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Rcd problems

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75%(4)Il 75% ha trovato utile questo documento (4 voti)

2K visualizzazioni45 pagineRcd problems

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21)

A simply reinforced concrete beam reinforced for = 583.21

tension has a width of 300 mm and a total depth

of 600 mm. It is subjected to an external moment

Mu = 540 kN-m, fc = 28 MPa, fy = 280 MPa, Es

= 200 GPa.

Which of the following gives the balance steel

ration in percent.

Which of the following gives the depth a in

terms of d in percent using = b.

Which of the following gives the minimum

effective depth.

= ( /2)

Solution:

= 0.85 ( /2)

Balanced steel ratio:

540 106 = 0.85(28)()(300)(583.21 /

0.85 600 2)

= (600+ )

75630.25 = (583.21 0.5)

0.85(25)(0.85)

=

280 (600+ 280) 0.52 583.21 + 75630.25 = 0

= 0.04926% 2 1166.42 + 151260.50 = 0

= . % 1166.42869.19

= 2

= 148.61

Depth a in terms of d in percent: 148.61

=

2 583.21

= (1 0.59)

1

= 0.2548

= 2

1

= . %

= (0.04926)

2

= 0.0246

Min. effective depth:

= .

=

0.0246(280)

= 28

= 0.246 PROBLEM 35. CE Board Nov. 2009

(1 0.59) = 0.246(1 0.59 0.246) A rectangular beam has a width of 300 mm and

an effective depth of 460 mm. The beam is

= 2 (1 0.59) reinforced with 2-28 mm at the top.

fc = 35 MPa, fy = 350 MPa. = . %

Compute the ratio of the depth of compression

block to the distance of the top fiber to the neutral

axis. Max. area of steel permitted:

reinforcement. = 0.75

Compute the max. area of steel permitted. = 0.75(0.0429)(300)(460)

= .

Solution:

Ratio of the depth of compression block to the PROBLEM 36:

distance of the top fiber to the neutral axis

A rectangular beam having a width of 300 mm

and an effective depth of 450 mm. It is reinforced

with 4-36 mm in diameter bars.

fc = 28 MPa, fy = 270 MPa, Es = 200000

MPa.

Compute the depth of compression block for

a balanced condition.

Compute the nominal moment capacity of the

beam.

If the value of fc is increased by 25%,

compute the percentage of the increased nominal

a = depth of compression block

moment capacity of the beam.

c = distance of top fiber to neutral axis

=

Solution:

= Depth of compression block for a balanced

condition:

0.05( 28)

= 0.85

7

0.05(3528)

= 0.85 7

= .

0.85 600

=

(600+ )

0.003 0.00135

0.85(35)(0.80)(600)

= 450

= 350 (600+ 350)

1.35 0.003 = 0.00135 Percentage of the increased nominal moment

capacity of the beam if fc is increased by 25%:

0.00435 = 1.35

= 4 (36)2 (4)

= 310.34

= = 1296

= ( 2 )

Note:

= 0.85 = 28 =

= 0.85(310.34) 0.85 =

= . = 1.28(28)

= 35

Nominal moment capacity:

0.85 =

0.85(35)()(300) = 1296(270)

= 123.17

= ( 2 )

123.17

= 1296(270) (450 2

)

= 427 106

= = 427

0.85 =

0.85(28)()(300) = 4 (36)2 (4)(270) Percentage increase in nominal moment:

427410

= 153.96 % = ( ) 100

410

% = . %

= ( 2 )

153.96

= 4 (36)2 (4)(270) (450 2

) PROBLEM 37:

mm and an effective depth of 600 mm. It is

= reinforced for tension with 4-28 mm bars. fc =

20.7 MPa, fy = 414.6 MPa.

Determine the percent increase in nominal = 0.00207

moment if the depth is increased to 700 mm.

> ( )

Determine the percent increase in nominal

moment if fc is increased to 27.6 MPa.

Determine the percent increase in nominal Nominal moment if d = 600 mm:

moment if the steel is changed to 4-32 mm .

= ( 2 )

145.09

= 0.90 (28)2 (4)(414.6) (600 )

Solution: 4 2

depth is increased to 700 mm: = 484756

= ( 2 )

145.09

= 0.90 (28)2 (4)(414.6) (700 )

4 2

= 576660663

= = 576661

0.85 =

Percent increase in nominal moment:

0.85(20.7)()(400) = 4 (28)2 (4)(414.6)

576661484756

= 145.09 % = ( ) 100

484756

% = . %

=

145.09 = 0.85 Percent increase in nominal moment if fc is

= 170.69 increased to 27.6 MPa:

=

0.003 0.85 =

429.31

= 170.69

0.85(27.6)()(400) = 4 (28)2 (4)(414.6)

= 0.00754

= 108.82

=

= ( 2 )

414.6

= 200,000

108.82 Determine the moment capacity using

= 0.90 (28)2 (4)(414.6) (600 )

4 2

moment reduction factor of 0.90.

= 501423048.1

Determine the super-imposed uniform live

= 501423 load it could carry in kPa besides a dead load of

20 kN/m including its own weight if it has a

simple span of 6 m and a spacing of 1.8m.

Percentage increase in nominal moment:

501423484756

% = ( ) 100 Solution:

484756

% = . %

steel is change to 4-32 mm :

=

0.85 =

0.85(20.7)()(400) = (32)2 (4)(414.6)

4

= 4 (32)2 (3)

= 189.51

= 2413 2

= ( 2 )

=

189.51

= 0.90 (32)2 (4)(414.6) (600 ) 2413

4 2

= 300(575)

= 606490

= 0.014

606490484756

% = ( ) 100

484756

= 0.75

% = . %

= 0.75(0.02850

PROBLEM 38:

= 0.021 > 0.014

A reinforced concrete beam has a width of 300

mm with an effective depth of 575 mm. It is : =

reinforced with 3-32 mm at the bottom. fc =

27.6 MPa, fy = 414 MPa. Balanced steel ratio b

= 0.0285.

=

Determine the depth of compression block.

0.85 =

0.85(27.6)()(300) = 4 (2413)(414) = 47.98

= .

47.98

= 1.8

Moment capacity using moment reduction

= .

factor of 0.90:

=

PROBLEM 39:

141.44 = 0.85

A fixed ended rectangular beam must support a

= 166.99

uniform service dead and live loads of 220 kN/m

and 182.6 kN/m respectively. It has a span of 6m.

fc = 27.6 MPa, fy = 414.7 MPa, b = 0.028.

