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Mechanical Life Cycle Handbook

Good Environmental Design and Manufacturing

Copyright 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

edited by

Mahendra S. Hundal

University of Vermont Burlington, Vermont

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ISBN: 0-8247-0572-6

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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Copyright 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

A Series of Textbooks and Reference Books

Founding Editor

L. L. Faulkner

Columbus Division, Battelle Memorial Institute and Department of Mechanical Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio

1.

Spring Designer's Handbook, Harold Carlson

2.

Computer-Aided Graphics and Design, Daniel L. Ryan

3.

Lubrication Fundamentals, J. George Wills

4.

Solar Engineering for Domestic Buildings, William A. Himmelman

5.

Applied Engineering Mechanics: Statics and Dynamics, G. Boothroyd and

C.

Poli

6.

Centrifugal Pump Clinic, Igor J. Karassik

7.

Computer-Aided Kinetics for Machine Design, Daniel L. Ryan

8.

Plastics Products Design Handbook, Part A: Materials and Components; Part B: Processes and Design for Processes, edited by Edward Miller

9.

Turbomachinery: Basic Theory and Applications, Earl Logan, Jr.

10.

Vibrations of Shells and Plates, Werner Soedel

11.

Flat and Corrugated Diaphragm Design Handbook, Mario Di Giovanni

12.

Practical Stress Analysis in Engineering Design, Alexander Blake

13.

An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints, John H. Bickford

14.

Optimal Engineering Design: Principles and Applications, James N. Siddall

15.

Spring Manufacturing Handbook, Harold Carlson

16.

Industrial Noise Control: Fundamentals and Applications, edited by Lewis H. Bell

17.

Gears and Their Vibration: A Basic Approach to Understanding Gear Noise,

J.

Derek Smith

18.

Chains for Power Transmission and Material Handling: Design and Appli- cations Handbook, American Chain Association

19.

Corrosion and Corrosion Protection Handbook, edited by Philip A. Schweitzer

20.

Gear Drive Systems: Design and Application, Peter Lynwander

21.

Controlling In-Plant Airborne Contaminants: Systems Design and Cal- culations, John D. Constance

22.

CAD/CAM Systems Planning and Implementation, Charles S. Knox

23.

Probabilistic Engineering Design: Principles and Applications, James N. Siddall

24.

Traction Drives: Selection and Application, Frederick W. Heilich III and Eugene E. Shube

25.

Finite Element Methods: An Introduction, Ronald L. Huston and Chris E. Passerello

Copyright 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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26. Mechanical Fastening of Plastics: An Engineering Handbook, Brayton Lincoln, Kenneth J. Gomes, and James F. Braden

27. Lubrication in Practice: Second Edition, edited by W. S. Robertson

28. Principles of Automated Drafting, Daniel L. Ryan

29. Practical Seal Design, edited by Leonard J. Martini

30. Engineering Documentation for CAD/CAM Applications, Charles S. Knox

31. Design Dimensioning with Computer Graphics Applications, Jerome C. Lange

32. Mechanism Analysis: Simplified Graphical and Analytical Techniques, Lyndon

O. Barton

33. CAD/CAM Systems: Justification, Implementation, Productivity Measurement,

Edward J. Preston, George W. Crawford, and Mark E. Coticchia

34. Steam Plant Calculations Manual, V. Ganapathy

35. Design Assurance for Engineers and Managers, John A. Burgess

36. Heat Transfer Fluids and Systems for Process and Energy Applications, Jasbir Singh

37. Potential Flows: Computer Graphic Solutions, Robert H. Kirchhoff

38. Computer-Aided Graphics and Design: Second Edition, Daniel L. Ryan

39. Electronically Controlled Proportional Valves: Selection and Application, Michael J. Tonyan, edited by Tobi Goldoftas

