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Details about the Subject:-

Understanding of Bharat Muni's Rasa theory as outlined in the Natyashastra and demonstration of the
Navarasas in the class room.

Learning Objectives:-

Understanding of different emotions through an ancient text.

Important Lessons for Actors:-

Lesson 6:Rasa Vikalpa (The Distinction between sentiment and emotional fervour)

Lesson 7:Bhava Vynjaka (Exposition on emotional tracts and states)

Lesson 8:Uthamangaabhinaya (Procedure of the Ancillary/Primary Limbs)

Lesson 24: Samaanyabhinaya (Basic Representation)

Sr. No. Sthayi Bhavas
The durable psychological states / Permanently Rasas (Sentiments)
Dominant states
1. Rathi (Love) Sringara (The Erotic)

2. Hasa (Merriment/Mirth) Hasya (Humorous)

3. Soka (Sorrow) Karuna (Pathos)

4. Krodha (Fury) Raudra (Anger)

5. Utsaha (Enthusiasm) Vira (Heroic)

6. Bhaya (Terror) Bhayanaka (Terrific)

7. Jugupsa(Disgust) Bibbattsa (The Odious)

8. Vismaya (Astonishment) Adbhuta(The


Vyabhijaree Bhavas/Sanjaree Bhavas (Complementary Psychological states)/(Transitory

emotions or Mood) /(Temporary)Something that helps Sthayi Bhava/It goes along with Sthayi

1. Nirveda (Discouragement/Despondency)/Loss of Confidence because of Poverty or insult

2. Glani (Weakness)
3. Shanka (Apprehension/suspicious)
4. Asuya (Envy)
5. Mada (Intoxication/Inebriation)
6. Srama (Exhaustion (because of excess exercise/walking etc./weariness/tiredness)
7. Alasya (Indolence/Lethargy)
8. Dainya (Depression)
9. Chinta (Anxiety)
10. Moha (Distraction/Delusion)
11. Smrithi (Recollection)
12. Dhrithi (Contentment)/(Because of Shaurya, knowledge or wealth
13. Vrida (Bashfulness/shame/guilty)
14. Chapalatha (Inconstancy)
15. Harsha (Joy)
16. Avega (Excitement/Agitation)
17. Jadata (Stupor/a state of near unconsciousness or insensibility/stupefaction)
18. Garva (Pride)
19. Vishada (Despair)
20. Autsukya (Impatient curiosity/Impatience)
21. Nidra (Sleep)
22. Apasmara (Epilepsy/Loss of Memory)
23. Swapna (Dreaming)
24. Prabodha (Waking up)/Vibhodha (Wakening/awakening)
25. Amarsha (Indignation/Suppressed angry)
26. Avahita (Dissimulation/Dishonesty)
27. Ugrata (Cruelty)
28. Mathi (Assurance/Self Assurance/Commitment/promise)
29. Vyadhi (Sickness)
30. Unmadha(Insanity/Madness)
31. Marana (Death)
32. Trasa (Fright/A sudden fear)
33. Vitarka (Deliberation/Intentional) (not accidental)

Dharmis (Rehearsed Practice)/[Style of the presentation (especially in Acting)]

(Two sorts in the dramatic Portrayal)

1. Loka-Dharmi (Popularly Realistic Representation) (natural/realistic)

2. Natya-Dharmi (Theatrically Convention)

SRINGHARA RASA (Erotic Sentiments)

Two types a) Sambhoga Sringhara (Love in Union)

b)Vipralambha Sringhara (Love in Separation)

STHAYIBHAVA (Durable/ permanently dominated)

RATHI (Love)

Vibhavas (Cause /Determinants) of Sambhoga Sringhara

1. The pleasant season

2. Garlands (by flowers)
3. Unguents (Sandal wood paste etc)
4. Ornaments
5. People dear and near
6. Sensual Objects
7. Excellent Mansions (large house)
8. Object of pleasure
9. Going to the Garden
10. Experiencing pleasures
11. Listening (To sweet voices)
12. Seeing beautiful things
13. Sports and Games etc.


1. Clever and significant glances of the eyes

2. Movements of the eyebrows
3. Ogling Looks (Flirtatiously)
4. Movements of Limbs

Vybhijari Bhavas of SAMBHOGA SRINGHARA

1. Nirveda (Laziness)
2. Glani (Weakness)
3. Shanka (Suspicious)
4. Asuya (Envy)
5. Mada (Intoxication)
6. Srama (Tiredness)
7. Dainya (Depression)
8. Chinta (Anxiety)
9. Moha (Delusion)
(an idiosyncratic belief)
10. Smrithi (Recollection)
11. Dhrithi (Contentment)
12. Vrida (Shame)
13. Chapalatha (Inconstancy)
14. Harsha (Joy)
15. Avega (Excitement)
16. Jadata (A state of near unconsciousness or insensibility)
17. Garva (Pride)
18. Vishada (Despair)
19. Autsukya (Impatience)
20. Nidra (Sleep)
21. Apasmara (Epilepsy)
(Loss of memory)
22. Swapna (Dreaming)
23. Prabodha/Vibodha (awakening)
24. Amarsha (Indignation/suppressed angry)
25. Avahita (Dissimulation/Dishonesty)
26. Mathi (Assurance/Promise/Commitment)
27. Vyadhi (Sickness)
28. Unmadha (Insanity/Madness)
29. Vitarka (Deliberation/intentional not accidental)