Check whether we could use = 0.90:

Effective depth of the beam using = 0.18.

1 0.003

= Compute the flexural reinforcements at the

408.01 166.99

support.

1 = 0.0073 > 0.005

Compute for the flexural reinforcements at the

= 0.90 midspan.

= ( ) Solution:

2

141.44

) Effective depth of the beam using = 0.18:

2

= 453.4

in kPa besides a dead load of 20 kN/m including

its own weight if it has a simple span of 6 m and

a spacing of 1.8m:

= 1.2 + 1.6

2

= 8 = 1.2(220) + 1.6(182.6)

(6)2

453.4 = 8

= 556.2 /

= 100.76

Max. moment occurs at the fixed supports:

2

= 1.6 + 1.2 =

12

556.2(6)2

100.76 = 1.6 + 1.2(20) = 12

= 1668.60 <

Moment at midspan:

2 =

+ =

24

556.2(6)2

= 0.01198(600)(850)

+ = 24

=

+ = 834.3

Flexural reinforcements at the midspan:

+ = 834.3

Effective depth of beam:

= 2 (1 0.59)

= 2 (1 0.59)

843.3 106 =

6 2

1668.6 10 = 0.90(27.6)(600) (0.18)[1 0.90(27.6)(600)(850)2 ()[1 0.59()]

0.59(0.18)]

[1 0.59] = 0.0774

= 834.2 850

2 1.6949 + 0.1313 = 0

=

= 0.0814

=

= 0.18

0.0814(27.6)

=

=

414.7

0.18(27.6) = 0.00541

= 414.7

= 0.01198 14

= 414.7

14 = 0.00338

= 414.7

=

<

0.00338

0.00541 < 0.021

=

0.75

= 0.75(0.028) =

= 0.01198 = 0.00541(600)(850)

= 0.021 =

PROBLEM 40:

A rectangular concrete beam has a width of 250

mm and a total depth of 450 mm. It is reinforced

with a total steel area of 1875 mm2 placed at an

effective depth of 375 mm. fc = 27.6 MPa, fy =

414.7 MPa.

Determine the depth of compression block. 0.003

219.02

= 155.98

Determine the moment capacity reduction

factor. = 0.0042125 > 0.002 < 0.005

could carry in addition to a dead load of 20 kN/m

=

if it has a span of 6m.

414.7

= 200,000

Solution: = 0.0020735 < 0.0042125

Depth of compression block:

Steel yields:

=

Since t is between 0.002 and 0.005, this value is

0.85 = within the transition range between compression

controlled section and tension controlled section.

0.85(27.6)()(250) = 1875(414.7)

250

= . = 0.65 + ( 0.002) 3

250

= 0.65 + (0.0042125 0.002) 3

Moment capacity reduction factor:

= .

=

132.58 = 0.85

Live load it could carry:

= 155.98

= ( 2 )

132.58 Wu = 1.2 (10.5) + 1.6 (22)

= 0.834 (1875)(414.7) (375 2

)

Wu = 47.8 kN/m

= 200.2 10 6

2

= 8

= 200.2

47.8 (6)2

= 8

2 = . .

= 8

(6)2

200.2 = 8

2. Approximate flexural resistance factor:

= 44.48 / Mu = R b d2

d = 400 62.5 = 337.50

215.1 x 106 = 0.90 R (300) (337.5)2

= 1.2 + 1.6

R = 6.99

44.48 = 1.2(20) + 1.6

= .

3. Number of 32 mm bars:

R = fc (1 0.59 )

6.99 = 27.6 (1 0.59 )

PROBLEM 41:

0.59 2 27.6 + 6.99 = 0

Architectural considerations limit the height of a

2 46.78 + 11.85 = 0

6 m. long simple span beam to 400 mm and width

of 300 mm. The following loads are material

46.78 46.27

properties are given: Use 62.5 mm as covering = 2

= 0.25

=

DL = 10.5 kN/m LL = 22 kN/m (414.7)

0.25 =

fc = 34.6 MPa fy = 414.7 MPa 34.6

= 0.0209

by the beam. As = b d

needed for the beam. = (32)2 = 2112

4

= 2.63 3

Solution: Use 3 32 mm bars

1. Factored moment carried by the beam.

As = 4 = (32)2 (3) = 2413 2

Wu = 1.2 DL + 1.6 LL

= 0.75

0.85 600 (250)

= Use = 0.65 + ( 0.002) 3

(600+ )

(250)

0.05 ( 30) = 0.65 + (0.00426 0.002)

= 0.85 7

3

= 0.85 7

= 0.817

Mu = As fy (d - 2)

0.85 (34.6)(0.817)(600)

= 414.7 (600+414.7) 113.42

Mu = 0.838 (2413) (414.7) (337.50 - 2

)

= 0.03426

Mu = 235.46 kN.m > 215.10 kN.m (safe)

= 0.75

= 0.75(0.03426)

PROBLEM 42:

= 0.0257

A reinforced rectangular concrete beam has a

width of 250 mm and an effective depth of 360

= mm. It is reinforced for tension only at the bottom

2413

= with a total tension steel area of 600 mm2. fc = 40

300(337.5)

MPa, fy = 400 MPa.

= 0.0238 < 0.0257 ok

index for this beam.

2. Determine the distance of the neutral axis

below the compression surface.

3. Determine the ultimate flexural strength

of the beam.

Solution:

C=T

1. Tension reinforcement index for this

0.85 fc ab = As fy

beam.

0.85 (34.6) (a) (300) = 2413 (414.7)

a = 113.42

a = c

113.42 = 0.817 c

c = 138.82

0.003

198.68

= 138.82

=

=

600

= 250(360)

= 0.0067

=

0.0067 (400)

=

40

= . Mu = As fy (d - 2)

0.003

323.80

= 36.20

2. Distance of the neutral axis below the

= 0.0026983

compression surface.

