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CHAPTER 5 (PART 1)

SECONDARY (BIOLOGICAL) TREATMENT

5.1 Fundamental of treatment process


5.2 Suspended growth system
5.3 Attached growth system
5.4 Natural treatment system
5.5 Secondary clarifier

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InTROdUCTioN
Refers to biological treatment Variety of biological processs used
processes that remove organic to treat wastewater systems
contaminants from industrial and eg: aerobic bacteria : wide ranges
municipal wastewater of organic substrates utilized by the
bacteria.
Bacteria have capability using anaerobic bacteria : treat high
organic contaminanats as food and strength organic wastes & treat
energy sources sludges

Aerobic and anaerobic treatment


processes divided into suspended
growth and attached growth
2
Type of Secondary Treatment eg: aerobic and
anaerobic bacteria

3
Classification of bacteria

(1). By their trophic level:


Autotroph bacteria (primary producer) is a bacteria that
Autotrophs simple need access to carbon dioxide to grow
Obtain their carbon from inorganic sources (such as CO2 or HCO3-)
Use energy from light (photoautotroph) or inorganic chemical reactions
(chemoautotroph).
Example: Cyanobacteria, Green sulfur bacteria, Chloroflexi, Nitrosomonas
Heterotroph bacteria is
Heterotrophs require an organic carbon source (ex proteins, carbohydrates, lipid)
Unable to utilize inorganic carbon.
Can not synthesize their own food but obtain energy and carbon from the
organic compounds (organic carbon) synthesized by other organisms.
Example: Bacillus, Clostridium or Enterobacteriaceae 4
(2). By their trophic temperature level:
i. Psychrophiles grow best at temperature < 20C
ii. Mesophiles grow best at temperature 25 - 40C
iii. Thermophiles grow best at temperature 45 - 60C
iv. Stenothermophiles grow best at temperature > 60C

Remember! Bacteria will grow over a range of temperatures and will survive at a
very large range of temperatures.

Ex: E.coli classified as mesophiles, will grow at temperatures 20 - 50C and will
reproduce very slowly at temperature down to 0C! If frozen rapidly, they and
many other microorganisms can be stored for years with no significant death rate.

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Secondary Treatment

Provide BOD removal beyond what is achieved in primary treatment


removal of soluble BOD
additional removal of suspended solids
Basic approach is to use aerobic biological degradation:
organic carbon + O2 CO2
Objective is to allow the BOD to be exerted in the treatment plant rather than in the
stream

How is this accomplished?


Create a very rich environment for growth of a diverse microbial community
6
How is this accomplished?
Create a very rich
environment for growth
of a diverse microbial
community

7
Most Abundant Microbes in W/W
Aerobic treatment

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Decomposition of waste:
1) Aerobic decomposition (AD) : ex: Staphylococcus sp., Streptcoccus sp. and
Enterobacteriacae sp.
2) Anoxic decomposition ex: Thiobacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp.
3) Anaerobic decomposition (AnD) ex: Clostridium sp.

Secondary treatment systems by aerobic decomposition are broadly categorized as


1) Suspended growth
2) Attached growth
3) Dual biological suspended and attached growth.

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Fundamental of treatment process
Conventional aerobic secondary biologic treatment are the
availability of many microorganisms, organic material, oxygen and
favorable environment (temperature and sufficient time)
The stabilization of organic material (pollutant) is accomplished
by microbes which convert colloidal and dissolved organic matter
into gases and protoplasm

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Aerobic Decomposition (AD)
of Wastewater

Organic Matter + O2 new cells + energy + CO2 + H2O


Occurs in the presence of oxygen
Organic material oxidized aerobically by microbes resulting in large production of new cells generating sludge (dead
and living cells)
AD is only suitable for low strength wastewater (ie < 500 mg/l BOD).
For high strength w/w (>1000 mg/l BOD), AD not suitable because of difficulty in supplying of enough11oxygen
and also because of the amount of sludge produced
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Aeration Tanks in Aerobic Treatment


Aerobic Decomposition (AD)

