways does the pancreas participate in nutrition?
a. absorbing nutrients
b. neutralizing acids
c. absorbing nutrients and neutralizing acids
d. neutralizing acids and producing enzymes

Short-Answer Questions

In one or two complete sentences, answer the following questions on a separate sheet of
paper.

16. State the major difference between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion.

17. Give the location and function of the human appendix.

Part C.

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. What are the source and function of bile?


a. pancreas; defecation c. gall bladder; peristalsis
b. liver; emulsification d. stomach; digestion
2. The relationship of trypsin to the pancreas is similar to the relationship of pepsin to
the
a. mouth. c. pancreas.
b. stomach. d. small intestine.

3. The liver and pancreas are


a. both in the alimentary canal.
b. accessory organs lying in the digestive tract.
c. organs that secrete digestive fluids.
d. organs containing chitin.

4. One difference between the fluids of the stomach and small intestine is that the
secretions of the stomach
a. are acid while the small intestine's secretions are alkaline.
b. are easily absorbed by the stomach's villi.
c. do not contain enzymes.
d. do not contain hormones.

Short-Answer Questions

5. What are the locations of the cardiac sphincter and pyloric sphincter?

6. What are the functions of the liver and gall bladder with respect to bile?

Essay Questions

7. Describe the three functions of the large intestine.


Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best
answers each question.

_____ 1. The circulatory systems transports


a. oxygen. c. hormones.
b. nutrients. d. All of the above.

_____ 2. The actual exchange of materials between the blood and the cells of the body occurs
in
the
a. arteries. c. veins.
b. arterioles. d. capillaries.

_____ 3. When fluids leak out of the cardiovascular system, they are returned by the
a. respiratory system. c. endocrine system.
b. lymphatic system. d. digestive system.

_____ 4. The blood pumped from the heart to the lungs is transported through
a. the pulmonary circulation loop.
b. the systemic circulation loop.
c. both the pulmonary and systemic loops.
d. neither the pulmonary nor the systemic loop.

_____ 5. As the left ventricle contracts, the blood is prevented from moving back into the left
atrium by
a. a one-way valve. c. the inferior vena cava.
b. the superior vena cava. d. the septum.

_____ 6. The natural pacemaker of the heart is the


a. aorta. c. coronary artery.
b. sinoatrial node. d. superior vena cava.

_____ 7. Blood is pumped from the left ventricle to the


a. lungs. c. left atrium.
b. body tissues. d. right ventricle.

_____ 8. A recording of the electrical changes that occur in the heart each time it contracts is
called a(n)
a. pulse reading. c. wave contraction.
b. sphygmomanometer. d. electrocardiogram.

_____ 9. When part of the heart muscle dies from lack of oxygen and the entire organ stops
working, the result is

a. anemia. c. a stroke.
b. a heart attack. d. a seizure.
_____ 10. The structure that prevents food and liquid from entering the trachea is called the

a. pharynx. c. alveolus.
b. larynx. d. epiglottis.

_____ 11. During inhalation,


a. the diaphragm contracts and moves downward, and the rib cage moves upward
and outward.
b. the diaphragm expands and moves upward, and the rib cage moves upward and
outward.
c. the diaphragm contracts and moves downward, and the rib cage moves downward

and inward.
d. the diaphragm and the rib cage return to their normal resting positions.

_____ 12. Hemoglobin contains four atoms of iron that bind reversibly with

a. carbonic acid. c. bicarbonate ions.


b. oxygen. d. water.

_____ 13. The respiratory disease in which the bronchioles of the lungs become constricted
because of their sensitivity to certain stimuli in the air is called

a. lung cancer. c. asthma.


b. emphysema. d. tuberculosis.

In the space provided, write the letter of the description that best matches the term or phrase.

_____ 14. erythrocytes a. the largest blood cells; also known as leukocytes

b. the portion of blood containing metabolites, wastes,


_____ 15. artery salts,
proteins and water

_____ 16. white blood cells c. red blood cells

d. a condition characterized by reduced oxygen-carrying


_____ 17. vein
capacity of the blood

_____ 18. plasma e. cell fragments needed to form blood clots

_____ 19. anemia g. blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart

_____ 20. platelets i. blood vessel that returns blood to the heart

_____ 21. fibrin j. the sticky protein threads that function in blood clotting
Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
Use the terms from the list below to fill in the blanks in the following passage.

lymphatic system anemia plasma


arteries platelets veins
capillaries red blood cells white blood cells
valves

Blood circulation describes the route blood takes as it leaves and then returns to the heart.
(1) _______________ are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. From the arteries, the
blood passes into a network of smaller arteries called arterioles. Eventually, the blood is pushed
through to the (2) _______________ , which are tiny blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases,
nutrients, hormones and other molecules traveling in the blood. After leaving the capillaries, the
blood flows into small vessels called venules before emptying into larger vessels called
(3) _______________, which are blood vessels that carry the blood back to the heart. Most veins
have on-way (4) _______________, which are flaps of tissue that prevent the backflow of blood.

The (5) _______________ _______________ is a system of the body that collects and recycles fluids
that leak from the circulatory system. It is also involved in fighting infections.

About 60 percent of the total volume of blood is (6) _______________. Most of the cells that make
up blood are (7) _______________ _______________ _______________. An abnormality in the size,
shape, color or number of these cells results in (8) _______________, which means that the oxygen-
carrying ability of the blood is reduced. (9) _______________ _______________ _______________ are
cells whose primary is to defend the body against disease. (10) _______________ play an
important role in the clotting of blood.
In the space provided, write the letter of the description that best matches the term or phrase.

_____ 11. atrium a. the first arteries to branch from the aorta

_____ 12. ventricle b. chamber that pumps blood away from the heart

c. a small cluster of cardiac muscle cells; initiate heart


_____ 13. vena cava
contraction
d. the force exerted by blood as it moves through the blood
_____ 14. aorta
vessels

_____ 15. coronary arteries e. the largest artery in the body

_____ 16. sinoatrial node f. a series of pressure waves within an artery

_____ 17. blood pressure g. chamber that receives blood returning to the heart

_____ 18. pulse h. when an area of the heart muscle stops working

_____ 19. heart attack i. vessel that collects oxygen-poor blood from the body

_____ 20. stroke j. when an area of the brain does not receive enough blood

k. a long, straight tube in the chest cavity through which air


_____ 21. pharynx
passes

_____ 22. larynx l. two small tubes that lead to the lungs

_____ 23. trachea m. the voice box

_____ 24. bronchi n. a muscle at the bottom of the rib cage

_____ 25. alveoli o. a muscular tube in the upper throat

_____ 26. diaphragm p. air sacs where gases are exchanged