Sei sulla pagina 1di 166

c

Punctuation

The sentence and the full stop

cc c
cc c
  c  
c ccccccc
c c
c  c cc
 c c cc

cc
c

 c c
m 
    
   
          
  
m  

      !
"
# $%&  
  
   
  $ "
     
    

 
 'm   $
   



 

c
c 
c 
cc

c
The comma

c c
cc c
  c  
c c  ccc cc
c
c
c c 
c ccc c
c
c
c
c c

c  c c  c  


c c c  c

!c  c


c
cc"
cc
 c c

#c c c c$



c  c  cc cccc

%c c c &c  c c c


c c
c

'c c c "


c c c 
cc cc
1. Before or after adverbial clauses and phrases

 c c
Π
(      
 ) *     

"+ 
(                   m,-
 
m    (        
# ( 
*     
#
    

*
(    

   
 
 
"

  
 
)
 
  ( 
.      *  ( ) *   * 

  
 
   
"  
*            ( 
  *   

   
( *
             
 

#  ( / " # 0      
  1    0  

 
  *    
   (  
  -   
m             
*
   
(   
     
( ' 


. Before various connectives to join two independent clauses

 (( (  (  c

 c c
.  + 2 
&  3   (         
m   
    (      
4 5

   




      
(        
#
  
  *
  
    (     *
    
m      
 !   (       #  
  
 
 
  

)    (          
m ' 
      
   

  

  (

 
 *         

x. To separate certain phrases from the rest of the sentence

 c c
1
 (     (  

6 ) ) 
 (  
   

( 
   

 
 
1
  ( ! (    
  

     



m   (       4    7%7  

 ( 
  

  
m   (    (   

m     ( (  

            


 
       
#  
  (     ( 

 
  

    
  / " ( ' 
(  
 

        


m    !1 (Π 1 6
(   
      

   
"    
(   
* (            
 
 
     
 
 
 

^. To separate words, phrases and clauses in a series

 c c
1 /"      *     (  (4  # ( Π
  &  &    
4)         
  ( (     
#
    
  *   (  *   
 
m  
     (
 (  
   . &
    
      " 
1      
    
     ( 
 
 (
 ( 
(    (  (  ( 
(  ( 
)       

a. To separate adjectives that separately modify the same noun.

 c c
   
 (   

   

         (     



*  
(
( (
 

×ommon mistakes

Ôc ccannotc c"c  c 


 c c
cc c
c 
c
Î#      
( 



Îm      
 ) * (    

Î
         *  ( 

     


 
Î&'    (     


  
)


Ôc ccannotcccc"
c 
 c cc c

cc cc 
c
Î4     
 (   
  

  
Î4      
 
*
     ( * 
  
Î"   &     
( ' 
(         


c
c 
c 
c!c
c
The apostrophe

c   c cc


c
c
c
&cccc
c  
c


cc
cc
ccc 
c c  

cc
c cc
c

 c

ccc 
c c ccc
Possession or relationship

c   c cc((c


c
 c c c  c cccc

c((cccc((c
c  c cc
c((c c   c
ccc
c
c 
c c( (&c( (&c( (c c((c

 c c
m   $
   



 
1    &
 
 
     

 
m   
(m &   
 (      
m  
      (   8    9:(  ,
 $:)77 

 7::):
2
 (  
     
 ' .    (    
   
*     
 
  4  '      
(   
 
  

  
     

) 
       

(,:#     



m        

   *         


      

   
  

    
 
 
   
 
   

m          '    

m      
 * *)   

 
 

×ommon mistakes

Ôc   ccannotcccc c  c c


c$c  cc
)
 
cc*  
c$c cc 
c
c
c
c 
c 
c#c

c
üuotation marks

c  
c

&c+ 
c c cccc cc c+
c

c  c  c  (c c c+ 
c cccc
 c ccc  c c c

 
 c
 
c cc
c

 c c


*;79<

  =       (>m   

    
             

 >;9$<
? ' 
(1
  79(> 

    &
   '+  


    
  -    '    >;9<
  ;7$(:,<         
   
  >
     
   (    

          


>

Dcc  
c cc+ 
c c

,c c   
c c
ccc
 cc+ 
&c c c
cc
 (>m 
 (          >;" (7%(
%$9<(  
     
,cc+ 
c
c
 c
cc  cc c&cc
 
c
cc
Π   
;7:(<     >   
   
   
   
 
>

,cc+ 
c
c
 ccc  ccc
c&c c
c
cc
-
c..#&c c!/0 ccc
c1c c  ccc
  cc 
 c c

c
c
c  1cc

cc

* c2c3c!44# ccc


c

*  c
 c c 

c c+ &c  

c cc c
c c c  
c
c  c
 c

c
c 
c 
c0c

c
×olon

c ccc c c


 
c  c c c 
c cc

c

c c
c 
c
Lists

Ôcc c
 c c
c
.  *   @ ( 
 


m 4       
    @  
  (  m/( 
 " 
1 
   

á planations

Ôcc ccc c c   


c
.    
 @   

 
   

         (     (   


 @ 
            '  
     
    (      @      

üuotations
Ôcc
cc c c+ 
ccc+ 
c
c
 ccc
  ccc
cc
1
;77(%$9<   

 @>m 
          
 >

Dote

 ccc cc
c  c c c c c  

c c
 cc
&c
   
c c+ 
c

c
c 
c 
c/c

c
Semi-×olon

3
$c cc
cc
c  
c

c
To separate closely-related sentences

Ôc
$c cccc ccc
ccc
c
c
 ccc c cc  c
c  
c
#     
    #   
  
 A   ?1
4 
  .
 

