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Psychology: is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of

mental processes and behavior. Psychologists study such phenomena as perception,


cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Psychology
also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity,
including issues related to everyday life (e.g. family, education, and employment) and the
treatment of mental health problems. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of
these functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the underlying
physiological and neurological processes. Psychology includes many sub-fields of study
and application concerned with such areas as human development, sports, health,
industry, media, and law.

Psychometrics: is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of
educational and psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of
knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits. The field is primarily concerned
with the study of measurement instruments such as questionnaires and tests. It involves
two major research tasks, namely: (i) the construction of instruments and procedures for
measurement; and (ii) the development and refinement of theoretical approaches to
measurement.

Industrial Organisational Psychology: Industrial and Organizational Psychology (also


known as I/O psychology, work psychology, work and organizational psychology,
occupational psychology, personnel psychology or talent assessment) is a branch of
psychology devoted to organizations and the workplace. "Industrial-organizational
psychologists contribute to an organizations success by improving the performance and
well-being of its people. An I-O psychologist researches and identifies how behaviors
and attitudes can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, and feedback
systems."

Evolutionary Psychology: attempts to explain mental and psychological traits—such as


memory, perception, or language—as adaptations, that is, as the functional products of
natural selection or sexual selection. Adaptationist thinking about physiological
mechanisms, such as the heart, lungs, and immune system, is common in evolutionary
biology. Evolutionary psychology applies the same thinking to psychology.

Psychoanalysis: is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and


his followers, which is devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and
behavior. It has three applications: 1) a method of investigation of the mind; 2) a
systematized set of theories about human behavior; and 3) a method of treatment of
psychological or emotional illness.[1] Under the broad umbrella of psychoanalysis there
are at least 20 different theoretical orientations regarding the underlying theory of
understanding of human mentation and human development. The various approaches in
treatment called "psychoanalytic" vary as much as the different theories do. In addition,
the term refers to a method of studying child development.
Structuralism: is a school of biological thought that deals with the law-like behaviour of
the structure of organisms and how it can change.

Structuralists tend to emphasise that organisms are wholes, and therefore that change in
one part must necessarily take into account the inter-connected nature of the entire
organism. Whilst structuralists are not necessarily anti-Darwinian, the laws of biological
structure are viewed as independent and ahistorical accounts that are not necessarily tied
to any particular mechanism of change. A structuralist might thus hold that Darwinian
natural selection might be the driving force behind how structures change, but
nevertheless be committed to an extra layer of explanation of how particular structures
come into being and are maintained.

Typical structuralist concerns might be self-organisation, the idea that complex structure
emerges out of the dynamic interaction of molecules, without the resultant structure
having necessarily been selected for in all its details. For example, the patterning of
fingerprints or the stripes of zebras might emerge through simple rules of diffusion, and
the resulting unique structure need not have been selected for in its finest details.
Structuralists look for very general rules that goven organisms as a whole, and not just
particular narratives that explain the origin or maintenance of particular structures. The
interplay between structural laws and adaptation thus govern the degree to which an
adaptationist account can fully explain why a particular organism looks as it does.

Behaviorism: also called the learning perspective (where any physical action is a
behavior) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which
organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as
behaviors. The school of psychology maintains that behaviors as such can be described
scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical
constructs such as the mind. Behaviorism comprises the position that all theories should
have observational correlates but that there are no philosophical differences between
publicly observable processes (such as actions) and privately observable processes (such
as thinking and feeling).

Cognitive psychology is a branch of psychology that investigates internal mental


processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. The school of thought arising
from this approach is known as cognitivism which is interested in how people mentally
represent information processing. It had its foundations in the Gestalt psychology of Max
Wertheimer, Wolfgang Köhler, and Kurt Koffka, and in the work of Jean Piaget, who
provided a theory of stages/phases that describe children's cognitive development.
Cognitive psychologists use psychophysical and experimental approaches to understand,
diagnose, and solve problems, concerning themselves with the mental processes which
mediate between stimulus and response.
Cognitive Behavior:

Biographical Information: Personal characteristics such as age, gender, race, and length
of tenure- that are objective and easily obtained from personal records.s

Formalism:

• Psychiatrist - a medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and


treatment of psychological disorders.
• Psychoanalyst - either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special
training in the theories of Sigmund Freud and his method of psychoanalysis.
• Psychiatric social worker - a social worker with some training in therapy
methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an
impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug
abuse.
• Psychologist - a professional with an academic degree and specialized
training in one or more areas of psychology.
• Can do counseling, teaching, and research and may specialize in any
one of a large number of areas within psychology.
• Areas of specialization in psychology include clinical, counseling,
developmental, social, and personality, among others.