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Nov 14, 2017

Plastic Research

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Plastic Analysis

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0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

0 visualizzazioni15 paginePlastic Research

Plastic Analysis

© All Rights Reserved

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Stress-Strain Diagram

machine. As the axial load is gradually increased in increments, the

total elongation over the gauge length is measured at each increment

of the load and this is continued until failure of the specimen takes

place. Knowing the original cross-sectional area and length of the

specimen, the normal stress and the strain can be obtained. The

graph of these quantities with the stress along the y-axis and the

strain along the x-axis is called the stress-strain diagram.

The stress-strain diagram differs in form for various materials. The

diagram shown below is that for a medium-carbon structural steel.

either ductile or brittle materials. A ductile material is one having

relatively large tensile strains up to the point of rupture like

structural steel and aluminum, whereas brittle materials has a

relatively small strain up to the point of rupture like cast iron and

concrete. An arbitrary strain of 0.05 mm/mm is frequently taken as the

dividing line between these two classes.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ENA & PNA

The following discussion presents the elastic neutral axis (ENA) for

steel beams as taught in a strength of materials course and again

later in a structural steel course. While this discussion herein is

limited to steel beams, the concept can be extended to other types of

beam materials such as reinforced concrete beams. The ENA of

reinforced concrete beams following this concept will be presented in

a future paper.

show in Figure 1, the ENA corresponds to the y component of the

centroid of the beams cross sectional area. Along the ENA, there is

zero axial strain. Therefore, no bending stresses are present along

this axis. Above the ENA, the beam compresses reaching a maximum

compression flexural stress along the top of the beam. Similarly

below the ENA, the beam stretches in tension reaching a maximum

tensile flexural stress along the bottom of the beam.

Using calculus, the location, y, from the bottom of the cross section

to the ENA for a prismatic beam may be found from the following

equation.

(1)

moment at the top or bottom of the beam may be found from the

following equation,

(2)

where f is the flexural stress at the top or bottom of the beam and Sx

is the elastic section modulus with respect to the x axis as shown in

Figure 2. The flexural stress, f, may be found based on the modulus

of elasticity of the beam and the strain. When the top or bottom of

the beam reaches yielding, the bending moment of equation (2) becomes,

(3)

wherefy is the yield strength of the steel beam. The elastic section

modulus, Sx, may be found from the following equation,

(4)

where c is the distance from the ENA to the top or bottom of the beam

as shown in Figure 1.

engineering structure. Whether teaching civil engineering students

about the nominal moment capacity of reinforced concrete beams or the

capacity of beams made of structural steel, a fundamental

understanding of yielding and plastic behavior is paramount. When

calculating the moment capacity of reinforced concrete beams, the

steel rebar is assumed to be yielding, meaning it is exhibiting

plastic behavior prior to the concrete in compression crushing. In

steel beams, the nominal moment capacity is ideally based on the

entire cross section to be yielding. This is the fully plastic

condition. Certain conditions in terms of beam stability must be met,

but this will permit the steel beam to reach the maximum moment

carrying capacity.

The following discussion presents the plastic neutral axis (PNA) for

steel beams as taught in a structural steel course. While this

discussion herein is limited to steel beams, the concept can be

extended to other types of beam materials such as reinforced concrete

beams. The PNA of reinforced concrete beams following this concept

will be presented in a future paper.

For doubly symmetric cross sectional shaped beams, the location of the

PNA is the same as the ENA. This is also true of beams that are

symmetric about a single horizontal cross sectional axis such as a C

channel as well as some nonsymmetrical cross sectional beams such as a

Z purlin. For all other beams, the PNA is different than the ENA.

The ENA is the axis corresponding to the center of area where as the

PNA correspond to an axis such that half of the area is above the axis

and half is below. In the fully plastic state, the entire cross

sectional area is yielding. And for the beam to be in a state of

equilibrium at this point, the PNA must correspond to this location

since the force caused by yielding of the area in compression above

the PNA must equal the forced caused by yielding of the area in

tension below the PNA.

section to the PNA for a prismatic beam may be found from the

following equation. See Figure 3.