0.05 ( 30)

= 0.85

7

=

0.05 (4030)

= 0.85 7 400

=

200000

= 0.78

= 0.002

> steel yields (under reinforced)

C=T

0.85 fc ab = As fy =

a = 28.23 mm = moment capacity reduction factor

(250)

a = c = 0.70 + ( 0.002) 3

28.23 = 0.78 c

c = 36.20 mm (neutral axis

below compression surface)

3. Ultimate flexural strength of the beam.

(250)

Use = 0.65 + ( 0.002)

3

= 0.65 + (0.0026983 0.002)

(250) Steel does not yield: fs fy

3

Using Hookes Law, solve for the actual fs:

= 0.71

fs =

0.003

Mu = As fy (d - )

=

500

2

(500)(0.003)

Mu = 0.71 (600) (400) (360 -

28.23

) =

2

200000(500)(0.003)

Mu = 58.93 kN.m =

600(500)

=

PROBLEM 43:

A rectangular beam has a width of 280 mm and

T=C

an effective depth of 500 mm. It is reinforced with

As fy = 0.85 fc ab

4 36 mm bars at the tension side of the beam

(500)

4072 (600 ) = 0.85(25)(0.85)(280)

placed 65 mm above the bottom of the beam.

500 c = 0.00207 c2

1. Which of the following will give the c2 + 483.09 c 241546 = 0

location of the neutral axis from the top c = 306.08 mm

of the beam.

2. Which of the following give the stress of 2. Stress of steel.

steel. a = c

3. Which of the following will give the a = 0.85 (306.08)

ultimate capacity of the beam. a = 260.17 mm

Solution:

600 (500)

1. Location of the neutral axis from the top =

of the beam . 600 (500306.08)

= 306.08

= . <

Mu = As fy (d - 2)

260.17

Mu = 0.90 (4072) (380.14) (500 - 2

)

Mu = 515.3 kN.m

(500)(0.003)

=

PROBLEM 44:

=

A rectangular beam has a width of 280 mm and

(500)(0.003)

an effective depth of 500 mm and is reinforced 200000

=

with steel area in tension equal to 4000 mm2. fc 200000(500)(0.003)

=

= 25 MPa, fy = 400 MPa.

600(500)

=

1. Compute the depth of compression strees

block.

2. Compute the ultimate moment capacity C=T

of the beam. 0.85 fc ab = As fs

3. What is the correct description of the 0.85 fc cb = 40000 fs

400(600)(500)

beam? 0.85 (25) (0.85) c (280) =

a. Under reinforced c2 + 474.54c 237271.4 = 0

b. Over reinforced c = 304.55

c. Balanced condition

d. Reduction in depth of 600(500)

=

compression zone results in

600(500304.55)

decrease in steel strain at failure. =

304.55

Solution: Steel does not yield

1. Depth of compression stress block ok as assumed

Assume steel does not yield

a = c

a = 0.85 (304.55)

a = 258.87 mm depth of

compression block

Mu = As fy (d - )

2

258.87

Mu = 0.90 (4000) (385.06) (500 - )

fs fy 2

Mu = 513.7 kN.m

fs =

0.003

= 500

3. Description of beam

(500)(0.003) 1. Depth of compression block for a

=

(500304.55)(0.003) balanced condition.

= 304.55

= 0.00193

=

400

= 200000

= 0.002

<

=

0.00193 < 0.002

414

The beam is Over Reinforced. = 200000

= 0.002

PROBLEM 45: 0.003 0.002

= 500

A beam has a width of 300 mm and an effective

c = 300 mm

depth of 500 mm. fc = 28 MPa, fy =414 MPa, Es

= 200,000 MPa

a = c

1. Determine the depth of compression

a = 0.85 (300)

block for a balanced condition.

a = 255 mm

2. Determine the balanced steel area

required.

2. Balanced steel area required.

3. Determine the moment capacity for

C=T

maximum steel area in a balanced

0.85 fc ab = As fy

condition.

0.85 (28) (255) (300) = Asb (414)

Asb = 4398 mm2

Solution:

in a balanced condition.

As = 0.75 Asb (max. steel area for

balanced condition)

As = 0.75 (4398)

As = 3298.5 mm2

1. Total depth of the beam for a balanced

condition.

Use = 0.65

=

Mu = As fy (d - 2

)

414

255 = 200000

Mu = 0.65 (3298.5) (414) (500 - 2

)

= 0.0021

Mu = 330.64 kN.m

a = c

255 = 0.85 (c)

c = 300 mm

PROBLEM 46:

The width of a rectangular beam is 300 mm. The

By ratio and proportion:

depth of compression block for a balanced

0.003 0.0021

condition is 255 mm. fc = 28 MPa, fy =414 MPa, 300

= 300

Unit weight of concrete is 24kN/m3. d = 510 mm

1. Determine the total depth of the beam for

a balanced condition. Total depth = 510 + 70 = 580 mm

2. Determine the total area of reinforcement

for a balanced condition. 2. Area of reinforcement for a balanced

3. Determine the factored support imposed condition.

uniform load that a 6-m. simple span

beam could support for a balanced T=C

condition. Asb fy = 0.85 fc ab

Asb (414) = 0.85 (28) (255) (300)

Solution: Asb = 4398 mm2

3. Factored super imposed uniform load Solution:

that a 6-m. simple span beam could 1. Depth of compression block for a

support for a a balanced condition. balanced condition.

Mu = As fy (d - 2)

255

Mu = 0.90 (4398) (414) (500 - 2

)

Mu = 626.8 kN.m

2

Mu = 8

(6)2

626.8 =

8

=

Wu = 139.29 kN/m

415

= 200000

Wt. of concrete = 0.3 (0.58) (24) = 0.0020750

Wt. of concrete = 4.18 kN/m

0.003 0.0020750

=

Wu = 4.18 (1.2) + Ws 500

c = 295.57 mm

139.29 = 4.18 (1.2) + Ws

Ws = 134.27 kN/m

a = c

compression strength of concrete is 28 MPa and 2. Steel area required for a balanced

block for a balanced condition.

2. Determine the steel area required for a

balanced condition.

3. Determine the ultimate moment capacity

to ensure that concrete fails in a ductile

manner.

Check for :

C=T

0.85 fc ab = Asb fy

0.85 (28) (251.53) (250) = Asb (415)

Asb = 3606 mm2 (balanced steel

area)

concrete fails in a ductile manner.

a = c

As = 0.75 (3606)

188.63 = 0.85 (c)

As = 2704.50 mm2

c = 221.92 mm

0.003

278.08

= 221.92

(250)

Use = 0.65 + ( 0.002) 3

(250)

= 0.65 + (0.00376 0.002) 3

= 0.80

Mu = As fy (d - 2)

188.63

C=T Mu = 0.80 (2704.05) (415) (500 - 2

)

0.85 fc ab = Asb fy Mu = 364.26 kN.m

0.85 (28) (a) (250) = 2704.50 (415)

a = 188.63 PROBLEM 48:

A rectangular reinforced concrete beam has a

Mu = As fy (d - 2

) width b = 300 mm and an effective depth d = 400

mm. If fc = 28 MPa, fy = 280 MPa, Es = 200,000

MPa.