       7   

 
(       !(  

      =



   !  A   
     " #(    !( 





cc c cc ccc   cÔc ccc


×omplicated Lists

Ôc
$c c cccc c
 c
c
&c 
c
cc

 c cc c 
 c c   c
c c
4    
    %1!A   (       4    7%7
 

 ( (  
(
  
    (7(%9%1!A  4
 
)  1!
4  
          A


          

(
  
 
   

AΠ         

     


    

c
×apital letters


 c c cc
cc
c
cc cc cc

c
cc c c   c c
At the beginning of a sentence

 

   (  


  
          
 
   2   *          ' (
   
     *

Proper names

  c c0 (1" (6 (13 (&


=  (c


c1(1(6(

(!  (! (!1 (0 c

5 
 c c#    (& (  (1  &(4 *1  "*(   (
4  ( * *( Œm ( !   ( !  
( *"(  Π(Π

 
("3  

 67  
 
c c" 

(.
 (1  ( (. 
m     (
. 

     (?
m   (        c

)
 
63c c ' / (/    (Π


  1c

8

c (  (
c

  &c &c
 c$ccc c1  (0
(  ((c

-  9
c2  *( (m m(2 " c

:  c&
 ( c

D 
 

c&
 (?  ("  (0  (# c

cc 
c 
c%c2c'c

Dcc
c 
c c c c 
c;c

c
c
Spelling

c
ccc cc
c 
c c
c

 &c
 c c
cc cc
c c c c c c

 
c  cc
c
 
c$cc
c

 c   
c$cc
c &c c
c
 c c c+
c
 cc
cc
c c  c
c cc c cc
  ccc c 
c cc  c ccc

 c
c 
c
cc c
c   
ccc3 c
  cc
c 
c cc
 cc  c c cc
 c cccc c  c c
 cc c c  c
 c* c c c c

The ánglish spelling system is related to grammar.

c c11&c1 1c c1 1c c cc c  cc 


c c11c$c
11&c1 1c2c1 1c c
cc c c &ccc  c11c
c
c
c
 c c$c6V96&c6<6&c6 96c c
c  c11c
c
c
c c
 c c$c6V96&c6<6&c6 96c

3cc  cc c


 =c

c
c11c
cccccc cc &cc
cc
c
c
  c 
 c
 
cc
c c
c

 c cc c

c c  c

3

 &cc c1 1&c11c c1 1c c cc c
cc cc

c11c$c1 1c11c2c1 1cc 
cc c cc
c
 c$c66&c6>6&c6V6c c
c cc11c
c
c
 c$c66&c6>6&c6V6c7c  &cc11c
c
ccccc cc &cc
cc
cc
  c
 
 c
 
c


c 
c c
c 
 c
 
c c c c
 cc c c
c1
1c$c1

 
1c c1 

1c

The ánglish spelling system is related to meaning.

cc c  c c


c1 

1c c1 
 1$c6 6c c6 6c
ccc c c c11c
c c1 

1c c1 
 1c* c
c
c &cc11c
c c66c c
cc c66c$c6 6c c
6 6c
c
&c c ccc ccc  cc &cc
cc c
c
 c7 c c cc1 1c
c1 
1c c1 
 1?c
c1
1c
c1
1c c1

 1?cc11c
c1  1c c1  1cc

 c c c
cc c
c1
1c c1
 1&c11c c
1 1&c1  
1c c1   1&c c1 1c c1  
 1c

c  ccc  

c c c 
c

 c1 1c c1


1c c
 c  
c1  1c c1
1c c
  c$c c 

cc
 c  
c &c  &c
 
c7 c c c1 1&c1
1c c1  1?c1 1c c1
1?c
11c c1+1?c11c c11?c1  1c c1 
1?c1  1c c
1 1?c1  1c c1 1ccc
c c cc
 c
cc c
 c  
c


c c c c  c 
c

The ánglish spelling system is related to position in the word.

5 c   c3 c c cc c66ccc c1


1c
c

c66ccc c11c c
c11?c66ccc c11c c
c
1 1&c c66ccc c1
1c c
c1 
1c, cc
=cDc((c
c
c c66c ccc c$c11c11cc c  cc c

c1 1cÔcc

cc c11c c
c11c c11c cc
c c66c11c
cc c66c
c1 1c c1
1c
cc
c66c
c11c
c66c c
c1 
1cc cc c

  c66cccc c1


1cc c cc c c1
1c
 cc c c c c

c c cc cccc 


cc
c c
c  c
c  cc  cc  c c cc 

cc
c
 cc  
c c c 
c
c
c c c c
c
 
c
c
c

* &c
cc c c c ccccccc c
&cc
c cc cc  
&c
c c c c c

c

cc

Ô
c

 

c$@c 
c

 c


c

Spelling

c c c c cc c &cc


c ccccc

½  
 


 
@  ( (
(
( (*( 
( (+ (   (
 (  (  (&
 (  (

(    (

(  (
  
( (
  ( 
(((   ( ("  (' (
   (  
  ( ( ( ( ( ((
  (
( 
     (
(
 ( 
@ 
 
(  (  ( = (  ( 
V    ( (  (0 (  (  (

( (*
 
  (

( ( (! 


( (
( ('  ( (  (
 @   
 (' (' ( ( 
  ( (  ( 

 ( ( (  (
 (
( (((   (  (
@  
 (  (
( 
  ( ( (
(  
@  ( ( ( (- 
(  (
(( (


 (    (  (  ( 
  ( (
   (
  (  (  (  ( (  ( (  (  (
  
 (( ( (
(
( ( 

(


  
½  
 


 

( (  ( (  (  ( (  (
( â( â(  (


3 
( 
( ( ( ( 
(* ( ( (  (
 (  ( ( (
 
  (
*( 
 
*
*((
(( (( (  (  ( 
(((
( ( (
  ( (
 ( * ( 
     ( 
(
( 
  (  ( (((  ( (   (  
    ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 
(  ( ( 
    (( (
(  
 