(5)

The plastic moment for a steel beam may be found from the following

equation,

(6)

wherefy is the yield strength of the steel beam and Zx is the plastic

section modulus with respect to the x axis as shown in Figure 4. The

plastic section modulus, Zx, may be found from the following equation,

(7)

where a is the distance between the centroidal areas of the top and

bottom half areas as shown in Figure 3.

Bending shape factors have been computed for a wide variety of beam

cross sectional shapes. Table 1 shows various beam shapes with their

corresponding bending shape factor. Note, the bending shape factor is

the ratio of the plastic section modulus, Zx, over the elastic section

modulus, Sx. This may also be thought of as the ratio of the plastic

moment, Mp, over the moment at first yielding, My. For most

commercially available beams, the bending shape factors range from

1.15 for W shaped beams to 1.2 for channel sections. For circular and

rectangular tubes, the bending shapes factors increase slightly but

only by about 4%. For solid cross sectional shaped beams, the bending

shape factor can increase significantly to as high as about 2.3 or so.

This corresponds to an increase of about 108% over commercially

available W shaped beams. Beam sections that have more material area

in the region near the centroid have higher bending shape factors

since the bending strength in this area is not exhausted until the

For all the figures shown in Table 1, the ENA and PNA are at the same

location except for triangles. If the triangle has a height, h, then

the distance from the top of the shape to the ENA is 32 h (or 0.667 h)

whereas the distance from the top to the PNA is 2 2 h (or 0.707 h) as

shown in Figure 5.

Plastic Hinge

to describe the deformation of a section of a beam where plastic

bending occurs. [1] In earthquake engineering plastic hinge is also a

type of energy damping device allowing plastic rotation [deformation]

of an otherwise rigid column connection.

subjected to bending, it is assumed that an abrupt transition from

elastic to ideally plastic behaviour occurs at a certain value of

moment, known as plastic moment (Mp). Member behaviour between Myp and

Mp is considered to be elastic. When Mp is reached, a plastic hinge is

formed in the member. In contrast to a frictionless hinge permitting

free rotation, it is postulated that the plastic hinge allows large

rotations to occur at constant plastic moment Mp.

these lengths depend on cross-sections and load distributions. But

detailed analyses have shown that it is sufficiently accurate to

consider beams rigid-plastic, with plasticity confined to plastic

hinges at points. While this assumption is sufficient for limit state

analysis, finite element formulations are available to account for the

spread of plasticity along plastic hinge lengths.

determinate beam, a kinematic mechanism permitting an unbounded

displacement of the system can be formed. It is known as the collapse

mechanism. For each degree of static indeterminacy of the beam, an

additional plastic hinge must be added to form a collapse mechanism

mechanism (unstable structure):

Plastic Moment

structural section. It is defined as the moment at which the entire

cross section has reached its yield stress. This is theoretically the

maximum bending moment that the section can resist - when this point

is reached a plastic hinge is formed and any load beyond this point

will result in theoretically infinite plastic deformation. In practice

most materials work harden resulting in increased stiffness and moment

resistance until the material fails. This is of little significance in

structural mechanics as the deflection prior to this occurring is

considered to be an earlier failure point in the member.

formula: Mp = (bd2/4) y

into the formula as follows: Mp = Zp

The plastic moment for a given section will always be larger than the

yield moment (the bending moment at which the first part of the

sections reaches the yield stress)

HOW DOES IT FORM?

desirable to understand the concept of how plastic hinges form where

the beam is fully plastic. At the plastic hinge an infinitely large

rotation can occur under a constant moment equal to the plastic moment

of the section. Plastic hinge is defined as a yielded zone due to

bending in a structural member at which an infinite rotation can take

place at a constant plastic moment Mp of the section. The number of

hinges necessary for failure does not vary for a particular structure

subject to a given loading condition, although a part of a structure

may fail independently by the formation of a smaller number of hinges.

The member or structure behaves in the manner of a hinged mechanism

and in doing so adjacent hinges rotate in opposite directions.