Occurs in the presence of oxygen


Organic material oxidized
aerobically by microbes resulting
in large production of new cells
generating sludge (dead and
living cells)
AD is suitable for low strength
wastewater (ie < 500 mg/l BOD).
For high strength w/w (>1000
mg/l BOD), AD not suitable
because of difficulty in supplying
of enough oxygen and also
because of the amount of sludge
produced Organics + oxygen CO2 + H2O+ energy

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Anaerobic Decomposition (AnD)
Occurs in the absence of oxygen. This
process is also called fermentation
It is a two step process;
First, complex organic compounds are
fermented to low-molecular weight
volatile fatty acids (VFA)
Secondly, the organic acids are
convened to methane (CH4)
AnD yields CO2, CH4 and H2O as major
end products
Because of small amount of energy
released, the amount of cell production is
low, thus sludge production is also low.

Organic Matter + Combined O2 (from organics)


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new cells + energy + CH4 + CO2 + H2O + other end products
Anaerobic Decomposition (AnD)
Occurs in the absence of
oxygen.
This process is also called
fermentation and yields CO2,
CH4 and H2O as major end
products
Because of small amount of
energy released, the amount of
cell production is low, thus
sludge production is also low.

Step 1:
Organics Intermediates + CO2 + H2O+ energy

Step 2:
Organic acid intermediates CH4 + CO2 + energy

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Anaerobic Digestion
Gaseous oxygen is excluded from the reactions by physical containment.
Anaerobes utilize electron acceptors from sources other than oxygen gas. These
acceptors can be the organic material itself or may be supplied by
inorganic oxides from within the input material.
When the oxygen source in an anaerobic system is derived from the organic material
itself, the 'intermediate' end products are primarily alcohols, aldehydes, and organic
acids, plus carbon dioxide.
In the presence of specialised methanogens, the intermediates are converted to the
'final' end products of methane, carbon dioxide, and trace levels of hydrogen sulfide.
In an anaerobic system, the majority of the chemical energy contained within the
starting material is released by methanogenic bacteria as methane.

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Anaerobic Digestion
There are two conventional operational temperature levels
for anaerobic digesters, which are determined by the species
of methanogens in the digesters:
Mesophilic which takes place optimally around 30- 38C
or at ambient temperatures between 20- 45C with
mesophiles
mesophilic archaea are the primary microorganism present
Thermophilic which takes place optimally around 49- 57
at elevated temperatures up to 70C with thermophiles
thermophilic archaea - are the primary microorganisms
present

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Comparing AD and AnD

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Comparing AD and AnD

AEROBIC: ANAEROBIC:
More sludge to manage (60%) Less sludge to manage(10%)
often causing problems Main product CH4, CO2 and H2O and
Main product CO2 and H2O Bad odor due to H2S and NH3 gases
No odor 19
Anoxic Decomposition

A biological process in which a certain


group of microorganisms use chemically
combined oxygen such as that found in
nitrite (NO-2) or nitrate (NO-3).
These organisms consume organic matter
to support life functions.
They use organic matter, combined oxygen
from nitrate, and nutrients to produce
nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, stable solids
and more organisms.

6NO3- + 5CH3OH 3N2 + 5CO2 + 7H2O + 6OH-

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Biological Treatment
Main agent of biological treatment is the
microorganisms (microbes) that thrives in the municipal
wastewater
These microbes consumed the organic pollutants in the
wastewater as their food
The degradation of organics (pollutant) is done
aerobically or anaerobically
The microbes reproduce and multiply in the wastewater
resulting in more numbers to continue degrading
pollutants until the wastewater rendered clean
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Bacterial Growth Requirements
Bacteria Growth in Pure Cultures
Phases of Growth (Wikipedia)
During lag phase, bacteria adapt themselves to growth conditions. It is the period where the
individual bacteria are maturing and not yet able to divide. During the lag phase of the
bacterial growth cycle, synthesis of RNA (ribonucleic acid), enzymes and other molecules
occurs. So in this phase the microorganisms are not dormant (inactive).
Exponential phase (sometimes called the log phase or the logarithmic phase) is a period
characterized by cell doubling. The number of new bacteria appearing per unit time is
proportional to the present population. Exponential growth cannot continue indefinitely,
however, because the medium is soon depleted of nutrients and enriched with wastes.
During stationary phase, the growth rate slows as a result of nutrient depletion and
accumulation of toxic products. This phase is reached as the bacteria begin to exhaust the
resources that are available to them. This phase is a constant value as the rate of bacterial
growth is equal to the rate of bacterial death.
At death phase, bacteria run out of nutrients and die.