 
(  


( ( 
   ((((  (+(
 (  (( 
    ( ( ( ( * 
  
 
(
( 

½  
 


 
    (  (  ( 
  *  *((( 
 (

(m  (  (  (  ((
( ((
  
 
    (
(

( 
( (
*( (
((
*( ( +(
 (
*(
+(* *(+ (
* *
**(
*(
+(   ( 

   ( ( (
 (  (
*  
      ( (  (+ (

(= (  (  


  - -( (
( ('  (  
( -(   ( (-  
    ( (  (    (
(  (
(  (  
    ( ("  ( ( (
(
      
      (  
 (( (
( ( ( (
 ( ( (
  
! ( (
( +( (
=
= =  = (( ( '( ==
(
(0 (=( (
 
 (  ( (   (  (( (  (  (
  
  (
 ( 
(  (  
ƒ    (  ( (=(
(+  
   ( 
 (
( (  (
(  (   ( (   (
  
 (
 (* ( ( (   (  (* (  (  ( (
   
 (  (.  (    (4 

    ( *( ( * 



(

( 
(
( 
(
( =

( 


  ( ( (  (   ( ( (  ( 
(  (& ( ((  (


- (  ( 

(+(
- 
 
   ( ( (+ (  (
*  '  '( ('(*( *
 = ' '
*
'
'( ' 
 ƒ
' 
' 

c
c

The process of writing

c
c  c
ccc

c cc c c

 c

 Task Skills Deeded Product

  Π +     *   

 "-
     
+  m  *  
 -(   
   

%  m  *    *       6    


  -.
    

  3   
   
   *

 Π 


  *  


,  ?   *     *

@*   4  



  
)       
)  

 1 *    *     
 2 
 


c2c$ 
c
8 cc
ccc

ccc  
6

c

9
     * 
  !


  
 
c

$
 m         ? 


c



c  c


6 $ 
c


 6    * *

 4 
  

   (     


  
  

c
c
 
 



c
c

7
 Π (   B "  
        *
      
   

c
 
c2c

c
5c cc!c
c c
+
6

c c
cc
 c cc  c
 c

:  !      *  

  .   
 *   *
cc

c  
c c
 c


c  cc


cc


c  
 
&c
 cc


c c  

 c



 c c
 c c 
6 $ 
c ?
 