40. Pressure Gauge Handbook, AMETEK, U.S. Gauge Division, edited by Philip

W. Harland

41. Fabric Filtration for Combustion Sources: Fundamentals and Basic Tech-

nology, R. P. Donovan

42. Design of Mechanical Joints, Alexander Blake

43. CAD/CAM Dictionary, Edward J. Preston, George W. Crawford, and Mark

E. Coticchia

44. Machinery Adhesives for Locking, Retaining, and Sealing, Girard S. Haviland

45. Couplings and Joints: Design, Selection, and Application, Jon R. Mancuso

46. Shaft Alignment Handbook, John Piotrowski

47. BASIC Programs for Steam Plant Engineers: Boilers, Combustion, Fluid Flow, and Heat Transfer, V. Ganapathy

48. Solving Mechanical Design Problems with Computer Graphics, Jerome C. Lange

49. Plastics Gearing: Selection and Application, Clifford E. Adams

50. Clutches and Brakes: Design and Selection, William C. Orthwein

51. Transducers in Mechanical and Electronic Design, Harry L. Trietley

52. Metallurgical Applications of Shock-Wave and High-Strain-Rate Phenom- ena, edited by Lawrence E. Murr, Karl P. Staudhammer, and Marc A. Meyers

53. Magnesium Products Design, Robert S. Busk

54. How to Integrate CAD/CAM Systems: Management and Technology, William

D. Engelke

55. Cam Design and Manufacture: Second Edition; with cam design software for the IBM PC and compatibles, disk included, Preben W. Jensen

56. Solid-State AC Motor Controls: Selection and Application, Sylvester Campbell

57. Fundamentals of Robotics, David D. Ardayfio

58. Belt Selection and Application for Engineers, edited by Wallace D. Erickson

59. Developing Three-Dimensional CAD Software with the IBM PC, C. Stan Wei

60. Organizing Data for CIM Applications, Charles S. Knox, with contributions by Thomas C. Boos, Ross S. Culverhouse, and Paul F. Muchnicki

Copyright 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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61. Computer-Aided Simulation in Railway Dynamics, by Rao V. Dukkipati and Joseph R. Amyot

62. Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design, P. K. Mallick

63. Photoelectric Sensors and Controls: Selection and Application, Scott M. Juds

64. Finite Element Analysis with Personal Computers, Edward R. Champion, Jr., and J. Michael Ensminger

65. Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technology, Applications: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Dale Ensminger

66. Applied Finite Element Modeling: Practical Problem Solving for Engineers, Jeffrey M. Steele

67. Measurement and Instrumentation in Engineering: Principles and Basic Laboratory Experiments, Francis S. Tse and Ivan E. Morse

68. Centrifugal Pump Clinic: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Igor J. Karassik

69. Practical Stress Analysis in Engineering Design: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Alexander Blake

70. An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, John H. Bickford

71. High Vacuum Technology: A Practical Guide, Marsbed H. Hablanian

72. Pressure Sensors: Selection and Application, Duane Tandeske

73. Zinc Handbook: Properties, Processing, and Use in Design, Frank Porter

74. Thermal Fatigue of Metals, Andrzej Weronski and Tadeusz Hejwowski

75. Classical and Modern Mechanisms for Engineers and Inventors, Preben W. Jensen

76. Handbook of Electronic Package Design, edited by Michael Pecht

77. Shock-Wave and High-Strain-Rate Phenomena in Materials, edited by Marc

A. Meyers, Lawrence E. Murr, and Karl P. Staudhammer

78. Industrial Refrigeration: Principles, Design and Applications, P. C. Koelet

79. Applied Combustion, Eugene L. Keating

80. Engine Oils and Automotive Lubrication, edited by Wilfried J. Bartz

81. Mechanism Analysis: Simplified and Graphical Techniques, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Lyndon O. Barton

82. Fundamental Fluid Mechanics for the Practicing Engineer, James W.

Murdock

83. Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, P. K. Mallick

84. Numerical Methods for Engineering Applications, Edward R. Champion, Jr.

85. Turbomachinery: Basic Theory and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Earl Logan, Jr.

86. Vibrations of Shells and Plates: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Werner Soedel

87. Steam Plant Calculations Manual: Second Edition, Revised and Ex panded,

V. Ganapathy

88. Industrial Noise Control: Fundamentals and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Lewis H. Bell and Douglas H. Bell

89. Finite Elements: Their Design and Performance, Richard H. MacNeal

90. Mechanical Properties of Polymers and Composites: Second Edition, Re- vised and Expanded, Lawrence E. Nielsen and Robert F. Landel

91. Mechanical Wear Prediction and Prevention, Raymond G. Bayer

Copyright 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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92.