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Secondary Treatment
Provide BOD removal beyond what is achieved in Carbon
Hydrogen
primary treatment Oxygen
Nitogen
removal of soluble BOD Sulphur
Phosphorus
additional removal of suspended solids
Basic approach is to use aerobic biological degradation:
Organic Matter + O2 New Cells + CO2 +
(CHONSP) H2O + NO2 + PO4
Objective is to allow the BOD to be exerted in the treatment
plant rather than in the stream
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eg: aerobic and
anaerobic bacteria

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Type of Secondary Treatment


Dispersed growth (Suspended growth) vs
Fixed Growth (Attached growth)
Dispersed Growth suspended organisms
Activated sludge
Oxidation ditches/ponds
Aerated lagoons, stabilization ponds
Fixed Growth attached organisms
Trickling filters
Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs)
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Type of secondary system: Suspended
growth/Dispersed growth
1) Are defined as those aerobic processes that achieve a high suspended micro-organism concentration through the
recycle of biological solids.

2) The bacterial organisms convert biodegradable organic wastewater and certain inorganic fractions
into new biomass and other (non-polluting) end products ( e.g water and carbon dioxide).

3) The biomass is removed as sludge and the liquid after settling is removed as clarified effluent.

4) Example of suspended growth system:


1. Activated sludge
2. Oxidation pond/ditches
3. Facultative pond
4. Aerated lagoons
5. Wetland

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eg suspended growth: Activated Sludge
Process in which a mixture of wastewater and microorganisms
(biological sludge) is agitated and aerated (disperse growth)
The name derived from biological mass formed when air
continuously injected into the wastewater. Microorganisms are
mixed thoroughly with the organic compounds under conditions
that stimulate their growth through use of the organic
compound as food. As the microorganisms grow and are mixed
with agitation of the air, the individual organisms clump
together (flocculate) to form an active mass of microbes
(biological flocs) called activated sludge.

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Activated Sludge System

Leads to oxidation of dissolved organics


After oxidation, separate sludge from wastewater
Induce microbial growth
Need food, oxygen
Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) of 3,000 to 6,000 mg/L

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Activated sludge

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Activated Sludge System

Typical Activated Sludge Process 32


33

How activated sludge works?


Activated Sludge system
Q,So

w/w
influent

Return Activated Sludge


Mixed Liquor
Air Aeration Tank Air
(X,S,V)
(RAS)

(Q+Qr) X,S

Qr,Xr,S Treated
Secondary w/w Discharged to
River or Land
Clarifier (Q-Qw),
Application
Waste Activated
S,Xe
Sludge (WAS) 34

Qw,Xr,S
Activated Sludge System

MLSS = Mixed liquor suspended solids

Mixed liquor is a mixture of raw or settled wastewater and activated sludge


contained in an aeration basin in the activated sludge process, usually
expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/l).

MLVSS, X= Mixed liquor volatile suspended solids


= microorganism concentration or volatile suspended solid
(VSS) concentration entering tank

MLSS is generally defined as the microbiological suspension in the aeration


tank of an activated-sludge biological wastewater treatment plant.
MLVSS is a measure of the active biological mass in the aeration tank
(MOSTLY CONSISTS OF MICROORGANISMS +ORGANIC MATTER)

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Activated Sludge Process
Conc of biomass Conc of biomass to
leaving the plant be wasted