Theoretically, the plastic hinges are assumed to form at points at

which plastic rotations occur. Thus the length of a plastic hinge is

considered as zero. The values of moment, at the adjacent section of

the yield zone are more than the yield moment upto a certain length L,

of the structural member. This length L, is known as the hinged

length. The hinged length depends upon the type of loading and the

geometry of the cross-section of the structural member. The region of

hinged length is known as region of yield or plasticity. 5.1 Hinged

Length of a Simply Supported Beam with Central Concentrated Load

maximum bending moment occurs at the centre of the beam. As the load

is increased gradually, this moment reaches the fully plastic moment

of the section Mp and a plastic hinge is formed at the centre.

ELASTIC SECTION MODULUS & PLASTIC SECTION MODULUS (SHAPE

FACTOR)

Section modulus

Section modulus is a geometric property for a given cross-section used

in the design of beams or flexural members. Other geometric properties

used in design include area for tension and shear, radius of

gyration for compression, and moment of inertia and polar moment of

inertia for stiffness. Any relationship between these properties is

highly dependent on the shape in question. Equations for the section

moduli of common shapes are given below. There are two types of

section moduli, the elastic section modulus (S) and the plastic

section modulus (Z). The section modulus of different profiles can

also be found as numerical values for common profiles in tables

listing properties of such. S.P

For general design, the elastic section modulus is used, applying up

to the yield point for most metals and other common materials.

The elastic section modulus is defined as S = I / y, where I is

the second moment of area (or moment of inertia) and y is the distance

from the neutral axis to any given fibre. It is often reported using y

= c, where c is the distance from the neutral axis to the most extreme

fibre, as seen in the table below. It is also often used to determine

the yield moment (My) such that My = S y, where y is the yield

strength of the material.

Cross-

sectional Figure Equation Comment

shape

Solid arrow

Rectangle represents neutral

axis

doubly

NA

symmetric I-

, indicates neutral

section (major

axis

axis)

with

doubly

NA

symmetric I-

indicates neutral

section (minor

axis

axis)

Solid arrow

Circle [3]

represents neutral

axis

Solid arrow

Circular

represents neutral

hollow section

axis

NA

Rectangular

indicates neutral

hollow section

axis

NA

Diamond indicates neutral

axis

NA

C-channel indicates neutral

axis

The plastic section modulus is used for materials where elastic

yielding is acceptable and plastic behavior is assumed to be an

acceptable limit. Designs generally strive to ultimately remain below

the plastic limit to avoid permanent deformations, often comparing the

plastic capacity against amplified forces or stresses.

The plastic section modulus depends on the location of the plastic

neutral axis (PNA). The PNA is defined as the axis that splits the

cross section such that the compression force from the area in

compression equals the tension force from the area in tension. So, for

sections with constant yielding stress, the area above and below the

PNA will be equal, but for composite sections, this is not necessarily

the case.

The plastic section modulus is the sum of the areas of the cross

section on each side of the PNA (which may or may not be equal)

multiplied by the distance from the local centroids of the two areas

to the PNA:

Sp = Acyc + Atyt

the Plastic Section Modulus can also be called the 'First moment of

area'

Rectangular

section [4][5]

,

hollow h=height, t=wall

section thickness

where:

flanges of =width,

an I-

beam with the =thickness, are

web the distances from

excluded[6] the neutral axis to

the centroids of the

flanges

respectively.

For an I Beam

[7]

including the

web

For an I Beam

(weak axis)

Solid Circle

Circular

hollow

section

Mp, or full capacity of a cross-section. The two terms are related by

the yield strength of the material in question, Fy, by Mp=Fy*Z. Plastic

section modulus and elastic section modulus are related by a shape

factor which can be denoted by 'k', used for an indication of capacity

beyond elastic limit of material. This could be shown mathematically

with the formula :-

Shape factor for a rectangular section is 1.5.

3 BASIC THEOREM OF PLASTIC ANALYSIS

Assumptions:

internal forces, in which

which

which

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