Mechanical Power Transmission Components, edited by David W. South and Jon R. Mancuso

93.

Handbook of Turbomachinery, edited by Earl Logan, Jr.

94.

Engineering Documentation Control Practices and Procedures, Ray E. Monahan

95.

Refractory Linings Thermomechanical Design and Applications, Charles A. Schacht

96.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Applications and Techniques for Use in Design, Manufacturing, and Inspection, James D. Meadows

97.

An Introduction to the Design and Behavior of Bolted Joints: Third Edition, Revised and Expanded, John H. Bickford

98.

Shaft Alignment Handbook: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, John Piotrowski

99.

Computer-Aided Design of Polymer-Matrix Composite Structures, edited by Suong Van Hoa

100.

Friction Science and Technology, Peter J. Blau

101.

Introduction to Plastics and Composites: Mechanical Properties and Engi- neering Applications, Edward Miller

102.

Practical Fracture Mechanics in Design, Alexander Blake

103.

Pump Characteristics and Applications, Michael W. Volk

104.

Optical Principles and Technology for Engineers, James E. Stewart

105.

Optimizing the Shape of Mechanical Elements and Structures, A. A. Seireg and Jorge Rodriguez

106.

Kinematics and Dynamics of Machinery, Vladimír Stejskal and Michael Valáðek

107.

Shaft Seals for Dynamic Applications, Les Horve

108.

Reliability-Based Mechanical Design, edited by Thomas A. Cruse

109.

Mechanical Fastening, Joining, and Assembly, James A. Speck

110.

Turbomachinery Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer, edited by Chunill Hah

111.

High-Vacuum Technology: A Practical Guide, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Marsbed H. Hablanian

112.

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing: Workbook and Answerbook, James D. Meadows

113.

Handbook of Materials Selection for Engineering Applications, edited by G. T. Murray

114.

Handbook of Thermoplastic Piping System Design, Thomas Sixsmith and Reinhard Hanselka

115.

Practical Guide to Finite Elements: A Solid Mechanics Approach, Steven M. Lepi

116.

Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics, edited by Vijay K. Garg

117.

Fluid Sealing Technology, Heinz K. Muller and Bernard S. Nau

118.

Friction and Lubrication in Mechanical Design, A. A. Seireg

119.

Influence Functions and Matrices, Yuri A. Melnikov

120.

Mechanical Analysis of Electronic Packaging Systems, Stephen A. McKeown

121.

Couplings and Joints: Design, Selection, and Application, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Jon R. Mancuso

122.

Thermodynamics: Processes and Applications, Earl Logan, Jr.

123.

Gear Noise and Vibration, J. Derek Smith

124.

Practical Fluid Mechanics for Engineering Applications, John J. Bloomer

125.

Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology, edited by George E. Totten

126.

Heat Exchanger Design Handbook, T. Kuppan

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127. Designing for Product Sound Quality, Richard H. Lyon

128. Probability Applications in Mechanical Design, Franklin E. Fisher and Joy R. Fisher

129. Nickel Alloys, edited by Ulrich Heubner

130. Rotating Machinery Vibration: Problem Analysis and Troubleshooting, Maurice L. Adams, Jr.

131. Formulas for Dynamic Analysis, Ronald L. Huston and C. Q. Liu

132. Handbook of Machinery Dynamics, Lynn L. Faulkner and Earl Logan, Jr.

133. Rapid Prototyping Technology: Selection and Application, Kenneth G. Cooper

134. Reciprocating Machinery Dynamics: Design and Analysis, Abdulla S. Rangwala

135. Maintenance Excellence: Optimizing Equipment Life-Cycle Decisions, edi- ted by John D. Campbell and Andrew K. S. Jardine