Conc. Of
biomass
SX
QX (V ) m k X (Q Q ) X Q X
in influent
Eq. 8.10
o K S d w e w r
Biomass grow in
s (pg 491)
aeration tank==
tank volume x
monod equation
Q = wastewater flowrate, m3/d
Xo = microbes concentration (VSS) entering aeration tank, mg/L
V = volume of aeration tank, m3
m = maximum growth rate, d-1
S = soluble BOD5 in aeration tank end effluent, mg/L
X = microbes concentration (MLVSS) in aeration tank, mg/L
Ks = half velocity constant, mg/L
= soluble BOD5 concentration at one half the maximum growth rate
kd = decay rate of microbes, d-1
Qw = flow rate of liquid containing microbes to be wasted, mg/L
Xe = microbes concentration in effluent from settling tank, mg/L
Xr = microbes concentration (VSS) in sludge being wasted, mg/L 36
At steady state (mass balance equation for food)
Food in Food Food in + Food in
-- =
influent consumed efffluent WAS

m SX
QSo V Q Qw S Qw S Eq. 8.13
Y K s S (pg 493)

Combining Eq. 8.10 and 8.13

Qw X r Q Y
So S kd Eq. 8.17
VX V X (pg 493)

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The inverse of left side of Eq. 8.17 defines
the mean cell residence time

VX
c Eq. 8.19
Qw X r (pg 493)

The concentration of BOD5 in the effluent (S) is fixed,

K s 1 k d c
S Eq. 8.21
c m kd 1 (pg 494)

From Eq. 6.17, the concentration of microbes/biomass in the tank,

c Y S0 S
X
1 kd c
Eq. 8.23
(pg 494) 38
Example 1
Ex. A wastewater treatment plant to treat wastewater to meet effluent
standard of 25 mg/L BOD and 30 mg/L suspended solids. The
treatment plant flow rate is 0.029 m3/s. The effluent from the primary
tank has BOD of 240 mg/L. Using the following assumptions,
estimate the required volume of the aeration tank;
1. BOD of effluent suspended solids is 70% of the allowable suspended
solids concentration
2. Growth constant values are estimated to be;
Ks = 100 mg/L BOD, kd = 0.025 /d, m = 10/d,
Y = 0.8 mg VSS/mg BOD removed ; Y= yield coefficient (fraction of food mass converted to biomass
3. Design MLVSS is 3000 mg/L

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K s 1 k d c
S
c m kd 1

40
c Y S0 S
X
1 kd c

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Food to Micro-organism Ratio
(F/M Ratio)
The F/M ratio is one of the major design parameter
F QS 0

M VX
where Q flow rate
S 0 initial soluble BOD 5
V volume
X mixed liquor volatile
suspended solids (MLVSS)
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Major design parameter: food to microorganism ratio:
F QSo

M VX

Where F/M = food-to-microorganism ratio, grams of BOD per day per gram
of MLVSS mg BOD5 .day1 mg

mg MLVSS mg.day
Q = wastewater flow in m3/day
S0 = soluble BOD5 (wastewater BOD) in mg/m3
V = liquid volume in the tank
X = MLVSS or microorganism concentration (VSS) in mg/L

Notes: Some authors express the F/M ratio in terms of mass of BOD/day/g mass of MLSS.

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F/M Ratio
Low F/M (low rate of wasting)
starved organisms
more complete degradation
larger, more costly aeration tanks
more O2 required
higher power costs (to supply O2)
less sludge to handle
High F/M (high rate of wasting)
organisms are saturated with food
low treatment efficiency
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F/M Ratio
F/M Ratio is controlled by
wasting part of the biomass Parameters Tank A Tank B
(sludge) thereby reducing MLVSS
High rate of wasting causes high F/M Low High
F/M ratio (meaning more food than c Long Short
organism) thus causing poor
treatment Sludge Little Much
Low F/M Ratio causes microbe to Oxygen High Low
starve thus resulting in more Power High Low
complete degradation of waste
(pollutant)
Long cell mean residence time (c) is
not always used because this would
result in bigger tank and longer F/M values typically range
aeration time (thus would increase from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/mg
power consumption)