Avoided Alasya(Lethargy), Angrya(Ferocity), Trasa(fright_sudden intense feeling of fear)

SATHVIKA BHAVAS (Temperamental states of emotional favour)

1. Sweda (Perspiration)
2. Romanja (Horripilation)
3. Swarabhanga (Change or block in voice)
4. Vepadhu (Trembling)
5. Vyvarnya (Change of colour on face)
6. Asru (Weeping)
7. Pralaya (Fainting/without any movement)

Includes Angika, Vachika, Sathvika, Aaharyabhinaya

Sringhara Rasa
Erotic Sentiments
(b) Vipralambha (Love in separation)

STHAYI BHAVA (Durable/Permanently dominated)

Rathi (Love)

Vibhava (Cause/Determinants)

1. Deceived by the lover not arriving at the place on time etc.

2. The favourable season
3. Ornaments
4. Garlands
5. Sweet
6. Music
7. Poetry
8. Persons dear and near
9. Park &Garden
10. Sports activities

(Complementary psychological states)
(Something that helps to Sthayi Bhava)

1. Nirveda (Laziness)
2. Glani (Weakness)
3. Sanka (Suspicious)
4. Asuya (Jealously)
5. Srama (Weariness/tiredness)
6. Chintha (Anxiety)
7. Autuskya (Yearing impatience)
8. Nidra (Drowsiness)
9. Supta (Sleep)
10. Swapna (Dream)
11. Bibboka (Feigned anger/ not genuine)
12. Vyadhi (Illness)
13. Unmada (Insanity)
14. Apasmara (Forget fulness)
15. Jadya (Sluggishness-slow moving or inactive)
16. Marana (Death) and other conditions

Anubhava (Result) or How to present

1. Graceful movements of the limbs accompanied by sweet smiles

2. Pleasing words
3. Fortitude (Courage in pain)
4. Delighted expressions, (serene(calm) Eyes.
5. Beaming (Smiling broadly) Face.

SATHVIKA BHAVAS (Temperamental states of emotional favour)

8. Sweda (Perspiration)
9. Romanja (Horripilation)
10. Swarabhanga (Change or block in voice)
11. Vepadhu (Trembling)
12. Vyvarnya (Change of colour on face)
13. Asru (Weeping)
14. Pralaya (Fainting/without any movement)

Includes Angika, Vachika, Sathvika, Aaharyabhinaya


Sthayi Bhava(Dominated/Durable Emotion)-:HASA(Laughter)

1. Vikrtavesha (Unseemly Dress/Improper)
2. Vikrtalankaara (Misplaced Ornaments)
3. Dharstya (Rudeness)
4. Laulya (Greedy)
5. Kalaha (Quarrel)
6. Asatpralapa (Near obscene utterance)
7. Vyanga Darsana (Displaying deformed Limbs)
8. Doshoda Harana (Pointing out the faults of others)and other similar things

ANUBHAVA (Result/consequence)
1. Osthadamshana (Biting the lips)
2. Nasa kapola spandharva (Throbbing of the nose and check)
3. Drishtivyakosa (Opening the eyes wide)
4. Dristi kunchana (Contracting the eyes decrease)
5. Sveda )Sweat, perspiration)
6. Asya Raga (changing Colour of the face /Blush)
7. Paarshuva grahana (Holding the sides by month)

VYABHIJARI BHAVAS (Transitory states)

1. Alasya (Lethargy)
2. Avahitha (Dishonesty)
3. Tandra (Sleepy)
4. Anidra (Sleeplessness)
5. Swapna (Dreaming )
6. Prabodha (Waking up)
7. Asuya (Envy)

Two kinds of RASA HASYA


AATHMASTHA (Self based) when actor laughs to himself:-

The display of oddly placed ornaments, unseemly behaviour, unrelevant words, faulty dress, strange
movements of the limbs etc. make people laugh to themselves

PARASTHA (Based on others) when he make others laughs:-

The actor makes other people laugh through distortions of facial features, statements uttered
irrelevantly, strange movements of the limbs and odd dress.