136. Practical Guide to Industrial Boiler Systems, Ralph L. Vandagriff

137. Lubrication Fundamentals: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, D. M. Pirro and A. A. Wessol

138. Mechanical Life Cycle Handbook: Good Environmental Design and Manu- facturing, edited by Mahendra S. Hundal

139. Micromachining of Engineering Materials, edited by Joseph McGeough

140. Control Strategies for Dynamic Systems: Design and Implementation, John H. Lumkes, Jr.

141. Practical Guide to Pressure Vessel Manufacturing, Sunil Pullarcot

142. Nondestructive Evaluation: Theory, Techniques, and Applications, edited by Peter J. Shull

143. Diesel Engine Engineering: Thermodynamics, Dynamics, Design, and Control, Andrei Makartchouk

144. Handbook of Machine Tool Analysis, Ioan D. Marinescu, Constantin Ispas, and Dan Boboc

145. Implementing Concurrent Engineering in Small Companies, Susan Carlson Skalak

146. Practical Guide to the Packaging of Electronics: Thermal and Mechanical Design and Analysis, Ali Jamnia

147. Bearing Design in Machinery: Engineering Tribology and Lubrication, Avraham Harnoy

148. Mechanical Reliability Improvement: Probability and Statistics for Experi- mental Testing, R. E. Little

149. Industrial Boilers and Heat Recovery Steam Generators: Design, Ap- plications, and Calculations, V. Ganapathy

150. The CAD Guidebook: A Basic Manual for Understanding and Improving Computer-Aided Design, Stephen J. Schoonmaker

151. Industrial Noise Control and Acoustics, Randall F. Barron

152. Mechanical Properties of Engineered Materials, Wolé Soboyejo

153. Reliability Verification, Testing, and Analysis in Engineering Design, Gary S. Wasserman

154. Fundamental Mechanics of Fluids: Third Edition, I. G. Currie

155. Intermediate Heat Transfer, Kau-Fui Vincent Wong

156. HVAC Water Chillers and Cooling Towers: Fundamentals, Application, and Operation, Herbert W. Stanford III

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Additional Volumes in Preparation

Handbook of Turbomachinery: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Earl Logan, Jr., and Ramendra Roy

Progressing Cavity Pumps, Downhole Pumps, and Mudmotors, Lev Nelik

Gear Noise and Vibration: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, J. Derek Smith

Piping and Pipeline Engineering: Design, Construction, Maintenance, Integrity, and Repair, George A. Antaki

Turbomachinery: Design and Theory: Rama S. Gorla and Aijaz Ahmed Khan

Mechanical Engineering Software

Spring Design with an IBM PC, Al Dietrich

Mechanical Design Failure Analysis: With Failure Analysis System Software for the IBM PC, David G. Ullman

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To all the people—past, present, and future— who see it as their duty to help preserve our natural environment for all the life on this planet.

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Preface

Design for the environment (DFE), also called ‘‘green design’’ or ‘‘environ- mentally friendly design,’’ is one of the greatest challenges facing engineers today and one that offers great potential benefits to society. DFE addresses the problem of waste and pollution at the design stage, where the potential for effecting results is the greatest. The decisions made at the design stage affect all phases of a product’s life—manufacturing, transportation, opera- tion, maintenance, and disposal. The traditional field of environmental engi- neering, on the other hand, deals with waste and pollution after the fact (i.e., after they have been generated) and with methods of mitigating environ- mental damage. The need to develop products that minimize environmental damage has become increasingly evident. Products are important in fulfilling human needs, but the side effects of production—pollution and the depletion of natural resources—must also be of concern to designers and manufacturers. This handbook is divided into the following parts: General Concepts, Product Planning, Design and Manufacturing, Industrial Practice, and Management Aspects.