 
c *


c
6c c

%
  *   
 *   

c
Task - 1

c8 cc+
c c
c c
c c
cc

cccc

c3c5 c
cÔ 
c,

 c c cc cccc
3)  
cc+
c

c
Task - 

cc
c c
c cc
c
cc
 
ccc c c

c
c"cc 

c
ccc
 c 
c c
c cc c
c 
c"c  c c cc  cc c
c)c
c
cc c 
c
 &c

c
c c c

cc
 c 
ccc
Task - x

c5ccc
 c c
c  cc c 
c$c3cc

c!c 
c c
cc c


c
 ccc
  c  cc c
"c


cc cc c c ccc
c c  c

:c c ccc  c c


c cc cc
c cc- c
ccc
 
c
c
c
cc8   cc  cc &c c
c 
 ccc 
c cc  ccc cc c

c
#c)cc c  c  cc
cc 
c c c
c

cc


 
 c 
ccc
c c

)cc

   
ccc
 
 c c c

cc c
c c  ccc
ccc
 c c
ccc 
c
 c c
c

,
cc c"c  c c c
c c  c

8 cc

 
 c
cccc c
c c  c
cc

c  c



c
Ô c   c
c  cc
 
c 
 c  cD  c

cc c

%c)
c
 
c
c  c c#&c cc c
 
cc   c
 &c cc
cc


   
  c 
ccc
 
 c ccc

 c cc
c c c  cc c  cc

8 cc

 
 c
cccc c
c c  c
cc

c  c



c
Ô c   c
c  cc
 
c 
 c  cD  c

cc c

'cccc  c
 
c  cc
 &ccc

  c 
ccc
 
 c ccc
 c c
c
c c c  cc c  cc

8 cc

 
 c
cccc c
c c  c
cc

c  c


c
Ô c   c
c  cc
 
c 
 c  cD  c

cc c

0cccc  c 

c
 
&cc 
c

r 

   cc
c c

/c   c


c
ccc c 
&c cc 
 c
"c c c c ccc c ccc
 c


cc

 
c  cc c
cDc cc
 
c

8   cc  cc



 
 c
cccc c
c c
  c
cc
c  c



c
Ô c   c
c  cc
 
c 
 c  cD  c

cc c

ccc c  c

8   cc  cc



 
 c
cc 
c
cc
c
  c

#  6  m


 0 
m
 
 ! 2

;ccccc  c 

c
 
&cc
c ccc c
c
 
c 
 cc $87-&c cc
c$
c   c

.c5c c c


cc
 c
ccc
 cc


c c#&c
%&c'&c0c c/c cc

8   cc cc

c c c
ccc
c c c
 
c
 
cc 
&c cc

4c c c  
c
c c c
c
Œeferencesc

5

c2c*  â c..!&c
c4c2c c

* $:c2c  c.;%&c c#$;%&c c/'$.! c


* c2c   c..!&
c% c

3
c2c3
c.;;&c c#0$' c

,  c.;4&c c%$!. c

,  c2c,  c..'&
c% c

c
Task - ^

c5ccc
 c
c c  
c
c

!c
c cccc c 
cc


c

#c cc cc c  cccc cc c c


c  
c
c c c c  c
ccc
cc  c 
c

cc
cAcccc cc  c

c c cc  c
 
c
c cc c  cAccc  c+
cc
c
 c
&cc  c ccc cc cc c

:c ccc c 


c)cc
&cc  &cc c
 
 (c ccc &cc ccc c c c
cc
c
c  cc

cc  c
c:c cc  c

ccc  c c&cc cc 
c c$ 
c
B
c c cc  cc  
cc
cc
cc c
 c cc  
cc
c c c  c

%c,cc
cc c


c  c
&c
c c &c
 cc
c   &ccc cc c  c$cc8 
c
c
 c  
cc

'c- c c
ccc 
cc c
c- cccc
Œeferencesc

c..!&cc' c

* $:c2c  c.;%&c c.0$4% c

* c2c   c..!&
c c
D c..4&c c!4$#; c

8 c./0&cc#c2c' c

3
c2c3
c.;;&c
c% c

9
c2c-C c..%&c
c c

,  c.;4&c
c! c

,  c2c,  c..'&c
c0 c

c
Task - a

c,cc
cc c


c  c
&c
c c &c
 cc
c   &ccc cc c  c c  cc
 c
c c c ccc c

!c- ccccc c 


c)c cc c cc c
cc
cc
c cc+c c c cAc
ccc
 c c
c cc  c$cc8  
c  &c
 c2c
c8 cc

 
 c
ccc 
cc
c

#c c cc8   cc  cc



 
 c
ccc
c c 
cc c  c
Œeferencesc


c2c- c..0&c c.$#; c

5

c2c*  â c..! c

* $:c2c  c.;%&c c4'$4&c;$!0 c

* c2c   c..!&c
c'c2c4 c

D c..4&c c%4$'4 c

8 c./0&cc/ c
3
c2c3
c.;;&c
c' c

9
c2c-C c..%&c
c! c

,  c.;4&c
c# c

,  c2c,  c..'&c
c' c

c
Task - 6

c:c c cc

!c 
ccc  cc c  cc
cc
 &cc 
&cc &c
c
c 
&cc
c c &cc 
cc  &cc
  cc &cc 6 &cc
&ccc c 
cc

 &ccc c 
cc
 &cc c c 
 
=c

#c7  
c cc
c
?c  
c
c
c
c c
  
 
cc c  c
c cc c 
 
c  c c
c
!c

%c7  c c
 
c

'c c c  c c


ccc
cc c
c c

c 
c

c cc"cc c

c,
c  c
cc c
=c

!c-
cc

c  c c
cc  c c c c c
c
 c

c3  c c
c
 c
c c c
 
c  c 
c c
 c  c

#c
c
c3 cc
c
 c

cÔ cc+
c c cc
cc c

 
c
 c


 
c c c c c

3c7  

cc c c  c
 
cc c  
 
c
Œeferencesc

c..!&c c/.$;! c

* $:c2c  c.;%&c c!0$% c

D c..4&c c'0$0' c

7
c2c*c..&c c; c

7
c2c*c../&c
c0 c

8 c./0&c c0.$/! c

9
c2c-C c..%&c
c# c

,  c2c,  c..'&c
c; c

c
Task - 7

c3 c
c c  c

!c 
c cc
cc c  cc,

c
 c

#c)c cc c ccc c+


c

3 
c
c cc
cc+cc  (c c cccc
&c cc+ 
c c
c c 
c c+cccc c c
c  c c
 cc c c
c ccc c 
c c c

cc
 ccc"&c ccc c
 cc c c
c
 cc cAcccc 
c
c c  (c
 &c  c
 c  
c
c cA c  ccc c
cc
 
c
  c &c c
c cc &cc c
cc+ 
c
Ôc+cccccc c"c c&ccc c 
c
cc 
cc c 
c c+cc  c c 
&cc+
c

c c

c c c
 
&c cc 
cc
cc c

c

 c  c
 
cc
c &cc

c c

%c  cc c
c c
cc c  c3 c
cc
cc
 cc c c
c c
cc c
cc c c c  c cc
c cc
c c
 ccc  c  c c 
c

c

c c ccc c c c
 c
c c c c

'c
cc c  c
cc 
c

0c c c
c c
Œeferencesc

c..!&c c/!$/% c

* $:c2c  c.;%&c c%$/4 c

* $:c2c* c.;/ c

* c2c   c..!&c
c.c2c# c

D  c..! c

D c..4&cc'c2c0 c

7
c2c*c..&c cc2c! c

7
c2c*c../&c
c%c2c' c

3
c2c3
c.;;&c
c0 c

9
c2c-C c..%&c
c#c2c% c

,  c.;4&c c#$'' c

,  c2c,  c..'&c c44c$c4! c


,

c.;!&c c0$/&c!%&c!;$!.&c%4$%&c'4$'&c'#&c0!$0#&c0'&c/%$/'&c//&c
;;$;. c

c
Task - 8

c3 c
c c
c c

!c 
c c
c c
c c
c c  c


 cc
c+
c

  
 c

, c
cc

c
c
cc cc=c

 c
c ccc
c c cc
c =c

   c

cc
 (c  c =c

 cc  cc
c
 =c



 

c

c
c cccc cc
 =c

,c
c cc  cc+cc
 =c

 cc  
ccccccc =c

 cc
ccc
 cccc c  =c

Ô cc
 c  c
c c
 c =c

ccc c
c 
c  =c

3c ccc  cc"