-:6 KINDS OF HASA (Laughter):-
1. Smitha (Gentle Smile):-The checks are slightly blown, the glances are elgant, the teeth cannot
be seen.
2. Hasitha (Slight Laughter):-The mouth and the eyes are blooming, the checks are blown and the
teeth are slightly seen.
3. Vihasitha (Open Laughter):-It should be fitting the occasion. It is laughter when slight sound is
produced sweetly. The actor contracts the eyes and the cheeks. There is a cheerful luster (shine)
in the face.
4. Upahasitha (Laughter of Ridicule (make someone look stupid) :-The nostrils become
expanded. The eyes become strbismic (a visual defect) and cross eyed. The shoulder and the
head become bent a little.
5. Apahasitha (Obscene Laughter):-Usually unsuitable to the context. Tears trickle from the eyes.
The Actor violently shakes his shoulders and the head.
6. Athihasitha (Boisterous (noisy, energetic and cheerful) Laughter:- The Athihasitha is
excessively boisterous. The eyes are expanded. Tears drop from them. Hands cover the sides
(on the waist)

3)KARUNA RASA (Pathos Sentiments)

Sthayi Bhava/Durable Psychological states
Soka (Sorrow)

VIBHAVAS (Cause, determinants)

Curse, distress, down fall, calamity, Separation from the near and dear, Loss of wealth, Murder,
imprisonment, Fright, Dangerous accidents and misfortunes.

ANUBHAVAS (Result, consequents)

Discharge of tears, Lamentation (Weeping), Parched (dry) throat and mouth, Pallor of [an
unhealthy pale appearance of the face, Dropping (hang down) of the limbs, gasping (the sound
made by suddenly breathing in because of surprise or sudden pain) for breath, loss of memory

VYABHIJARI BHAVAS (Complementary states)

Dejectedness (Sad and depressed), in difference (Glani), Lanquor (Srama) (tired and depressed),
anxiety (Chinta)., Yearing (Autsukya impatience (no particular interest), Avega (excitement),
Brama (Illusion), Apasmara (Loss of sense), Dainya (Depression), Jadata (A state of near
unconsciousness in sensibility), Vishada (Despair), Unmadha (Insanity), Marana (Death), Trasa
(Fright, a sudden fear)

SAATHVIKA BHAVAS (Temperamental states of emotional favour)

Stamba (Paralysis/ a loss of the ability to move), Vepathu (Tremblilng), Vyvarnya (Change of
colour on face), Asru (Weeping), Swara Bhedha (Change of voice)


4)RAUDRA RASA (Anger sentiments)/STHAYI BHAVA (Durable psychological states)/

Krodha (Fury)
VIBHAVAS (Cause, determinants)
1. Krodha (Fury)
2. Violation of Modesty
3. Adhikshepa (Abuse)
4. Apamana (Insult)
5. Anarth Vachana (Uttering Falsehoods)
6. Vaak paarushya (harsh words)
7. Droha (Animosity)/Strong hatred
8. Matsarya (Jealousy) etc.

KARMAS (Activities)
1. Beating
2. Tearing
3. Harassing
4. Chopping off (To cut)
5. Breaking
6. Piercing
7. Striking (to hit/knock/give a blow)
8. Shedding Blood
9. Seizing of weapons etc

ANUBHAVAS (Result, Consequents)

1. Making the eyes Red
2. Perspiring profusely (Sweat)
3. Knitting of the eyebrows
4. Clapping the hands
5. Guashing (biting) of the teeth
6. Biting of the Lips
7. Throbbing of the cheeks
8. Hitting the palm with the first etc

VYABHIJARI BHAVAS (Complementary states)

1. Sammaoha (Tumultuous battle)
2. Utsaha (Energetic enthusiasm)
3. Avega (Excitement)
4. Amarsha (Indignation)
5. Chapalatha (Inconstancy)
6. Ugratha (Cruelty)
7. Garva (Pride)
SATHVIKA BHAVAS (Temperamental states of emotional favour)
1. Sweda (Perspiration)
2. Vepadhu (Trembling)
3. Romanja (Horripilation)
4. Ghalghadha (Swara Bhanga)
5)VIRA RASA(Heroic Sentiment)/STHAYI BHAVA (Durable psychological states),UTSAHA
VIBHAVAS (Cause, determinants)
1. Asammoha (Composure and absence of Infatuation (intense but short lived passion)
2. Adhyavasaya (Preservance)/doing something despite difficulty or delay
3. Naya (Good tactics)
4. Vinaya (Humbleness)
5. Paraakraarva (Valour)
6. Shakthi (Power)
7. Pratapa (Aggressiveness)
8. Prabhava (Might having great power, influence) etc.