1. Which of the following gives the nearest 2. Compressive force of concrete:

vaule of the distance of the N.A. from the

top of the beam so that the strain in

concrete = 0.003 will be attained at

the same time with the yield strain of

steel .

2. Which of the following gives the nearest

value of the total compressive force of

concrete.

3. Which of the following gives the nearest

value of the balanced steel ratio.

a = c

Solution:

a = 0.85 (272.73)

1. Distance from N.A. to the top of the

a = 231.82 mm

beam:

C = 0.85 fc ab

= C = 0.85 (28) (231.82) (300)

280 C = 1655194.8 N

= 200000

C = 1655.2 kN

= 0.0014

0.003 0.0014

= 0.85 600

400

= (600+ )

c = 272.73 mm

0.85 (28)(0.85)600

= 280(600+280)

= 0.0493

= . %

PROBLEM 49:

The beam has a cross section as shown in the

figure. It carries an ultimate moment of 156

kN.m. Using fc = 20.7 MPa, fy = 414 MPa, Es =

200,000 MPa.

T=C

509804 = 0.85 fc Ac

509804 = 0.85 (20.7) Ac

Ac = 28974 mm2

Ac = 100 (a) (2) + 100(a 75)

28974 = 200a + 100a 7500

300a = 36474

a = 121.58 mm

a = c

121.58 = 0.85 (c)

1. Compute the location of the neutral axis c = 143.04 mm

measured from the top of the beam.

2. Compute the number of 20 mm bars 2. Number of 20 mm

needed. A1 = 100 (121.58) (2)

3. Compute the actual strain of the steel A1 = 24316

reinforcements used. A2 = 100 (46.58)

A2 = 4658

Solution:

1. Location of N.A.

A = A1y1 + A2y2

(24316 + 4658) = 24316 (60.79) + 4658 (98.29)

= 66.82

Mu = T z

156 x 106 = 0.90 As (414) (333.18)

As = 1256.62 mm2

Approximate z = 0.85 d

z = 0.85 (400)

4

(20)2 = 1256.62

z = 340

N = 4 bars

Mu = T z

Use 4 20 mm bars

156 x 106 = 0.90 T (340)

T = 509804

3. Actual strain of steel bars

Solution:

0.003 1. Location of neutral axis from the top of

256.96

= 143.04

the beam for a balance condition.

= . (actual strain)

=

414

=

200000

= 0.00207

> steel yields

=

PROBLEM 50:

A symmetrical cross-section of a reinforced

concrete shown has a value of fc = 24.13 MPa, fy

= 482.7 MPa, Es = 200,000 MPa.

482.7

= 200000

= 0.00241

0.003 0.00241

= 681.25

c = 377.77 mm

of neutral axis from the top of the beam

for a balance condition.

2. Which of the following gives the

balanced steel area Asb.

3. Which of the following gives the max.

area permitted by the code.

a = c 3. Which of the following gives the max.

a = 0.85 (377.77) area permitted by the code.

a = 321.10 mm

Solution:

C = 0.85 fc ab 1. Location of neutral axis from the top of

C = 0.85 (24.13) [375(125) + 125(321.10)] the beam for a balance condition.

C = 1784670 N

T=C

Asb (482.7) = 1784670

Asb = 3697 mm2

Asmax = 0.75 (3697)

Asmax = 2773 mm2

=

PROBLEM 51: 345

=

The hallow box beam in the figure must carry a 200000

0.003 0.0017

= 725

c = 462.77 mm

a = c

a = 0.85 (462.77)

a = 393.35 mm

C = 0.85 fc A

2. Which of the following gives the C = 0.85 (28) (135837.5)

T=C T=C

Asb (345) = 3232933 Asb fy = 0.85 fc Ac

2

Asb = 9371 mm (12)2 (3) (414) = 0.85 (20.7) (255) Ac

4

Ac = 7983.3 mm2

3. Max. area permitted by the code

Asmax = 0.75 (9371)

2

= 7983.3

2

Asmax = 7028.25 mm

15966.7

=

PROBLEM 52:

A triangular beam having a base width of 300 By ration and proportion

300

mm. has a total depth of 600 mm. It is reinforced

= 600

with 3 12 mm bars placed at 70 mm above the = 0.5

bottom of the beam. fc = 20.7 MPa, fy = 414 MPa,

Es = 200,000 MPa. 15966.7

0.5 =

= 178.70

1. Compute the neutral axis of the beam

from the apex of the section.

a = c

2. Compute the ultimate strength capacity

178.70 = 0.85 (c)

of the beam.

c = 210.24 mm

3. What would be the steel area required for

a balanced condition?

2. Ultimate strength capacity

z = 530 2/3 (178.7)

Solution:

z = 410.87

1. Neutral axis of the beam

Mu = T z

Mu = 0.90 4 (12)2 (3) (414) (410.87)

Mu = 51.9 kN.m

condition.

3

As = 4 Asb

= 3

As = 4 (755)

414

= 200000 As = 566.25 mm2

= 0.00207

0.003 0.00207

= 530 PROBLEM 53:

1.59 0.003c =

A triangular beam has an effective depth of

0.00207

c = 313.61 687.50 mm and a base of 750 mm. The beam

carries an ultimate moment of 197 kN.m. fc =

27.5 MPa, fy = 414 MPa

2. Compute the value of total compressive

force of concrete.

3. Compute the streel area required.

Solution:

1. Neutral axis of the beam.

a = c

a = 0.85 (313.61)

a = 266.57 mm

T=C

Asb fy = 0.85 fc Ac

266.57 600

= 300

750

x = 133.29

= 750

a=b

Asb fy = 0.85 fc Ac

(133.29)(266.57) C=T

Asb (414) = 0.85 (20.7) 2

0.85 fc 2

= As fy

Asb = 755 mm2

0.85(27.5)()2

2

= (414.7)

As = 0.0282 a2

PROBLEM 54:

Mu = T z The beam has a cross section shown in the figure.

2

197 x 106 = 0.90 As (414.7) (687.50 - 3 a) fc = 20.7 MPa, fy = 414.7 MPa

(687.50 0.667a)

18717186.73 = 687.50a2 0.667a3

a = 181.8

a = c

181.8 = 0.85 (c)

c = 213.88 mm

C = 0.85 fc 2 permitted by the NSCP Specs.