c =c

3c ccc  cc cc


c  c
=c
* cc
c c c
 
c c
=c

r  c

* ccc c 
ccc 
=c

c c  cc &c cc


=c

c

* cc c c =c

   c

 cc 
c cc cc  c=c

 ccc 

c
cc
=c

Ô c c c 
c c cc =c

Ô c c c 
c cc(c  =c

Ô c c c 
cc
ccc
c  c
 
=c

#c c c
cc ccc c

%c5c ccc
 c c  c
 
c
cccc
Œeferencesc

c..!&c c;/$;. c

* $:c2c  c.;%&c c0;$/! c

D  c..!&c 
c$; c

D c..4&c c/4$/ c

8 c./0&c c/%$/' c

9
c2c-C c..%&c c%$0 c

,  c2c,  c..'&c
c. c
,

c.;!&c c44$4% c

c
Task - 9

c3 c
c c
c c cc
cc c

!c8
c c
c &c
c
c
c c c c c c
c/c

#c c cc c

%cc c 
c
c c

 c c  c

'cc c c c  


c
c c cc

îc c c c


îc  c&c"6 c   &c c
c cc
îc c c c  c
îc c c 
c
îc c c  

c
îc c c

c c
îc c c  
c

0cc c  cc cc

/c c c  c


c

 c  c
 
cc

 
&cc,

c c  c
c

;c c cc c


Œeferencesc

c..!&c c/%$/. c

* $:c2c  c.;%&c c!!$!;&c%;$'0&c04$00 c

D  c..!&c 
c. c

D c..4&c c/!$/#&c;;$.% c

3
c2c3
c.;;&c
c/ c
9
c2c-C c..%&c
c% c

,  c.;4&c
c/ c

,  c2c,  c..'&c c%.$'#&c$0 c

,

c.;!&c c;0$;/c.0$./&c4'$4. c

c
Task - 10

c3 c
c c!c c

!c   c c c

#cc c  
 
cA c cc cc
c
c

!
 m
 
 m 
   
1  '    
 1   
  
 
&   Π

%cc c
 c 
&c  
&c c
3c3 
c c 
c

'cc cc3c  cc  


c

c

0cc c  c3cÔ



c  

 c
Œeferencesc

* $:c2c  c.;%&c c.0$!!! c

9
c2c-C c..%&c c44$4! c

c
Task - 11
c  c c
c c
 c 
c

!c,
c c
6c c$cc   c +
 c

#c
cc cc+ 
c c
c
ccC c c c c c
Œeferencesc

* $:c2c  c.;%&c c.0$!!! c

9
c2c-C c..%&c c.;$.. c

,  c.;4&c c'0$'/ c

c
Task - 1

cc 
c3cc
c

!c* c
c c
 c cc
c

c
c

Understanding the question

Introduction

-cc c

c
cc  cc c 
 &c c c c
+
c3ccc c ccc
c
 
c cc


c 
 c
c
c
cc)C&cc c
c

c
c c
 c c c
cccc"c  c
c


&cc
 cc ccc c cc cc ccc c
 c
c c
c c
 
c c c 
 &c
c
c
  ccc
  c c c+
c c
c  c cc
ccc  c

c  cc  cc+


c
c
ccc  cc+
c cc
 c c 
c c c
c
+c
c cc
3 &c.;! c
c
The components of a question

-c 
 c
c c
 
c+
c
cc
c
 c

c 


c c
 c, &c
cc c c &c
cc
+
c =c
!c 
 c c 
c
cc c c 
cc
ccc"c
 c, c  ccc"c  c
cc+
c =c
#c 

c c 
c 
c  ccc
 
c c c  c
c
 
cccc c ccc

3 c
c c
cc
c c

%c 
 
  c ccc"c  c 
c
cc
c


 
ccc
c, &c
c 

c &c
cc+
c =c
'c !  
"c 
c  ccc +
 &c
cc+
&c cc

 c
c  c c 
cc
c
 ccc ccc+
c

c
Analysing the title

c  cc
&c
c
ccccc
c c

c 
c
 c
!c cc
 c c c
 
  c &c

c
c
#c 3 c cc  c 
c
cc c c 
cc
ccc"c
 c7&cc
c
c c  c
c
c((&cc(c

  c(&c(c

c(c c cc c c cc
c
c  ccc"c  cc cc c cc
&c c
 c
c
c+&cc c c&cccc
cc
c c
c  cc
%c 
cc 

c
cc c cc

 c c

c c
c  c c c
c +
cccc
'c c c c
c c  
c c
c&c
c
cc c c c
c
c

c
The vocabulary of questions

* c
c c
ccc c c 
 c 

c$ c
c c
   
c c c

Dc c   
c
c cc c cc c c
ccAc
c  cccc c  
ccc
c c+
c8 cc
+
c ccc" cc
c c c
c +
ccc
 
ccc cc
Ô 
+
c c  c c
cc  c cc"ccc
+
c
Ô

+
c c  c c c c c
 &c c c
  c
c  cc
 c cc  c
c
cc
Ô cc
c ccc c 
 c c
 c
  
c
× 
+
c c  c cc
 c
cc
c cc
c




c c
 cÔc  c
&c"
 c  c

c c
×  
+
c c  c
c
ccc
c c
c
c
ccc"c
× 
+
c c  c c 
cccc
 cc
c
 c
× 
+
c c  c c 
cc
 c c &c c
 c c

 c c  c  ccc"ccc
+
cc +
c c  c  c
  
+
c c  c c 
cc 
c  
cc c
 cÔc


c  c
c
c c


&c  c
 c
  
+
c c  c c c c 
c
c
&cc
c
 c ccc
  
+
c c  c c 
c c
 c c &c cc

c
c c
c
c  
c
 
&c &c

c c c 
&c c   
c cc c c
  cc
c
  cc
cc
cc c  c c
 cc c
c
á  
+
c c  c c 
c c 
c  &c c

c c
 c
á   Ô
+
c c  c c
c c 
cc  &c  c
 c
  c 
c
c c" ccc cc
c

ccc
c c  
c
c
á 
+
c c  c c c c  c
c c c
   
cc c
 c c

&c c ccc  c c c

 
c c 
c
á 
+
c c  c c
cc"c c c

 c
c  c c
cc
 
c
`  
+
c c  c c
c
cc cc
  c c cc"ccc+
cc
cc
cc  c
 
c
è 

+
c c  c c
ccc  c c c 

c c
 cÔ cc
c"
c
ccc cc
 cD&c &c cc  

ccc c cc c
 
cccD
cc 

ccc c   c
   
ccc +
c  c c  cc
 c
 c 6 c
cc
c c  

c c
+
cc( (c 
&c c
 c +
cc( (c

c
½
+
c c  c c cc  c 
c
c
c c
cc

c c
 c
c
½   
+
c c  c c
c c cc cc 
 c

 
c c c"&c
ccc
c 
c ccc

ccc
cB
cc
c cc +
c
 c  c
m

cc c +c
c

 c+
cccc
c
*
 c  ?c
c +
cc  c c
c

c

c
 c c 
 c  ccc c  c
cc
 ccc c &c c  (c
&c c &cc
m    
+
c c  c c
c c 
c
c c cEc

c c c
c c cEc
cc c
3 
cc c
c c
 c
 
c c 
c
c
c 
c+
c c c
    
    ×    #
)#     
     

     
   
