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Philippine History Kalaleng Tinggian nose flute

Kulintang Moro xylophone

Malayan Heritage Tultogan Bisayan bamboo drum
Siulbay Ilocano reed flute
A. Food and Drinks Suracan Subanun cymbal

Rice staple food of the Filipinos Dances and songs express aspects of life such as love, war, labor,
religion and death
Other foods: Carabao meat, pork, chicken, sea turtles, fish, Kumintang Tagalog love dance
bananas, etc. Mahinhin Tagalog courtship dance
Cook and store food and water in earthen pots and bamboo tubes. Dandansoy Bisayan tuba dance
Ate with fingers Kinnotan Ilocano arts dance
They made fire Paujalay Moro wedding dance
Tadek Tinggian love dance
Wines: Dallu Negrito religious song
tuba coconut wine Ayog-ku Igorot serenade song
basi sugarcane Ilocano Bactal Tagbanua death song
pangasi fermented rice Bisayan Dallot Ilocano ballad song
lambanog cocnut palm Tagalog Tudob Agusan harvest song
tapuy rice - Igorot
F. Marriage customs/ ceremony
B. Mode of Dressing
- Custom: Marry within own rank (nobleman to a noblewoman)
Men - no strict prohibition
Kangan collarless, short-sleeved jacket - bigaykaya a dowry given by the groom to the bride before
Bahag strip of cloth wrapped around the waist and legs marriage
Putong a piece of cloth wound around the head - The boy renders service to the girls family before marriage
No shoes - a priestess officiates the union of couples and when ceremony is
Jewelry gold necklace, gold armlets (kalombigas), and gold anklets over, rice is thrown to all the guests.
filled with precious stones - They practiced divorce on the ff. grounds: 1) adultery of wife 2)
desertion of husband, 3) loss of affection, 4) cruelty, 5) insanity,
Women and 6) childlessness
Baro wide-sleeved jacket
Patadyong a cotton cloth wrapped around their waist that G. Government/ Laws
extends to the feet. Barangay refers to settlements and is considered independent
Jewels gold necklace, bracelet, earrings and tings filed with kingdom
gems. - from balangay a sailboat used by Malays in going to
the Philippines
-they are both barefoot - consisted of 100 families
- inserted gold between teeth - Big barangays Sugbu (Cebu) , Maktan (Mactan), Bigan
(Vigan), Maynila (Manila) more than 2,000 families
C. House - Datu, hari, rajah leader of barangay obtained
Materials: Wood, bamboo, palm leaves position by inheritance
Batalan a gallery where the jars of water and others - Chief executive, legislator and judge
They have tree houses and boathouses
- There was no national government, only independent barangays
D. Natural courtesy and politeness - There were oral and written laws
Equal rank remove putong - ugali customs that serves as oral laws handed down from one
Superior Remove putong, hang on left, bow generation to generation
Conversation: uses po - written laws promulgated by the datus
Walking together: men behind women - umalahokan barangay crier to announce the written laws
- bathe daily sunset hour, when everything is done - the only written laws were from
- wash their feet before entering the house
H. Religion
- except Muslims in Mindanao, ancient Filipinos were
E. Amusement/ Music/ Dances pagans
- Filipinos are fond of merriment - Bathala supreme God, creator of heaven and earth
- celebrate good harvest, wedding, religious sacrifice and victory in - Below are other gods and goddesses
war - Anitos/ diwatas early Filipinos worship ancestral
- games: carabao race, wrestling, fencing, boat-race, stone spirits
throwing contest - Katalona/ baylana offers sacrifice to the anitos
- Animistic worship of nature (mountains, rivers,
Some musical instruments trees etc.
Kudyapi Taglog guitar
- Belief in life after death (good soul kalualhatian; Tumuro length of the tip of the thumb
bad soul kasamaan) Sandamak length of the with of the hand with five fingers
pressed together
I. Burial and Mourning Customs Sandali width of one finger
- burial customs exist because of life after death like
- larao a mourning customs for a deceased datu Calendars
- every activity is suspended at the death of datu Bisayan calendar 12 months a year, 7 days a week, 30 days a
such as harvest, war, quarrels and travels month except last month which has 26, 356 days a year.
Ifugao calendar 13 months and 364 days a year, 28 days a month.
J. Superstition
asuang a witch in the form of animals M. Domestic and Foreign Trade/ Coinage
mangkukulam cause people to die by pricking a toy with magic pin Piloncitos conical shaped ancient gold coins found between Bataan
tianak a creature that sucks blood through its elongated and Manila
proboscis Barter a trade practice by exchanging goods instead of money
Tigbalang appears in the form of dog, horse or old man to deceive - Ancient Filipinos traded with China, Japan, Siam (Thailand),
his victims Malacca, India, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and other Oriental lands.
anting-anting amulets that make the owner invulnerable to iron - The Chinese found that Filipinos were honest in trade relations
weapons (Ju-kua, 1225 and Wang Tayuan, 1349)
gayuma a love potion which arouse a womans affection
N. Agriculture and Industries
K. Languages/ Writing/ Literature/ Education
- we belong to the Malayo-Polynesian language mother tongue of 2 methods of farming
the Pacific races
- Filipinos have various languages 1. kaingin method land was cleared through burning and holes
Sipol a sharp, pointed iron instrument used for writing were dug through stick and the seed is allowed to grow there
- they wrote in leaves and tree barks 2. regular tillage use of wooden plows and carabaos, irrigation
- wrote from left to right (Ifugao)
- with 3 vowels (a, e-I, o-u), 14 consonants (b, k, d, g, h, l, m, n, ng,
p, s, t, v, y) - There was private and public ownership of land
- Industries include: fishing, mining, lumber, weaving, metalwork,
Oral literature 1) myths and legends on origin of man, woman, weaponry, wine-making, poultry and stock-raising.
animals, plants etc, 2) songs and poems on deeds of heroes 3)
fables and proverbs (sawikain), riddles (bugtong) Values:
1. Ancients Filipinos were already highly civilized and
Existing oral literature Darangan Maranao, Hud-hud Ifugao, developed culture with arts and sciences, government education
Biag ni Lam-ang Ilokanos etc.
2. Ancient Filipinos were free from foreign domination
Education, mostly informal in which children study in the homes 3. They live peacefully within their kingdom and in
Formal education existed in Panay, Bothoan a regular barangay relationship with others because they like to have good relations
school teaching Sanskrit language, reading, writing, arithmetic, war

L. Arts/ Sciences/ Weights and Measures/ Calendars

- Architecture of bahay kubo and other houses suitable for

tropical climate
- painted their bodies with colorful artworks such as animals and
other geometrical figures
- they also cared statues and designs of boats and houses
- they knew the value of medicinal plants, medicine was associated
with magic
- Astronomy was also known especially applied to sailing boats in
the direction of moon and stars
- Engineering built irrigation, ditches, rice terraces and forts.

Mathematics counting isa (1), puo (10), daan (100), libo (1000),
angao (million), kati (ten million) gahala (one hundred million)
- talaro a kind of balance for weights and scales
Kaban 25 gantas
Salop one ganta
Kaguitna ganta
Gatang 1 chupa
Dipa length of the tip of thumb until the middle finger extended

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