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It is the process of propagation of any source from one medium to another medium. Now a days
transmission is carried out through Optical fibre.


An optical fiber is made up of the core (carries the light pulses),

the cladding (reflects the light pulses back into the core)
and the buffer coating (protects the core and cladding from
Moisture, damage, etc.).Together, all of this creates a fiber optic
which can carry up to10 million messages at any time using light
pulses.Fiber optics is the overlap of applied science and
engineeringconcerned with the design and application of optical
fiber.Optical fibers are widely used in fiberoptic communications,
which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher
bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communications.

Light is kept in the core of the optical fiber by total internal reflection. This
causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers which support many
propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers (MMF),
while those which can only support a single mode are called single-mode
fibers (SMF). Multi-mode fibers generally have a larger core diameter, and
are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where
high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most
communication links longer than 550 meters (1,800 ft).

Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire
or cable. The ends of the fibers must be carefully cleaved, and then spliced
together either mechanically or by fusing them together with an electric arc.
Special connectors are used to make removable connections.

Optical fiber communication
Optical fiber can be used as a medium for telecommunication and
networking because it is flexible and can be bundled as cables. It is
especially advantageous for long-distance communications, because light
propagates through the fiber with little attenuation compared to electrical
cables. This allows long distances to be spanned with few repeaters.

1. It works on the principle of back scattering.
2. Scattering is the main cause of fibre loss.
3. Scattering coefficient=1/lambda4
4. An optical pulse is launched into one end of the fibre and back scattered signals are
5. These signals are approx 50db below the transmitted level.
6. Measuring conditions and resuels are displayed.
The specific characteristic of light propagation through a fibre depends on many factors
 The size of the fibre.
 The composition off fibre.
 The light injected into fibre.

“Earthing” may be described as a system of electrical connections to the general

mass of earth.The characteristic primarily determining the effectiveness of an earth
electrode is the resistance, which itprovides between the earthing system and the
general mass of earth.


The earthing of an electrical installation has two purposes:

To provide protection for persons or animals against the danger of electric shock.
To maintain the proper function of the electrical system.


Soil Resistivity is usually measured in Ohm metres, one Ohm metrebeing the
resistivity the soil has when it has a resistance of one Ohm between the opposite
faces of acube of soil having one metre sides.
The other unit commonly used is the Ohm centimetre; to convert Ohm metres to
Ohm centimetres,multiply by 100.Soil resistivity varies greatly from one location
to another. For example, soil around the banks of ariver have a resistivity in the
order o f1.5 Ohm metres. In the other extreme, dry sand in elevated areascan have
values as high as 10,000 Ohm metres.


The resistance of the earth path is determined, (1) by the resistivity ofthe soil
surrounding the earth rod, (2) by its contact resistance between theearth rod and the
surrounding soil and, (3) by the resistance of the earth rodand connecting
conductors.When an electrical current passes into the soil from a buried earth rod,
itpasses from a low resistance metal into an immediate area of high resistance
soil.happens when a current flows from an earth rod into thesurrounding earth. The
areas of resistance can be described as being that of a number of sheaths of ever
increasing diameters.The current path passes into the first sheath immediately
adjacent to the earth rod and then into the second sheath which is of a larger cross-
section with a greater area for current flow and, therefore, of lower resistance than
the first sheath, and so on into a succession of sheaths or shells of ever increasing