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Mini project. Martin Moltke Wozniak. Vector calculus 5 /10/ 2017 A whale is flying in space

in a vector field of course. Lets analyse that a bit:)

F(x,y,z ) = x-y, x+y, 2z: F(x,y,z ) = x-y, x+y, 2z from above: Imagine this space contains a velocity field like a space storm of some sort, (solar flare? ) either way this whale is being pushed though this field, has decided to move using its telekinetic abilities to stay in its path no matte what happens to it on the way.

We now examen the field F(x,y,z ) = x-y, x+y, 2z The path it has chosen is from the center of the origin where the center is weekes following its spiral motion upwards in a helical fashion. On down again to its starting position exatly in a mirror helix path.

To compute this we only need the field F(x,y,z) and the parameterized curve r(t)

Lets see a 3d picture from Octave of the helix’s in the field :) the “left side “ helix is r (t) = cos(t), sin (t), t and right side is r (t) = cos(t), -sin (t), t this flying motion will also rewieel wheter the there is friction in the system, in other words if the field

is conservative.

In such case the work done on the whale will be 0, lets see it it so.

A crude guess by simply looking at the field from above (x-y plane ) would not suggest this. Intuitivly

I would think that if you made a track in a circle with center in the middle and you placed a whale

there it would get push around by it self. But the math suggest something different.

so. lets see we need to

F = x-y, y+x,2z

parameterization around Z axis cc seen from above (helix is like a screw turns)

 b ∫ F ( r ( t )) ⋅ r ' ( t ) dt a borderes : r ( a ) = 0, r ( b ) = 2 pi r ( t ) , sin ( t ) , t r ( t ) = cos ' ) = (− sin ( t ( t ) , cos ( t ) , 1 ) F ( r ( t ) ) = cost − sint , cost + sint , 2 t

F

2 pi

0

( r

( t ) ) ⋅ r

'

1 + 2 t dt

( t ) = 1 + 2

t

[ t + t 2 ] 2 pi = 2 pi + ( 2 pi ) ²

0

Now if we go a different way back? Do we get 0 in total? Helix is now going opsite a screw treads.

opposite helix screw

 b ∫ F ( r ( t )) ⋅ r ' ( t ) dt a borderes : r ( a ) = 2 pi , r ( b ) = 0
 r ( t ) = cos ( t ) , − sin ( t ) , t ( notice minus sine ) ( t ) = (− sin ( t ) , − cos ( t ) , 1 ) r ' F ( r ( t ) ) = − sint + cost , − sint − cost , 2 t F ( r ( t ) ) ⋅ r ' ( t ) = 1 + 2 t

wau the same integral as before

already now it will be the same result with a minus

nearly

 0 ∫ 1 + 2 t dt

2 pi

[ t + t 2 ]

thus total work =

0

2

pi = − 2

pi − ( 2

pi ) ²

therefore confirmed its , conservative .

FLUX Whale

Field Vector field chosen by F ( x , y , z ) = ( x y , x + y , 2 z ) to get the flux pasiing through an object

it is possible use the Gauss / Divergence therom

to make it esier we devide the object into 4 segments or 4 volum

A

these voumes are calculated seperatly using the Gauss therom :

, B

, C

, D

( F n ) ds = ( ∇

s

R

F ) dV

To begin with we must find the divergence of bold F , which gives us a scalar, which we use as the interand , (this is the same integrand for each volume ) calculated as ∇ ⋅ F

 ∇ ⋅ F = d ( x − y ) + dx
 d ( x + y ) + d ( 2 z ) dy dz

= 1 + 1 + 2 = 4

(the following equations a simplified an may not contain all necesary steps to follow the path of thought smoothly

FLUX Whale

Field Vector field chosen by F ( x , y , z ) = ( x y , x + y , 2 z ) to get the flux pasiing through an object it is possible use the Gauss / Divergence therom to make it esier we devide the object into 4 segments or 4 volum

A

these voumes are calculated seperatly using the Gauss therom :

, B

, C

, D

( F n ) ds = ( ∇

s

R

F ) dV

To begin with we must find the divergence of bold F , which gives us a scalar which we use as the interand , (this

 ∇ ⋅ F = d ( x − y ) + dx
 d ( x + y ) + d ( 2 z ) dy dz

= 1 + 1 + 2 = 4

(the following equations a simplified an may not contain all necesary steps to follow the path of thought smoothly

A

For A the integral is defined as :

A borders :

 0 ≤ y ≤ 4 − z 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 − x 2

1 x 1

1

1

x 2

4

z

4 dy dz dx

1

1

1

1

0

0

x 2

0

[ 4

y ]

4 z

0

dz dx

1

1

x 2

4

 −1 0 1 4 ∫ [ 4 − 1 1 2 ∫ − − 1

4 z dz dx

z z

2

²

]

1 x 2

0

x 2 6

x 2 + 7 dx

dx

2

[ x

3

³

6

x 2

2

+

7

x ]

1

1

thus A = 96

5

B

For B the integral is defined as :

 B borders : 0 ≤ y ≤ z + 4 x 2 − 1 ≤ z ≤ 0 −1 ≤ x ≤ 1 1 0 − z + 4 ∭ 4 dy dz dx − 1 x 2 − 1 0

The the volume of B is the exact same as that of A, only mirrored in z=0.

Also the vector field

Ffrom this One could argue that the 2 volume integrals should gives the same result wich they do ; )

thus

The mathemathical deriviation of B is let out for now, though carried out to check

F

is symetric around the z axis.

A = B = 96

5

C

For C the integral is defined as :

C borders :

2

0

1 x 1

z 3

y 0

z 1 x 2

1 0 2

z 3

4 dy dz dx

1

1

1

0

1

1

1 0

x 2

x 2

0

[ 4

y ]

0 2 z 3 dz dx

8 z + 12 dz dx

1

1

1

1

x 2

[ 8

2

z 2

+

12

z ]

1 x 2

0

1

4

1

x 4 5 x + 4 dx

C

= 304

15

dz dx

D

Borders :

2

x 2 1 z 0 1 x 1

z 3

y 0

For D, the integral is defined as :

1

0

0

4 dy dz dx

1

1

1 x 2 2

z 3

1 0

[ 4

1 x 2

y ] 0 2 z 3 dz dx

1 0

8 z + 12 dz dz dx

1

1

1

1 x 2

 [ 4 z 2 + 12 z ] 0 1 − x 2 dx 1 ∫ x 4 + x 2 − 2 x dx

4

1

[ x 5

5

+

4

D = 176

x 3

3

2

x ] 1

1

Total flux of A + B + C + D = 352 = 70.4

5