    
      

3 c c
  c cc
c+
c

 
c
  c
 c
 
 &c
c
   

c&c

cc"cc
 
 c  ccc ?c c+
ccc
 ccc  c
  
c
c c 
 
cc cc  c
c
 c c cc c
  
c
  c

c c c c
 
 c 
cc
c  c c 


c
   
c c cc
&cc &cc c
 
 
c c 
c
ccc cc  c

    
c cc
c cc
c"c
 
c c 
c ccc
c
c
cc

 c c 
c  &cc
c &c 
c
c$
  
c
c c

c  c c 
c c c c
c
 
 
c c
  c
   


c c
c c c c cc cc  =c
c
á amples of questions

c#    


 )
     1
   
7  
%c#
   /"
     7$:
c#    # *         
,c&'
    
         C
c     


 
       

9c4    
 
         ' 

$c

    



c.       

'  C


7c&
     

   
  

  / "  
  
:c m  '    
    

 C
c .     
  C
%c 6  
  
    

c 

    


  

,c 6 
    1
  D  '      
  
    
   
c 6       
 

    
  
9c 

           
     
      
$c 
  +   
  
   -  
 
c 6 
   
 
     
  
7c 6 #  4      
    
%:c        ,    &
%c "    +   
   
)

  
%%c m          
       


 
 
 
" C
%c m  '              

 
 

 
  *        
 
  C
%,c 6 '     Π1       
 
  
 

  


    
%c 6  
     *      
 
  

  
%9c #
             * (    
  ' 


c
Planning the answer

c  
cc  &cc 

c
cc$ c

&c
   
&c ?cc
 c
c
 
 
c c c
c c
c c

cc c ccc"c  ccc
c
c
c 
 c?c  
c
 c
c  &c c c 
&cc
c c
 
c 

 c
c
c cc

c
cc  
 
ccc cc
3c7  

cc  c c  c
 
cc c  
 
c

c
á ercise

Ô cc c+
c c

c 
c
 c
!c cc
 c c c
 
  c &c

c
c
#c 3 c cc
c
%c 
cc 

c
'c c c c
c c  
c

 c
c
cc ccc c  c

c c c c c 7  

c c

c

Introduction

-ccc

c ccc
cc c  cc
c c
c
c c
ccc
cc

cccc
c  cc
 
ccc
c c+
&c cccc
c cc

c c

 cc c
cc  
c

c
c ccc c 
c c c

cc
 ccc"&c ccc c
 cc c c
c
 cc c c  
cccc 
c
c c  Fc
 &c
 c c  
c
c c c
 c c  c cc  cc
cc c 

cc c cc  
c
c
c

  c  c


 c

  c

c  c cc

c
ác  c  c

c
The writing


c  
c

c
c
 c

c
$c
c c cc

c c

c cc&c
c c c

c
cc
c
cc  &c
c
 
c c  

c,
 c c
 
c c 
c
c
cc  c c c 
c
c
c c
  c 
cc cc   c cc ccc  c

cc " c 
c c c  cc c
ccc
c c  c c
c c
c c
 
c c c
c

Organisation

3cÔ 
c

c5 c
c  
c

c c  c
cc
  

c c

c

c  c


!c 8  c
#c  c3
c
%c 8 c   c
'c c 
c
0c
c  c   c
/c :
  c 
c
;c 8
c

c
.c  
c
4c 8 c c
c 8 c c
!c 8 c

c
#c ,

c
c
%c 8 c  c

á ercise

 c  c c ccc+


c
c)  
cc+
c
 cc+
c

c
c

Writing paragraphs

Introduction

Ô 
c

c
c

c
c  cc c

c
cc
c

cc&c
c
cc c

c c c   ccc c  c
  c c
c cc  c

,
c c
c

c
c  c
c c  
c cÔc  c
c c
  ccc c cc
c c
 c c
ccc  c
cc
 c  cc
ccc c  c cc cc
cc
cccc  c c  c c
 c
&c
c c c c
 c$c c
&cc c
 
&c   
&c c
c
 
ccc c c c
 c
cc c
cc c

c
cc 
c 
cc2c 
c!c
c

cc


c

c

3
 
c

Writing paragraphs

Topic sentences


c
c
 cc c  c
c c c  c
cc
 ccccc
c c
c c 
cc
c
 cc cc

ccc  &cc c c ccc c
c
cc
ccc  c c ccc  c c
 cc c
c
cc
c&c c c
 c cc

c c
c  cc
 
c c
c
cc cc

 
c c  &c cc  c
á amples

m  
   
  
m     

 

    

 
(    
*.  *     
 
 (  
  
 
 
m  
 

 
     
      
*
2 
*("
* 4 1    &
 
 
 (' 
 6  
  (    

 

Ô c
&c.;# c     
  # $ c'; c
#  


     
 
   >
>       
 m 

           

)  

m      



 
 
 
    
     

    (    


  
 
 

(
 
             
      
 
  
 -      
       


  % &  ' #  c.;4 &c c; c
   
(   
      = ,$( 
       
    ( E

  
    9:(      31F  
    &
         (    9%
   
  
     
 ( 
  '    (     


 
  

          
     

Ô c
&c.;# c     
  # $ c!%% c
m  *  ;            '       
   

 <         .  


  
    
+     (  '  *   
      
 
      *         
      
   

 c5 &c./# c  


    &c c!0 c
Identifying topic sentences

:c cc  ccc


c  c
 

m                


   
 

           & 


     
( 
  
    ). 
. >  >   
 
 (   
  


  

   "            (        
   

 c8 &c.0. & ( 


$c c c

 
c#&c 
c%&c 
c'&c 
c0c2c 
c/c

c
c

Writing paragraphs

Flow of information in paragraphs

c  c c c  ccc cc  &cc


 
c
c
c cc
 
c  cccccc cc
c
c
c
  cc  c
 c
 
c c c
 c c cc cc ccccc

 
c c
Information structure.