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GENERAL CONCEPTS

Chapter 1 introduces DFE and the process of life cycle engineering (LCE). The product realization process (PRP) is described from the traditional perspective and from the perspective of the life cycle. The chapter also discusses consumption and waste of energy and material resources, as well as the environmental requirements of product development. In Chapter 2, Conway-Schempf and Hendrickson present an overview of life cycle assessment (LCA), defining its terminology and providing a historical perspective on LCA stages and methods. Two case studies in the chapter show the results of using alternative materials in, respectively, drinking cups (paper vs. polystyrene bead) and pavement (asphalt vs. con- crete). Chapter 3, by Caudill et al., introduces an extension of LCA—multi– life cycle assessment (MLCA)—that focuses on quantifying the materials, energy, and environmental burdens associated with end-of-life options and on the value of returning parts and materials back into use. This chapter presents MLCA software as a tool for analyzing and comparing environ- mental impacts, energy consumption, and costs of various products. In Chapter 4, Billatos focuses on design methodologies for the envir- onment, providing an overview of the product life cycle, DFE drivers, and DFE guidelines. The author describes applications of DFE in the German automobile industry, consumer appliances, and packaging design. Chapter 5 examines the laws and regulations that drive DFE in the United States. It describes major U.S. environmental regulations, their effectiveness, and their necessity, and considers the interaction of laws, economics, and product/process innovation. In Chapter 6, Dammert et al. address the environmental laws and market-driven requirements in Europe, including those for the European Community in general, and those in Finland, Sweden, and Germany in particular. The authors also discuss the regulations for environmental man- agement and environmental labeling and declarations, including an exten- sive list of European information sources and references.

PRODUCT PLANNING

Luttropp’s Chapter 7 introduces a DFE method useful in the early product development stages. In this method, products are classified according to their degree of modularization and ease of disassembly. The author gives five steps in a green conceptual design process: market study, product plan- ning, developing the module list, preparing a connection map of parts, and determining indices for sorting of parts and subassemblies.

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Zu¨st begins Chapter 8 by examining high resource use, environmental management, and early planning. He goes on to describe product life phases, environmental performance evaluation, an approximate life cycle model, and modeling of energy and material flows. The chapter’s final sec- tion introduces a search heuristic for ecological improvement. Chapter 9, by Wimmer, presents a procedure for evaluating designs for properties relevant to environmental impact. This procedure involves close scrutiny of the product’s life cycle and its environment, with the goal of formulating targets for product improvement. The chapter also describes the environmental checklist method, which uses modules for part analysis, functional analysis, and product analysis.

DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING

In Chapter 10, Birkhofer and Gru¨ner present a methodology for DFE that emphasizes marketing needs and computer support for the process. They present strategies and rules for DFE and examine conflicts between envir- onmental and marketing requirements. The chapter also includes a discus- sion of procedures and computer support for an integrated product and process design that considers each life phase of the product—from raw materials extraction through disposal. Chapter 11, by Anderl et al., shows the development of a model-based approach for assessment and optimization of a product based upon ecolo- gical considerations. The authors discuss the implementation of a three- tiered model in terms of information sources, system components, and sys- tem architecture. In order to create the underlying information model, the modeling tool integrates both process- and object-oriented modeling lan- guages. In Chapter 12, Sauer et al. investigate the significance of user behavior in ecological design and introduce an LCA-based environmental impact assessment. The authors present a model for understanding user behavior that focuses on the interaction of the user with the system. The chapter ends with an evaluation of trade-offs between ecological and commercial require- ments. Chapter 13, by Nicolaou et al., introduces a domain-independent mathematical model for design and manufacturing process analysis. The model employs multicriteria optimization and begins with a qualitative cor- relation between evaluation criteria (cost, reliability, environmental impact) and design decision variables (life phases, with emphasis on disposal alter- natives.) Examples provided focus on computer products to facilitate pro- duct take-back, disassembly, and product reuse over multiple life cycles, and on the integration of statistical analysis of a machining process.