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F/M Ratio Example
Flow = 0.15 m3/s, BOD5 = 84.0 mg/L
Volume of reactor = 970m3, MLVSS = 2000 mg/L
Calculate F/M Ratio in mg BOD/mg.day

Total mass of substrate (Food) = Q x BOD concentration


= 0.15 m3/s x 84 mg/L x 86,400 s/d

Mass of MLVSS = Volume of tank x Concentration of MLVSS


= 970 m3 x 2000 mg/L

Therefore F/M ratio = 0.15 m3/s x 84 mg/L x 86,400 s/d = 0.56 mg/mg.d
970 m3 x 2000 mg/L Typical F/M Ratio values are 0.1 to 1.0 mg BOD /mg day

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F QS0

M VX

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Activated
ActivatedSludge Design
Sludge System
Major design parameter: Sludge age (c) or mean cell
residence time (c) or solid retention time (SRT)
MLSS x V
Sludge age, c
(Qw X r ) (Q Qw )( X e )
Where V = liquid volume in the aeration tank (m3) Qeffluent
Qw = flowrate of liquid containing microorganism to be wasted (m3/d)
Xr = microorganism concentration (SS) in sludge being wasted (mg/L)
= microorganism concentration (SS) in sludge being returned (mg/L)
Q = wastewater flow in m3/day
Xe = microorganism concentration (SS) in effluent from secondary settling
tank (mg/L)

If the effluent biomass can be neglected,


MLSS x V
Sludge age, c
Qw X r 48
The conversion of ammonia nitrogen (NH3/NH4+) to
nitrate nitrogen (NO3-) which occurs during an activated
sludge process is directly dependent on sludge age. A longer
sludge age will result in conversion of ammonia (NH3) to
nitrate (NO3-).

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Activated Sludge
Activated Sludge SystemDesign
Major design parameter: Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT)

V
Hydraulic retention time, to
Q
Where V = liquid volume in the aeration tank (m3)
Q = wastewater flow in m3/day

to = approximately 6 - 8 hr
Long rectangular aeration basins
Air is injected near bottom of aeration tanks through system of
diffusers
Aeration system used to provide mixing MLVSS and F/M controlled
by wasting a portion of microorganisms
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Sludge age, c = means cell residence time is an operational
parameter related to the F/M ratio.
= a measure of the length of time a particle of
suspended solids is retained in the activated sludge process, (d).

HRT, to = the average time of wastewater is in the tank.

While liquid retention time (HRT) vary from 3-30 hours, the sludge age (SRT)
in system is much greater (in terms of day).

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Sludge Volume Index (SVI)
Sludge volume index (SVI) is determined from a standard laboratory test
(APHA, 2005).
Its involved measuring the MLSS and sludge settleability.
An SVI of 100 mL/g or less considered a good settling sludge.
An SVI > 150 typically associated with filamentous growth and poorly
settling sludge.
SVI the best available method for operators to evaluate the
performance of their clarifier.

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Sludge Volume Index (SVI)
SVI is used to control the rate of sludge return to the reactor basin in
activated sludge process
SVI can be used as an indication of the settling characteristics of the sludge,
thereby impacting on the return rate and MLSS
SVI is defined as the volume in ml occupied by 1 g of activated sludge
after the aerated liquor has settled 30 minutes as calculated below;

SV mg
SVI x1000
MLSS g
SVI = Sludge Volume Index, mL/g
SV = Volume of settled solids in 1 LITRE graduated
cylinder after 30 minutes settling, mL/L
MLSS = Mixed liquor suspended solids, mg/L
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eg: SVI
1) One sample of wastewater contain 4000 mg/L of MLSS. After settled for one hour the
volume of sludge in the 1L cylinder after 30 minutes is 400 mL. Calculate SVI

SVI = SV x 1000 mg/g


MLSS
SVI = 400 mL/ 1L x 1000 mg/g = 100 mL/g
4000 mg/L

Typical values of SVI is 80 150 mL/g for activated sludge operating with concentration
2000 3500 mg/l of MLSS. Condition settling??
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Example:

A conventional activated sludge plant without primary clarification operates under the following conditions:

Design flow : 8100 m3/d


Influent BOD,So: 185 mg/L
Suspended Solids : 212 mg/L
Aeration basins : 4 units, 12 m square x 4.5 m deep
Mixed liquor volatile suspended solid =MLSS=2600 mg/L
Recirculation flow(Qr) : 3800 m3/d
Waste sludge quantity (Qw): 150 m3/d
Suspended solids in waste sludge, : 8600 mg/L
Effluent BOD ,S : 15 mg/L
Suspended Solids, Xe : 15 mg/L
Sludge settle (30 min) : 200 mL/L

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Calculate :

(a) aeration period


(b) BOD loading
(c) return activated sludge age
(d) F/M ratio
(e) suspended solids and BOD removal efficiencies
(f) sludge age
(g) sludge volume index (SVI)

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Solution:

(a) Aeration period


Aeration basin volume = 4 units X ( 12m x 12m x 4.5m)
= 2592 m3

aeration period, t = V/Q


= 2592 m3/ 8250 m3/d
= 7.7 hr

(b) BOD loading = (Q x Concentration BOD )/ Volume


= (8100 m3/d x 185 mg/L)/ 2592 m3
= 578 mg/L.day

(c) return activated sludge = (Recirculation flow/Q) x 100


= (3800 m3/d/8100 m3/d) x 100
= 47 %

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(d) F/M ratio = (Q x Concentration BOD )
Volume x Mixed liquor volatile suspended solid
= (8100 m3/d x 185 mg/L)
(2592 m3 x 2600 mg/L)
= 0.22 mg BOD
mg. day

(e) suspended solids removal = (212 15) x 100 = 93 %


212

BOD removal = 185 15 x 100 = 92 %


185

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( f) sludge age

SS in the effluent = Q x Concentration SS


= 8100 m3/d x 15 mg/l
= 121 x 10 mg.m/d.l

SS in waste activated sludge = Qsludge x Concentration SS Sludge


=150 m3/d x 8600 mg/l
= 1290 x 10 mg.m/d.l
Sludge age = V x MLSS
Q*Conc of SS eff + Q*Conc of SS waste act sludge or waste
= V x MLSS
SS effluent + SS activated sludge
= (2592 m3 x 2600 mg/l )
121 x 10 mg.m/d.l + 1290 x 10 mg. m /d.l
= 4.8 days approximately 5 days

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(g) Sludge volume index
SVI = volume of sludge settle x 1000/ MLSS
SVI = 200 ml/L x 1000 mg/g / 2600 mg/L = 76.92 ml/g

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tutorial
1. A 2-L graduated cylinder was used to determine SVI of an activated sludge
sample. The settled volume was 850 ml and the MLSS was 3,000 mg/L.
what was the SVI?
2. Estimate the biomass concentration, X in a CSTR aeration tank with the
following operating conditions: HRT = 3 h, mean cell residence time, c =
6d, yield coefficient, Y = 0.6 mg VSS/mg BOD, decay rate, kd= 0.1 d-1,
influent soluble BOD, So =200 mg/L, effluent BOD, S =2.0 mg/L.
3. When the soluble BOD in the influent to the treatment plant rises from
133 mg/L to 222 mg/L, the operator called to ask your advice on a new
MLVSS for the plant. It has been operating with an F/M of 0.31 mg/mgd
and the operator would like to continue using the same F/M. The plant
data are as follows: flow rate = 7,630 m3/d; aeration tank volume = 1,270
m3.