0.85 (27.5)(181.8)(181.8) 2. Compute the flexural design strength

= 2

Mn if it is reinforced with minimum steel

C = 386286 N

area.

C = 386.3 kN

3. Compute the maximum area of flexural

steel that can be used in reinforced the

3. Steel area required

section.

C=T

386286 = As fy

Solution:

386286 = As (414.7)

1. Min. steel permitted by the NSCP Specs.

As = 931.5 mm2 1.4

=

1.4

=

414.7

= 0.00338

=

= 0.00338 (125)(2)(437.5)

= .

2. Flexural strength Mn

C=T

0.85 fc (750) a = As fy

0.85 (20.7) (750) a = 369.2 (414.7)

a = 11.60 mm

Mn = 0.90 T ( )

2

11.6

Mn = 0.90 (369.2) (414.7) (437.5 2

)

Mn = 59.5 kN.m

1. Determine the neutral axis of the section

3. Max. steel area that can be used from the top of the beam.

0.85 600 2. Determine the flexural capacity of the

= (600+ )

cross section.

0.85 (20.7)(0.85)600

= 3. Determine the strain in the steel at failure.

414.7(600+414.7)

= 0.0213

Solution:

= 0.75 1. Neutral axis of the beam.

= 0.75 (0.0213)

= 0.016

=

= 0.016 (125)(2)(437.5)

=

PROBLEM 55:

C=T

Each leg of the cross section is reinforced with a

0.85 fc Ac = As fy

28 mm bar.

0.85 (24.8) (500) a = 4 (28)2 (2) (414.7)

a = 48.45 mm

a = c

48.45 = 0.85 (c)

c = 57 mm

2. Flexural capacity Mn

Mn = 0.90 T ( 2 )

48.45

Mn = 0.90 (28)2 (2) (414.7) (375 )

4 2

Mn = 161.2 kN.m

= 1963.5 2

0.003

=

318 57

= .

=

1963.5

= 300(380)

PROBLEM 56: CE BOARD MAY 2010

A 12 m simply supported beam is provided by an = 0.017

width of b = 300 mm and a total depth h = 450 If only tension bars are needed:

tension side and 2 25 mm at the compression = 0.023 > 0.017

side with 70 mm cover to centroid of

reinforcement. fc = 30 MPa, fy = 415 MPa. Use Therefore, the beam needs only tension

2. Determine the nominal bending moment, 0.85 (30) (a)(300) = (25)2 (4)(415)

4

Mn. a = 106.52 mm

3. Determine the total factored uniform load

including the beam weight considering 2. Nominal bending moment:

moment capacity reduction of 0.90. Mn = As fy ( 2 )

Solution:

106.52

Mn = 4 (25)2 (4)(415) (380 )

1. Depth of the rectangular stress block: 2

Mn = 266.2 kN.m

Check if compression bars is needed.

= (25)2 (4)

4

3. Total factored uniform load including PROBLEM 57:

beam weight: A rectangular beam has a width of 300 mm and

an effective depth of 537.50 mm to the centroid

of tension steel bars. Tension reinforcement

consists of 6 28 mm in two rows, compression

reinforcement consists of 2 22 mm . fc = 27.6

MPa, fy = 414.7 MPa. Assume steel covering is

60 mm for compression bars.

5 4

=

384 1. Compute the depth of compression

3

= 48

block.

5 4 3 2. Compute the factored moment capacity

384

= 48

of beam.

5

= 8 3. Compute the maximum total tension steel

2R + P = wL allowed by specifications.

5

2R = wL - 8

3 Solution:

2R =

8

1. Depth of compression block.

3

R = 16

= ( ) ( ) ( )

2 2 4

32 2

= 16(2)

8

2

= 32

Mu = 0.90 Mn

Mu = 0.90 (266.2)

Mu = 239.58 kN.m = (28)2 (6)

4

2

239.58 = = 3695 2

32

(12)2

239.58 =

32

= 4 (22)2 (2)

w = 53.24 kN/m

= 760 2

=

=

3695 As1 = As As2

300(537.50)

As2 = As when compression bars will yield

= 0.0229

As1 = As As

=

760

=

300(537.50)

0.85 fc ab = (As As) fy

a = 172.94 mm

0.85 600 2. Factored moment capacity of the beam.

=

(600+ )

a = c

0.85 (27.6)(0.85)600

= 414.7(600+414.7)

172.94 = 0.85 (c)

= 0.0284 c = 203.46 mm

1 0.003

When, 346.6

= 203.4

> compression bars are needed 1 = 0.00511 > 0.005

= 0.75

0.0229 > 0.75(0.0284) Use capacity reduction factor: = 0.90

0.0229 > 0.0213

Check: if compression bars will yield

0.85 600

>

(600 )

= 0.0229 0.00471

= 0.0182

0.85 (27.6)(0.85)(60)600 M1 = As1 fy ( 2 )

=

537.5(414.7)(600414.7)

As2 = As

= 0.0173

As1 = As - As2

As1 = As As

0.0182 > 0.0173 (compression bars will yield)

M1 = (As As) fy ( 2 )

172.94

Check: M1 = 0.90 (3695 760) 414.7 (537.50 2

)

< M1 = 494.07 x 106 N.mm

0.0182 < 0.0213

M2 = As2 fy ( )

C1 = T1 M2 = As fy ( )

0.85 fc ab = As1 fy

M2 = 0.90 (760) (414.7) (537.5 60) 630 = 1.8 b

M2 = 135.45 x 106 N.mm b = 350 mm

Mu = 494.07 + 135.45 0.85 600

=

(600+ )

Mu = 629.52 kN.m

0.85 (27.58)(0.85)600

= 413.4(600+413.4)

specifications.