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In Chapter 14, Sriram et al. propose a framework for collaborative design that addresses environmental concerns in the design phase. They review the extent of the pollution and waste problem, the steps in the pro- duct realization process, and the life phases of a product. The collaborative design system emphasizes access to environmental databases through an environmental data manager, which provides an intelligent interface between databases and applications.

INDUSTRIAL PRACTICE

Sullivan’s Chapter 15 provides an in-depth discussion of life cycle assess- ment using the SETAC framework, which includes life cycle inventory, life cycle impact assessment, and life cycle improvement/interpretation. The author also addresses other approaches to LCA—namely, EPS, the eco- indicator 95 method, and the threshold inventory interpretation method (TIIM). The chapter presents applications of LCA in the production of aluminum; in the automobile industry; and, using TIIM, in a comparison of three types of fruit juice containers. In Chapter 16, Gediga et al. examine life cycle assessment of nonfer- rous metals, emphasizing the effect of various technologies and geographic locations on life cycle inventory. The authors provide a model LCA of zinc production for two processes—electrolysis and smelting—and the resulting environmental profiles are compared. Environmental impacts considered in the chapter are primary energy demand, global warming potential, and heavy metals emissions. Computer-based simulation and modeling of demanufacturing sys- tems is analyzed by Caudill et al. in Chapter 17. A typical demanufacturing system involves inspection of collected products, staging of the workflow, disassembly of products, shredding of products or components, separation into bins, and shipment of the recovered materials and components for further processing or use. Computer simulation of such a system reveals system throughput, resource/worker utilization, bottleneck identification, and cost and profit assessment. Chapter 18, by Vaajoensuu et al., presents a discussion of materials and manufacturing processes, with special emphasis on the production of electronic and electromechanical components. This discussion addresses active and passive components, cables, batteries, displays, printed circuit board, and joining materials. Environmental impacts of various metals are considered with regard to energy requirements, coating processes, and emissions to the environment. The chapter concludes with a brief presenta- tion on recycling and reuse considerations in mechanical design.

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The application of ecodesign in the electronics industry is described by Stevels in Chapter 19. General characteristics of environmental approaches are divided into defensive, cost-oriented, and proactive approaches. In Chapter 20, Johnson and Wang discuss the economics of disassem- bling products for material recovery. The recovery process, disassembly sequence, choice of components recovered, and design characteristics for ease of disassembly are examined in detail. The authors present economic models of disassembly that consider the option of recovery, present disposal cost, and the costs of disposal and disassembly. Disassembly and recycling of automobiles is addressed by Das in Chapter 21. The author looks at current recycling practice and particularly at the types of recyclers (scavengers and reclaimers) used. Disassembly economics is analyzed using, for example, the disassembly effort index and disassembly return on investment.

MANAGEMENT ASPECTS

Sarkis presents in Chapter 22 the requirements of management for envir- onmentally friendly manufacturing. Included are an explanation of indus- trial ecology and an elaboration of the importance of green supply chains. The author describes the evolution of natural environment management theory, manufacturing strategy, and the linkage of functional strategies to manufacturing. In Chapter 23, Stevels and Boks examine ways of dealing with a product at the disposal stage. The chapter is divided into three main parts: (1) development of end-of-life systems, (2) plan for end-of-life analysis at the product level, and (3) optimization of the product according to the end-of-life system. Quantitative evaluations of end-of-life systems are shown in the form of LCA, life cycle costs, and end-of-life costs. In order for DFE to be most effective, it needs to be integrated into the complete business cycle, as shown by Stevels in Chapter 24. The manage- ment of the product creation process under DFE constraints is described in detail. The author suggests that the embedding of ecodesign in business should take place in three steps: green idea generation, green product crea- tion, and the exploitation of the results in the marketplace. Chapter 25, by Guide and Linton, focuses on minimizing the environ- mental impact of production by promoting an interaction between logistics planners and design engineers. The authors discuss management drivers, technological drivers, factors affecting product recovery, motivations for product recovery, and generalized design guidelines. Through a thorough understanding of reverse product flow, as well as current challenges, it

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becomes possible to better position a product for recovery as a postconsu- mer product. Kaipainen and Ristolainen evaluate various DFE tools in Chapter 26. These tools, which are used for assessing the environmental impacts of product design, are divided into manual and software tools. The former include questionnaires, checklists, tables, and design guides; the latter com- prise the software tools EcoScan and EIME. Such tools enable analyses of products, creation of databases, and calculation of environmental impacts.