1. Sthairya (Firmness)
2. Saurya (Heroism)
3. Dhairya (Bravery)
4. Tyaga (Readiness to sacrifice)
5. Vaishaaradhya (Proficiency)/Skilled or expert

SANJARI BHAVAS (Transitory/Complimentary states)

1. Dhrithi (Fortitude/Courage)
2. Mathi (Intellect)
3. Garva (Pride)
4. Vega
5. Augrya (Ferocity)
6. Amarsha (Indignation)
7. Smrithi (Recollection)

SATHVIKA BHAVA- Romanja (Horripillation)


6)BHAYANKA RASA (The terrible sentiment)

STHAYI BHAVA (Durable psychological states)-BHAYA (Fright)

VIBHAVAS (Cause/determinants)
1. Vikritha Rava (Terrific Noise)
2. Sathva Sarsana [Sight of Apparitions (ghost like images]
3. Shivoluka traasodvega (Panic and worried state on hearing the cries of jackals and owls)
4. Shoonyagaara (Empty House)
5. Aranya Pravesha (Entering a forest)
6. Marana (Death)
7. Swajana vadha (Murder of kingsmen)
8. Imprisonment (Bhandhana)
9. Seeing or hearing about or discussing any of these things and the like

ANUBHAVAS (Result/consequents)
1. Pravepithakara charana (Trembling of the hands and foot)
2. Nayana chalana (Movements of the eyes)
3. Pulaka (Hairs standing on ends/goose bumps)
4. Mukha Vaivarnya (Pallor in the face)
5. Swara Bhedha (Change of voice and tone) etc/

VYABHIJARI BHAVAS (Complementary psychological states)

1. Sthambha (Paralysis)
2. Swedha (Perspiration)
3. Gadgada (Choked voice)
4. Romanja (Horripilation)
5. Vepathu (Trembling)
6. Swarabheda (Change of voice and tone)
7. Vaivarnya (Lack of lustre (shine)]
8. Shanka (Suspicion)
9. Moha (Fainting)
10. Dainya (Dejection/depressed state)
11. Avega (Agitation)
12. Chapala (Restlessness)
13. Thrasa (Fright/ sudden fear)
14. Apasmara (Epilepsy or loss of memory)
15. Marana (Death) etc.

7)BHIBHATSA RASA (The odious sentiments)
Sthayi Bhava (Durable psychological states)-Juguptsa (Disgust)

STHAYI BHAVA (Cause/determinants)

1. Ahrdhya-Apriya aveksha (Seeing what is unwholesome (unhealthy) or displeasing)
2. Anishta-Sravana-Dharshana-Parikurthana (Hearing, seeing and discussing what is
undesuable/not wanted) etc.

ANUBHAVAS (Result, Consequents)

1. Sarvaangha Samhara (Squeezing up all the limbs)
2. Mukha Nethraghurnana (Moving the face to and fro, Rolling the eyes)
3. Hrllekha (Heartache Grief (intense sorrow), Anxiety)
4. Nishtteevana (Spitting)
5. Udvejana (Expressing Disgust) etc.

VYABHIJARI BHAVAS (Complementary psychological states)

1. Aparsmara (Loss of Memory)
2. Vega (Agitation)
3. Moha (Delusion or loss of sense)
4. Vyadhi (Illness)
5. Marana (Death) etc.

8)ADBHUTA RASA(The mysterious sentiments)

The Sthayi Bhava (Durable psychological states)-Astonishment (Vismaya)

VIBHAVAS (Cause, determinants)

1. Divya Dharshana (Seeing a heavenly being)
2. Ipsitha Manoratha vyapthi (Attainment/to gain of the cherished(to keep)desire)
3. Uthama Vanadhava Kullaabhi gamana (proceeding towards excellent park, temple etc.) magical
tricks and creations of things that can never be imagined about (Beyond imagination/new) etc.

ANUBHAVAS (Result, Consequents)

1. Nayana Visthaara (Gaping of the eyes)
2. Animehs Prekshana (Staring with winkles eyes)
3. Romanja (Horripilation)
4. Asru (Tears)
5. Sweda (Perspiration)
6. Harsha (Delight)
7. Saadhu Vadha (Uttering words of Congratulation)
8. Pradhana (Making gifts)
9. Bandha Hahakaara (Sense of shouts of Ha, Ha)
10. Bhahu Vadhana Chelanguli Bhramana (Movements /rotation of hands, face, dress, fingers)


VYABHIJARI BHAVAS (Complementary psychological states)

1. Avega (excitement)
2. Sambrana (Anxiety)
3. Harsha (Joy)
4. Chapalatha (Inconstancy)
5. Unmaadha (Insanity/madness)
6. Dhrithi (Contentment)
7. Jadatha (Near unconsciousness)
8. Pralaya (Fainting)

SATHVIKA BHAVAS (Temperamental states of emotional fervour)

1. Sthamba (Paralysis)
2. Asru (Weeping)
3. Sweda (Perspiration)
4. Gad Gadha (Choking words)
5. Romanja (Horripilation)

Jijoy P.R.
Associate Prof.,
Department of Acting,