-cc
c
c cc c c
  c
  c c
cc c 
c- &c..&c c'' c c
c
c cc c


c c$c
c
c c
 
c c
c cc
 cc c
  c c
c cc c 
c cc
c$c
c
cc

 
&c cc ccc c   c

:c cc
cc
m 1  4   4
%m     4   4

 1

c
c
ccc
c1 11c c   c cc
 ccc-c
cccc c
cc c  ccccccc
!&c
c
c1     4   41c c   cc c
c c
  c  c:cc:ccccc c
c
c c

c
cc
c c c cc

cccc c
c ccc c

c c
c ccccc c
c
c c
c cc ccc ccc
 
c c
ccc 
 c 
c cccc c c c

:c cc
c c  c
    3
 3
  
  " 

,    3
 m 
  " 
3
 

Ôccc c 
 c cc
c c%&cc
 
c
cc 
 &ccc$cc c
c
c3 &c
c cc


cccc c#c
c  c
c
c

 c cc 
c
c
c  

c
 
cc

c ccccc cc


ccccc
á ample

m  


    
        
   
   
   

 
 m 
      

   

(
    *         
(

    

 

          
,ccD&c./! c#
  $ c0 c
c
!c c
cccc
cc c cc
ccccc
á ample

#   
    * (

     



      
 
    
    A
    

       *  
      

*  

   

 # 

(   


( 
(  
         

- 
c*
&c./' &c 
$   
&c c c

c
Ôc
 cccc
c c 
c

 
c;c2c 
c.c

c
c

Writing paragraphs

Signalling

c
cc  


ccc
 c
c
cc c
c ccc   cc

c ccc  c cc c
c cc
c 

ccccc
 c
 
c c
 c &c
cc ccc c   c c c
cc  c
c
c
c &c c
c c
c  ccc cc  c  cc cc! c 
ccc c"#c  cc
$ c$%&ccc c c c  c cc c!  c% 
'c ccc cc c  c   c  c
 cc  'c(  &c cc ccc c &c c cc c c c '

cc
c ccc
c  c c 
c
c  c
&c c
c 

c
ºcc  c   cc   cc c c  cc c
 &c cc c c c  c #cc
  c  c c cc c cc )'c c ccc c  c c c


 cc cc  c*+,-.c c c cc   c ccc 


  '

cc
cc
 c c  cc &c cc
 c  c    cc #c c  c c c c
  c &c
c ccc#c
 c c  ccá 
c c c
c
 /c ccc&c c c  cc

 cc   )cc c


 c  cc cc ccc ccc  cc
  ccc c c c cc c'c0 &c  cc   cc  ccc c
ccccc &c cc c c c c ccc c cc

  '

cc
c ccc
c c
 
&c c
c c
(cc c cc&cc c cc&cccc ccc  cccc'cc
 &cccc c
cc  cc c   c cc#c c cc &ccc  cc
  c c c cc c0'

cc c

c &cc
c 

c
cc cc c
 c c  cc c &c c  cc
'c1 c
 
&cc c2  c  &c c
 c
cc$cc &c$ c&c c c ccc

 cc 
cc c c c3 c   c c  ccc'

Signalling words

c
6  c

( 

(

((
(   (  
(   
(

(
( '(
 ( 
(     

!c
6

 c
 c

    (    (




#c 6 
c
 c

((  (  ( (   (   (  


(    (  
  (

(  (

%c c cc

 
(   + (  
( (   ( + 
(    (  ( 
 + (   (    ( ( (  (  ( 

'c c

 ' 
(   (  ( ( 



0c5 
 
c

 
(    (  

(   
( 

(  
(   (



/c3 
cc
c



(   '(
 
(     ( 

(  
(  (


;cÔ
c


( 
(  
(
*
( 
  ( 
  (  
(   


.c3 6
c



( (  
 (  ( 

( (  (  


( 

4c   
6+
 c

    ( 
(   (   (  (  (    

cÔ

c

   (  

 ((  (   (  ( ( 



 ( ( 
 

!c

c

   (  

#c3  c



(     (  ( 

%c 

c



(     (  


'c  
c

 
(

(  
(  
( 
(  
( 



c
á amples

c
6  c
At first

#             =        


        
  

       (     



      * 


áventually

& 

      


  

   4  (  -  


      

=  


   



Finally

?

(       


      (    
   
 

First

?       6  

Firstly

m     ?


        
     

In the end

   (
  * 

      


( 
   
?
 
  
 

      ' 

In the first place/in the second place

  
      (   
   
( 
 

   
        
( 
         
  
       

Lastly
4 
(        
  (      
   ( 
    (  
 (   
   

Later

4       

De t

2'(
*    

Second

#  ( *  


   
  - 

Secondly

  

  
 (  
   

To begin with

m     (       *    


  

!c
c
In comparison

m   -   


    (    (
   

In the same way

&          (    
 
    

Similarly

F  
         " * "

(   
 
)    !  

#c c
But

 7: 


  :G   
    A    ,:G 


 

 espite
6       
 

áven so

m  

   
 

&  (  


    

However

m  
*  
 &
   (
  *    + 
 

In spite of this

1  
   
    (  
 


Devertheless

  
   2 
( 
 

   
 

On the contrary

            (    


   

)
      

On the other hand

0    

 *     (    

  


Still

   


"

       


 
 

Yet

&       


 (        

%c 6c
Accordingly

"  
     -  # 
     
  

As a consequence

m     

    (    + 



*    
m 
.   #  +    -  
    
  
   



As a result

1   


# 
  



Because

    



     
(         

  



Because of this

m      


      (  *    
   *

×onsequently

0      
      
 + 
       
  m . 