CONCLUSION

The handbook is intended to be a concise and broad reference on the sub- ject. Readers should find a wealth of further opportunities in the literature cited by the authors of various chapters; these sources vary in scientific rigor and thus require various degrees of technical sophistication from readers. One of the objectives of a work such as this is that people in one industry learn from those in other industries and from active scholars. Most of the contributors to this volume are academics; others have back- grounds in industry. As such, each chapter herein expresses the richness of the author’s background and contributes to an overall diversity of views.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to all the contributors to this handbook. It has been a most rewarding experience working with such a distinguished group of scientists. And, for their help in the production of this book, I would like to thank the wonderful people at Marcel Dekker, Inc.—John Corrigan, acquisitions editor, and Paige Force and Michael Deters, production editors.

Mahendra S. Hundal

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Contents

Preface

Contributors

Part I

General Concepts

1. Introduction to Design for the Environment and Life Cycle Engineering Mahendra S. Hundal

2. Life Cycle Assessment: A Synopsis Noellette Conway-Schempf and Chris Hendrickson

3. Multi–Life Cycle Assessment: An Extension of Traditional Life Cycle Assessment Reggie J. Caudill, MengChu Zhou, Pingtao Yan, and Jie Jin

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4. Design Methodologies for the Environment Samir B. Billatos

5. Environmental Laws in the United States Mahendra S. Hundal

6. Legislation and Market-Driven Requirements: European Examples Tania Dammert, Eero Vaajoensuu, Markku Kuuva, and Mauri Airila

Part II

Product Planning

7. Ecodesign with Focus on Product Structures Conrad Luttropp

8. Decision Support for Planning Ecoeffective Product Systems Rainer Zu¨st

9. The Ecodesign Checklist Method: Design Assessment and Improvements Wolfgang Wimmer

Part III

Design and Manufacturing

10. Holistic Design for Environment and Market: Methodology and Computer Support Herbert Birkhofer and Chris Gru¨ner

11. Development of an Integrated Design Environment for Ecological Product Assessment and Optimization Reiner Anderl, Bernd Daum, Harald John, and Christian Pu¨tter

12. Utilization Phase as a Critical Element in Ecological Design Ju¨rgen Sauer, Bettina S. Wiese, and Bruno Ru¨ttinger

13. Modeling and Control for Environmentally Conscious Design and Manufacturing Panicos Nicolaou, Donna Mangun, and Deborah L. Thurston

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14. Environmental Issues in Collaborative Design Ram D. Sriram, Robert H. Allen, and D. Navin Chandra

Part IV

Industrial Practice

15. Life Cycle Assessment: Discussion and Industrial Applications John L. Sullivan

16. Life Cycle Engineering: A Tool for Optimizing Technologies, Parts, and Systems Johannes Gediga, Harald Florin, Peter Eyerer

17. Demanufacturing System Simulation and Modeling Reggie J. Caudill, MengChu Zhou, Jingjing Hu, Ying Tang, and Ketan Limaye

18. DFE Materials and Processes Eero Vaajoensuu, Taina Dammert, Markku Kuuva, and Mauri Airila

19. Application of Ecodesign in the Electronics Industry Ab Stevels

20. The Economics of Disassembly for Material Recovery Opportunities Michael R. Johnson and Michael H. Wang

21. Product Disassembly and Recycling in the Automotive Industry Sanchoy K. Das

Part V

Management Aspects

22. Environmentally Friendly Manufacturing Joseph Sarkis

23. Design for End-of-Life Strategies and Their Implementation Ab Stevels and Casper Boks

24. Integration of Ecodesign into Business Ab Stevels

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25. Product Design and Product Recovery Logistics V. Daniel R. Guide, Jr., and Jonathan D. Linton