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1. A 2-liter graduated cylinder was used to determine the SVI of an activated sludge sample. The settled volume was 850 mL and the
MLSS was 3,000 mg/L. What was the SVI?
From Eq. 8-33
850mL 3
10 mg / g
SVI 2L
141.66 or 142
3000mg / L

2. Estimate the biomass concentration in CSTR aeration tank with the following operating conditions: hydraulic residence time = 3 hrs;
mean cell residence time = 6 d; yield coefficient = 0.6 mg VSS/mg BOD; decay rate = 0.1 d-1; influent soluble BOD = 200 mg/L;
effluent BOD = 2.0 mg/L.
From Eq. 8-23. X
(6d )(0.6mgVSS / mgBOD )(200mg / L 2.0mg / L) 712.8mg / L
3,564 or 3,600mg/L
3hr
1

1 (0.1d )(6d )
0.2
24hr / d

3. When the soluble BOD in the influent to the treatment plant rises from 133 mg/L to 222 mg/L, the operator called to ask your advice
on a new MLVSS for the plant. It has been operating with an F/M of 0.31 mg/mgd and the operator would like to continue using the
same F/M. The plant data are as follows: flow rate = 7,630 mg/L; aeration tank volume = 1,270 m3; mixed liquor volatile suspended
solids = 2,600 mg/L 3
F (7,630m / d )(222mg / L)
0.31
From Eq. 8-26 M (1,270m 3 )(MLVSS )
(7,630m 3 / d )(222mg / L)
MLVSS 4,302 or 4,300 mg/L
(1,270m 3 )(0.31)

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eg suspended growth: Oxidation pond

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Oxidation ditch is an extended aeration activated sludge process.
An oxidation ditch is a large holding tank in a continuous ditch with oval shape similar to that of a
racetrack. This allows the waste water to have plenty of exposure to the open air for the diffusion of
oxygen.
The liquid depth in the ditches is very shallow, 0.9 to 1.5 m, which helps to prevent anaerobic
conditions from occurring at the bottom of the ditch.
The oxidation ditch effluent is clarified in a secondary clarifier and the settled sludge is returned to
maintain a desirable MLSS concentration.
The MLSS concentration in the oxidation ditch generally ranges from 3,000 mg/ L to 5,000 mg/ L
Longer retention time within the ditch will allow for a greater amount of organic matter to be broken
down by the aerobic bacteria.
After treatment, the waste water is pumped to a secondary settling tank where the sludge and the water
are allowed to separate

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4-6 ft deep
1-2 ft at the top aerobic

65
66
67
eg suspended growth: Facultative pond

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Facultative pond
Facultative ponds are used the most to treat municipal wastewater.
The ponds are usually 4 to 6 feet deep and the sludge at the bottom is
anaerobic, while the 1 to 2 feet of the top of the pond is aerobic.
In the middle, the amount of dissolved oxygen varies and either aerobic or
anaerobic decomposition will take place, depending on how much dissolved
oxygen is available.
Facultative pond
Ponds 1 - 2.5 m deep
HRT = 30 - 180 d
Not easily subject to upsets
due to fluctuations in Q, Aerobic
loading
Low capital, operation and Facultative
maintainance costs
Anaerobic

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Facultative Ponds

Facultative zone

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eg suspended growth: Aerated lagoon

treatment pond provided with artificial


aeration to promote the biological oxidation of
wastewaters.
Max 2 feet deep

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Aerated lagoon
In the aerobic pond oxygen is present throughout the pond and all
biological activity is aerobic decomposition.
Aerobic ponds are a maximum of two feet deep, so that the sunlight
can reach throughout the entire depth of the pond, which will let the
algae grow throughout. The oxygen they give off allows aerobic
process microorganisms to live.
Aerobic ponds are not used in colder climates because they will
completely freeze in the winter.

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eg suspended growth: Wetland

Wetland = artificial wastewater treatment systems


consisting of shallow (usually less than 1 m deep)
= ponds or channels which have been planted with
aquatic plants, and which rely upon natural
microbial, biological, physical and chemical processes
to treat wastewater
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Facility Options
Considerations for wastewater treatment facility options
costs
capital
operation and maintenance (including energy)
availability of space
degree of treatment required by DOE permit
municipal or municipal plus industrial
flow rate

75
Facility Options
Considerations for wastewater treatment facility options
distance from residential properties
problems with: odors, flies, other nuisances
agricultural usage or land application options
presence of pathogens
experience of design engineers

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