0.85 fc ab = As1 fy

Max. As = +

Max. As = 0.75 +

Max. As = (0.75 + )

Max. As = 300(537.5)(0.0213 + 0.00471)

Max. As = >

PROBLEM 58:

A doubly reinforced concrete beam has a max. Assume

effective depth of 630 mm and is subjected to a 0.85 (0.003)

1 = (0.008)

total factored moment of 1062 kN.m including its

0.85 (27.58)(0.85)(0.003)

own weight. fc = 27.58 MPa, fy = 413.4 MPa. Use 1 =

413.4 (0.008)

2. Determine the reinforcement for As2 = As if compression steel will yield

compression As1 = 1 bd

3. Determine the total reinforcement for As1 = 0.018 (350) (630)

tension As1 = 3969 mm2

Solution:

M1 = As1 fy ( 2 )

1. Width of the beam

199.97

Approximate proportion of b and d M1 = 0.90 (3969) 413.4 (630 )

2

Try d = 1.80 b Mu = M 1 + M 2

1062 = 494.07 + M2 Use As = 5292 mm2

M2 = 279.3 kN.m

PROBLEM 59:

Check whether compression bars will yield: A rectangular beam has a width of 300 mm and

0.85 600 an effective depth to the centroid of the tension

>

(600 )

reinforcement of 600 mm. The tension

As = As1 + As2 2

reinforcement has an area of 4762 mm and the

As2 = As

area of compression reinforcement placed 62.50

As = As1 + As

mm from the compression face to the beam is

bd = 1 bd + bd

987.5 mm2. fc = 34.56 MPa, fy = 414.6 MPa.

= 1

Balanced steel ratio is 0.034. Assume that steel

0.85 (27.58)(0.85)(62.5)(600)

0.018 > 630 (413.4)(600413.4) yields.

0.018 > 0.0154

1. Determine the depth of compression

Therefore, compression bars will yield. block

fs = fy 2. Determine the design strength using 0.90

As fy = As2 fy as the reduction factor

As = As2 (ok as assumed) 3. Determine the concentrated live loads at

M2 = As fy ( ) the midspan in addition to a dead load of

279.3 x 106 mm = 0.90 As (413.4) (630 62.5) 20 kN/m including the weight of the

As= 1323 mm2 beam if it has a span of 6 m.

As = As1 + As2 1. Depth of compression block

As = 3969 + 1323

As = 5292 mm2

=

1323

= 350(630)

= 0.006

Max. As = bd (0.75 + )

Max. As = 350(630) [0.75(0.0285) +

0.00669)]

Max. As = 6036 mm2 > 5292 mm2 ok

0.85 600

= (600+ )

0.05 ( 28)

= 0.85 7

0.05 (34.5628)

= 0.85 7

= 0.803

0.85 (34.56)(0.803)(600)

= 414.6(600+414.6)

= 0.034

= = 300 (600)

fs = fy

= 0.0264

T = C1 + C2

987.5

=

= 300 (600) As fy = 0.85 fc ab + As fy

= 0.0054 ( )

=

0.85

(4762987.5)414.6

Check the beam first as a singly reinforced beam = 0.85 (34.56)(300)

= 0.75

= 0.75 (0.034) 2. Design strength using 0.90 as the

= 0.0255 reduction factor.

= 0.0264 > 0.0255

reinforced beam. Check if the bars in

compression will really yield, by computing the

steel ratio that will ensure yielding of the

compression bar at failure.

= 0.0264

0.85 600 C1 = T1

> (600 )

0.85 fc ab = As1 fy

0.85 (34.56)(0.817)(62.5)(600)

0.0264 0.0054 > 414.6 (600)(600414.6)

0.85 (34.56) (177.57) (300) = As1 (414.6)

As1 = 3774.50 mm2

0.021 > 0.0195 (therefore, compression

bars will yield)

As = As1 + As2

As2 = As As1 PROBLEM 60:

As2 = 4762 3774.50 A reinforced concrete beam has a width of 375

As2 = 987.50 mm2 ok mm and a total depth of 775 mm. Steel covering

for both compression and tension bars is 75 mm.

Mu = (M1 + M2) Area of compression bars is 1290 mm2 while that

M1 = T1 ( 2 )

of the tension bars it is 6529 mm2. fc = 27.6 MPa,

fy = 414.6 MPa.

M1 = As1 fy ( 2 )

177.51

M1 = 3774.5 (414.6) (600 ) 1. Determine the depth of compression

2

2. Determine the capacity reduction factor

M2 = As2 fy ( ) for moment.

M2 = 220 x 106 N.mm of the beam.

Mu = 0.90 (800 + 220) 1. Depth of compression block.

Mu = 918 kN.m

at its midspan.

0.003

=

75

0.003(75)

=

2 =

Mu = (1.6) 4

+ 8

(1.2)

0.003(75)(200000)

=

(6) 20(6)2

918 = (1.6) 4

+ 8 (1.2)

600(75)

=

P = 337.5 kN

T = C1 + C2

As fy = 0.85 fc ab + As fs

6529 (414.6) = 0.85(27.6) (0.85) c (375)

1290 (600)(75)

+

c2 258.49 c 7762.90 = 0

c = 285.66 mm

=

600 (285.6675) When < 0.005

=

285.66 (250)

Value of = 0.65 + ( 0.002)

3

= 442.47 > 414.6

(250)

= 0.65 + (0.00435 0.002) 3

Use fs = fy = 414.6 MPa

a = c 3. Ultimate moment capacity of the beam.

a = 0.85 (285.66)

c = 242.81 mm

0.003

=

0.003()

=

=

C2 = T2

0.003(700285.66)

285.66 As fy = As2 fy

= As = As2

0.00435 < 0.005 As2 = 1290 mm2

As1 = As As2

As1 = 6529 1290

As1 = 5239 mm2

Solution:

= [1 ( 2 ) + 2 ( )]

1. Minimum tensile steel ratio that will

= [1 ( 2 ) + 2 ( )]

ensure yielding of the compression steel

242.81

= 0.846 [5239(414.6) (700 2

)+ at failure.

0.85 600

1290(414.6)(700 75)] = +

(600+ )

= 1346 106 . As = = (28)2 (2) = 1232 2

4

= . 0.85 600

= (600+ )

+

PROBLEM 61: = +

414.6(537.5) (600+414.6) 350(537.5)

A rectangular concrete beam has a width of 350

= 0.020

mm and a total depth of 675 mm. It is reinforced

for tension at the bottom with 4 36 mm bars

Check:

at an effective depth of 537.5 mm and two 28 mm

=

bars at the top placed at 62.5 mm from the top

of the beam. fc = 20.7 MPa, fy = 414.6 MPa. As = = (36)2 (4) = 4071.5 2

4

4071.5

= 350(537.5)

1. Determine the minimum tensile steel

= 0.0216 > 0.020

ratio that will ensure yielding of the

= .

compression steel at failure.

2. Determine the total compressive force of

2. Total compressive force of concrete.

concrete.

3. Determine the design moment capacity

of the beam.