26. Decision Tools for the Design for Environment Jukka Kaipainen and Eero Ristolainen

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Contributors

Mauri Airila

Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland

Laboratory of Machine Design, Department of Mechanical

Robert H. Allen Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

Reiner Anderl Department of Computer Integrated Design, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany

Samir B. Billatos

i2 Technologies, Inc., Irving, Texas

Herbert Birkhofer Institute for Machine Elements and Engineering Design, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany

Casper Boks Design for Sustainability Program, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

Reggie J. Caudill Multi-Lifecycle Engineering Research Center, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey

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D.

Cambridge, Massachusetts

Navin

Chandra*

Carnegie

Mellon

University

and

TimeØ

Inc.,

Noellette Conway-Schempf y Green Design Initiative, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Taina Dammert Laboratory of Machine Design, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland

Sanchoy K. Das Multi-Lifecycle Engineering Research Center, Depart- ment of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey

Bernd Daum Department of Computer Integrated Design, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany

Peter Eyerer Institute for Polymer Testing and Polymer Science, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany

Harald Florin Institute for Polymer Testing and Polymer Science, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany

Johannes Gediga Institute for Polymer Testing and Polymer Science, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany

Chris Gru¨ner Institute for Machine Elements and Engineering Design, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany

V. Daniel R. Guide, Jr. A. J. Palumbo School of Business Administration, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Chris Hendrickson

Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,

Jingjing Hu Multi-Lifecycle Engineering Research Center, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey

Mahendra S. Hundal

of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University

* Current affiliation: NovaSpike Inc., Boston, Massachusetts. y Current affiliation: Automatika, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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Jie Jin

of Technology, Newark, New Jersey

Multi-Lifecycle Engineering Research Center, New Jersey Institute

Harald John Department of Computer Integrated Design, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany

Michael R. Johnson Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada

Jukka Kaipainen

ogy, Tampere, Finland

Institute of Electronics, Tampere University of Technol-

Markku Kuuva

ical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland

Laboratory of Machine Design, Department of Mechan-

Ketan Limaye Multi-Lifecycle Engineering Research Center, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey

Jonathan D. Linton

Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, New York

Conrad Luttropp Department of Machine Design, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

Donna Mangun

at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

Department of General Engineering, University of Illinois

Panicos Nicolaou Department of General Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

Christian Pu¨tter

University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany

Department of Computer Integrated Design, Darmstadt

Eero Ristolainen

ogy, Tampere, Finland

Institute of Electronics, Tampere University of Technol-

Bruno Ru¨ttinger Institute of Psychology, Darmstadt University of Tech- nology, Darmstadt, Germany

Joseph

Worcester, Massachusetts

Sarkis

Graduate

School

of

Management,

Clark

University,

Ju¨rgen Sauer

ogy, Darmstadt, Germany

Institute of Psychology, Darmstadt University of Technol-

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Ram D. Sriram Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

Ab Stevels

Philips Consumer Electronics, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

John L. Sullivan Dearborn, Michigan

Ford Research Laboratory, Ford Motor Company,

Ying Tang Multi-Lifecycle Engineering Research Center, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey

Deborah L. Thurston Department of General Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

Eero Vaajoensuu Laboratory of Machine Design, Department of Mechan- ical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland

Michael H. Wang Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, Canada

Bettina S. Wiese Institute of Psychology, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany

Wolfgang Wimmer Institute for Engineering Design and Mechanical Handling, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria

Pingtao Yan Multi-Lifecycle Engineering Research Center, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey

MengChu Zhou

Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey

Multi-Lifecycle Engineering Research Center, New Jersey

Rainer Zu¨st z

Leiter KTC, Winterthur, Switzerland

z Current affiliation: Alliance for Global Sustainability, ETH-Zentrum, Zurich, Switzerland.