As = = (36)2 (4) = 4071.5 2

4

As = 4 = (28)2 (2) = 1232 2

4071.5

=

350(537.5)

= 0.0216

1232

= 350(537.5)

= 0.0065

C1 = 0.85 (20.7) (188) (350)

When: C1 = 1157751 N

0.85 600

> (600 )

(compression bars will

C2 = As fs

yield)

C2 = 1232 (414.6)

= 0.0216 0.0065

C2 = 510787 N

= 0.0151

0.85 (20.7)(0.85)(62.5)600

0.0151 >

414.6(537.5)(600414.6) M1 = C1 ( 2 )

0.0151 > 0.0136 188

M1 = 1157751 (537.5 )

2

Therefore, compression steel yields.

M2 = C2 ( )

fs = fy = 414.6 MPa

M2 = 510787 (537.5 62.5)

C1 = 0.85 fc ab

M2 = 242.62 x 106 N.mm

a = c

a = 0.85 (221.18)

Mu = (M1 + M2)

a = 188 mm

Mu = 0.90 (513.46 + 242.62)

C1 = 0.85 (20.7) (188) (350)

Mu = 635.11 kN.m

C1 = 1157751 N

C1 = 1157.75 kN

PROBLEM 62: CE Board Nov. 2010,

Nov.2012

3. Design moment capacity of the beam.

A simply supported beam is reinforced with 4

0.003 28 mm at the bottom and 2 28 mm at the top

316.32

= 221.18

of the beam. Steel covering to centroid of

= 0.00429 <

reinforcement is 70 mm at the top and bottom of

0.005

the beam. The beam has a total depth of 400 mm

and a width of 300 mm. fc = 30 MPa, fy = 415

Use = 0.65 + (

MPa. Balanced steel ratio = 0.031.

(250)

0.002)

3

(250) 1. Determine the depth of compression

= 0.65 + (0.00429 0.002) 3

block.

= 0.84

2. Determine the design strength using 0.90

as the reduction factor.

Mu = (M1 + M2)

C1 = 0.85 fc ab

3. Determine the live load at the mid-span

in addition to a DL = 20 kN/m including Therefore, compression bars will not yield.

the weight of the beam if it has a span of fs fy

6 m. 0.003

= 70

0.003(70)

=

Solution:

=

1. Depth of compression block:

As = = (28)2 (4) = 2463 2

4

As = = (28)2 (2) = 1231.5 2

4

=

2463

=

350(330)

= 0.0248 T = C1 + C2

As fy = 0.85 fc ab + As fs

= 0.75 2463(415) = (30) (a) (300) + 1231.5

0.003(70)(200000)

= 0.75 (0.031)

= 0.023 738900(70)

1022145 = 7650a +

738900(70)

> 1022145 = 7650 (0.85c) +

needed. To ensure that compression bars will c2 + 43.56 c -7654.10 = 0

43.56 183.61

yield. = 2

0.85 600

> (600 )

c = 113.59

0.85 (30)(0.85)(70)600

>

415(330)(600415)

a = c

> 0.036 a = 0.85 (113.59)

= a = 96.55 mm

1231.5

= 300(330)

= 0.0124

> 0.036

0.0248 0.0124 < 0.036

0.0124 < 0.036

2. Design strength using 0.90 as reduction Mu = (M1 + M2)

factor. Mu = 0.90 (208 + 73.7)

Mu = 253.53 kN.m

2

Mu = (1.6) 4

+ 8

(1.2)

(6) 20(6)2

253.53 = (1.6) 4

+ 8

(1.2)

P = 60.64 kN

C1 = 0.85 fc ab

C1 = 0.85 (30) (96.55) (300) PROBLEM 63:

C1 = 738607.50 N A reinforced concrete beam has a width of 350

mm and an effective depth of 562.5 mm. It is

0.003(70) at the top of the beam 62.5 mm below the extreme

=

compression fibers of the beam, having an area of

0.003(113.5970)

= 113.59 1530 mm2. fc = 34.6 MPa, fy = 414.7 MPa.

= 0.0011512

= 0.0011512 (200000) 1. Determine the depth of compression

= 230.25 < 415 block.

2. Determine the ultimate moment capacity.

C2 = As fs 3. Determine the maximum total tension

C2 = 1231.5 (230.25) area that could be used in this section.

C2 = 283553

Solution:

1. Depth of compression block.

M1 = C1 ( )

2

96.55 =

M1 = 738607.5 (330 2

)

4896

M1 = 208 x 106 N.mm = 350(562.5)

M2 = C2 ( ) = 0.0249

M2 = 283553 (330 70)

M2 = 73.7 x 106 N.mm

=

1530

= 350(562.5)

= 0.0078 C1 + C2 = T1 + T2

C1 + C2 = T + As fy

= 0.0249 0.0078 8234.8 c + 918000

(62.5)

= 4896 (414.7)

= 0.0171 c2 + 111.48 (c 62.5) = 246.56 c

c2 135.08 c 6967.5 = 0

0.85 600

When, > (600 )

c = 174.91 mm

a = c

a = 0.85 (174.91)

a = 139.93 mm

C2 = As fs

0.003 600(174.9162.5)

= = 174.91

=

0.003() = 385.60

91800(174.9162.5)

= 2 = 174.91

2 = 589974

0.003( ) 2 = 589.97

=

(200,000)

600(62.5)

=

C1 = 8234.8 c

C1 = 8234.8 (174.91)

C1 = 0.85 fc ab C1 = 1440349 N

C1 = 0.85 fc cb

C1 = 0.85 (34.6) (0.8) c (350)

M1 = C1 ( 2 )

C1 = 8234.8 c

139.93

M1 = 1440349 (562.5 2

)

1530 (600)(62.5) M2 = C2 ( )

C2 =

(62.5)

M2 = 589974 (562.5 62.5)

C2 = 918000

M2 = 294.984 x 106 N.mm

Mu = (M1 + M2)

Mu = 0.90 (709.42 + 294.98)

=

Mu = 903.96 kN.m 4744

= 375(500)

Max. As = bd ( 0.75 +

) =

1968

Max. As = 350(562.5) [0.75(0.03346) + = 375(500)

0.0078 (385.60)

] = 0.010496

414.7

=

(600+ )

A rectangular concrete beam has a width of 375

0.85 (27.6)(0.85)(600)

=

mm and an effective depth of 500 mm. 414.6(600+414.6)

located at 100 mm from the compression face of

the beam. The tension bars have an area of 4744 = 0.75(0.02844)

mm2. fc = 27.6 MPa, fy = 414.6 MPa. = 0.02133

0.0253 > 0.02133

block.

Therefore, compression bars are really needed.

2. Determine the max. steel ratio.

3. Determine the ultimate moment capacity

of the beam. Check if compression bars will yield or not.

0.85 600

> (600 )

compression bars will

Solution: not yield

1. Depth of the compression block. 0.85(27.6)(0.85)(100)600

> 414.6 (500)(600414.6)

0.0148 < 0.03113 compression bars will

not yield

fs fy

600( )

=

C1 + C2 = T1 + T2

As = As1 + As2 3. Ultimate moment capacity of the beam.

T1 + T2 = T

As1 fy + As2 fy = T

(As1 + As2) fy = T

T = As fy

C1 + C2 = T

0.85 fc ab + As fs = As fy As fs = As2 fy

1968 (600)(100)

1968 (282.15) = As2 (414.6)

0.85 (27.6) (0.85) c (375) + =

As2 = 1339 mm2

4744 (414.6)

c2 105.12 c 15790.57 = 0

As = As1 + As2

c = 188.77 As = 4744 + 1339

a = c As = 3405 mm2

a = 0.85 (188.77)

a = 160.45 mm

M1 = As1 fy ( )

2

160.45

M1 = 3405 (414.6) (500 )

2. Max. steel ratio. 2

= 0.75 +

600( )

=

M2 = As2 fy ( )

600(188.77100) M2 = 1339 (414.6) (562.5 62.5)

= 188.77

M2 = 222.06 x 106 N.mm

= 282.15

Mu = (M1 + M2)

282.15

= 0.02844 + 0.010496

414.6

1 0.003

0.0253 < 002847

311.23

= 188.77

< ok 1 = 0.005 ok

Use = 0.90 As = 4 = (32)2 (6) = 4825 2

Mu = 0.90 (704.44 + 222.06)

=

Mu = 833.85 kN.m

4825

=

300(600)

A rectangular beam has a width of 300 mm and

an effective depth to the centroid of the tension = 0.75

reinforcement of 600 mm. The tension 0.85 600

= (600+ )

reinforcement consists of 6 32 mm bars placed

0.05 (28)

in two rows. Compression reinforcement = 0.85 7

consisting of two 25 mm bars is placed 62.5 mm 0.05 (34.628)

= 0.85

7

from the compression face of the beam. fc = 34.6

= 0.80

MPa, fy = 414.7 MPa. 0.85 (34.56)(0.80)(600)

= 414.7(600+414.7)

block.

2. Determine the maximum steel ratio. = 0.75(0.0335)

3. Determine the design moment capacity = 0.0252

of the beam.

Solution: Compression bars is needed.

1. Depth of compression block. >

Check whether compression bars is really 0.0268 > 0.0252

needed. Check if compression bars will yield or not.

0.85 600

> (600 )

=

(25)2 (2)

4

= 200(600)

= 0.00545

0.85(34.6)(0.817)(62.5)600

> 414.7 (500)(600414.7)

0.02135 > 0.01954

fs = fy (steel compression yields)

As = 4 = (25)2 (2) = 981.75 2 a = c

180.64 = 0.85 (c)

c = 221.10 mm

T1 + T2 = C1 + C2

0.003

=

T = C1 + C2 378.30 221.10

= 0.0051 >

As fy = 0.85 fc ab + As fy

4825 (414.7) = 0.85 (34.6) (a) (300) + 981.75

fs = fy

Use = 0.90

Mn = C1 ( 2 ) + C2 ( )

Mn = 0.85 fc ab ( 2 ) + As fy ( )

C1 = 0.85 fc ab

C1 = 0.85 (34.6) (180.64) (300)

C1 = 1593787 N

(414.7)

a = 180.64 mm C2 = As fy

C2 = 981.75 (414.7)

2. Maximum steel ratio C2 = 407132 N

= 0.75 +

= 0.75 (0.0335) + (0.00545)

Mn = C1 ( ) + C2 ( )

2

= .

180.64

Mn = 1593787 (600 ) + 407132 (600

2

Mn = 1031 x 106 N.mm

Mu = Mn

Mu = 0.90 (1031)

Mu = 927.9 kN.m

PROBLEM 66:

A rectangular beam reinforced for both tension T = C1 + C2

and compression bars has an area of 1250 mm 2

As fy = 0.85 fc ab + As fs

and 4032 mm2 for tension bars. The tension bars 4032 (414.6) = 0.85(20.7) (0.85) c (350)

are placed at a distance of 75 mm from the bottom 1250 (600)(62.5)

+

of the beam while the compression bars are

1671667.2 c = 5234.5c2 750000 c - 46875000

placed 62.5 mm from the top of the beam. fc =

c2 176.08 c 8955 = 0

20.7 MPa, fy = 414.60 MPa. Width of beam is 350

c = 217.29 mm

mm with a total depth of 675 mm.

0.003(62.5)

=

1. Determine the depth of compression

0.003(217.2962.5)

block. =

217.29

2. Determine the ultimate moment of = 0.00214

capacity of the beam.

3. Determine the safe live concentrated load

=

that the beam could support at its mid-

414.6

span if it has a span of 6-m. Assume = 200000

>

Solution: >

1. Depth of the compression block. a = c

a = 0.85 (217.29)

a = 184.70 mm

0.003

=

0.003

= 62.5 0.003()

=

0.003(62.5)

= 0.003(600217.29)

= 217.29

=

=

0.003(62.5)(200000) 0.00529 > 0.005

=

600(62.5)

=

Note: 184.70

= 0.90 [2782(414.6) (600 2

)+

When < 0.005

1250(414.6)(600 62.5)]

(250)

Use = 0.65 + ( 0.002) 3

= 777.7 106 .

= . .

of the beam:

2

Mu = 4

+ 8

()2

Mu = (1.7) 4

+ 8

(1.4)

WDL = 5.55 kN/m

Use = 0.90

()2

Mu = (1.7) + (1.4)

4 8

(6) 5.55(6)2

777.7 = (1.7) + (1.4)

4 8

P = 291.27 kN

As fy = As2 fy

As = As2

As = As1 + As2

As1 = As As2

As1 = As As

As1 = 4032 1250

As1 = 2782 mm2

= [1 ( 2 ) + 2 ( )]

= 0.90 [1 ( 2 ) + 2 ( )]

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