For this reason

m     ?      




Hence

m    

         



       


In consequence

m    


    9*    +        
  

In order that

m  
   &
        
-

In order to

          '


   


Owing to this

m    
    (     


So

 *

&
 ( 
*       

So that

F  *     


            

Therefore

       &



m   
      
'    

Thus

     


    (         
  m (   
   

 

'c c
For e ample

1         + *? ' 


(1'  0   
   
 

For instance

2 

      

  (   (   


 7:  


Such as

m           


(   
*        
  

Thus

!
  

    m 3     


 (    
  
     *   
m 
   



*
*  
   
 
  m         
   
*
*  

0c5 
 
c
As a rule

#   

( 
   '(   )   
*
 

For the most part


m 2 3   (    ( *  

In general

m  
 (   
(    )  

Dormally

1   

 
     

On the whole

   

   
     


Usually

" 

      


   

/c3 
cc
c
As one might e pect

m  (   '(


          

After all

m  '  


   #

    

×learly


 
(             
    

It goes without saying

         


 

  


Daturally

2 

(
        
      * -

Obviously

 
(         -

Of course
m    
        

Surely

    
( 
  * 
  

  
   
 
         


;cÔ
c
Admittedly

#
(          

×ertainly

&

  
           

Fortunately

?  
     
 

Luckily

4*
("      

Oddly enough


  (        

Strangely enough

 ( 
  (
 
  

Undoubtedly

/  
(  
     

Unfortunately

 
   

0/   
(  
 
  *

.c3 6
c
Finally

4 

  +    


In brief

   (     -  C

In conclusion

  
 (
     
 
  

In short

  (      


    

Overall



(     


  *

So

"    


   (  
     
       
 


Then

m      (  (    


      

To conclude

m  
(
*   *      *    *   
 


To sum up

m (      


    
 


4c   
6+
 c
In other words

    (
       
 
        ( 
   

             

Damely

 
           ) 
( 
*  
 

    ( 


(" (5 1 
 
Or rather

m                  +     


  +      

That is to say

m Π 
   ,:#6)   &
  Π      
:: 

This means

.  
    (   
  (          

          =+*


To be more precise

m   0   #6%7 


   >   
 >  

  (  (   
    

To put it another way

   
     

m    (    

cÔ

c
Also

"      


      

Apart from this

&


           


  

    
  (               

As well as

1 ' & 
(  

       (


   
  


Besides

   (4 *  


     

   

Furthermore

    

 ' (      

 ?   


 )
    
In addition

 

   


    ( 

        



   

Moreover

m    


)1  (  

Dor

 
        2  
  *  

 
       (  
   

Dot only...but also

1   
     
  
   ! 

Too

&   
       

What is more

.  (     

  - 

!c

c
In that case

  '   


      

     

Then

"    * m   

   *  

#c3  c
As a matter of fact

m      

#    (   


 
 

In fact

m    7,: '


     
        

Indeed

m    


          

   
   

m     *     


   *   

*

 

%c 

c
Actually

m      


   (
  
( 

 
      

In fact

    
 * 
 
 
  (      



'c  
c
×hiefly

 +*
        
     
   
 

m '    ( 


     
   +


áspecially

m    (

 
    

    " 


(

     

In detail

m 
       '    
  %

In particular

  
(     
  
    

Mainly

m 

   

   ( 


   
  

Dotably

"  
(  
     ( 
      

m        (   


   
Particularly

1  
     
     ! 


 
(* (  (
(  (
 ;   

<(  

 ( 
 
  *


 
c4&c 
cc2c 
c!c

c
c

Writing paragraphs

Signalling

c
cc  


ccc
 c
c
cc c
c ccc   cc

c ccc  c cc c
c cc
c 

ccccc
 c
 
c c

 c &c
cc ccc c   c c c
cc  c
c
c
c &c c
c c
c  ccc cc  c  cc cc! c 
ccc c"#c  cc
$ c$%&ccc c c c  c cc c!  c% 
'c ccc cc c  c   c  c
 cc  'c(  &c cc ccc c &c c cc c c c '

cc
c ccc
c  c c 
c
c  c
&c c
c 

c
ºcc  c   cc   cc c c  cc c
 &c cc c c c  c #cc
  c  c c cc c cc )'c c ccc c  c c c


 cc cc  c*+,-.c c c cc   c ccc 


  '

cc
cc
 c c  cc &c cc
 c  c    cc #c c  c c c c
  c &c
c ccc#c
 c c  ccá 
c c c
c
 /c ccc&c c c  cc

 cc   )cc c


 c  cc cc ccc ccc  cc
  ccc c c c cc c'c0 &c  cc   cc  ccc c
ccccc &c cc c c c c ccc c cc

  '

cc
c ccc
c c
 
&c c
c c
(cc c cc&cc c cc&cccc ccc  cccc'cc
 &cccc c
cc  cc c   c cc#c c cc &ccc  cc
  c c c cc c0'

cc c

c &cc
c 

c
cc cc c
 c c  cc c &c c  cc
'c1 c
 
&cc c2  c  &c c
 c
cc$cc &c$ c&c c c ccc

 cc 
cc c c c3 c   c c  ccc'

Signalling words

c
6  c

( 

(

((
(   (  
(   
(

(
( '(
 ( 
(     

!c
6

 c
 c

    (    (





#c 6 
c
 c

((  (  ( (   (   (  


(    (  
  (

(  (

%c c cc

 
(   + (  
( (   ( + 
(    (  ( 
 + (   (    ( ( (  (  ( 

'c c

 ' 
(   (  ( ( 



0c5 
 
c

 
(    (  

(   
( 

(  
(   (



/c3 
cc
c



(   '(
 
(     ( 

(  
(  (


;cÔ
c


( 
(  
(
*
( 
  ( 
  (  
(   

.c3 6
c



( (  
 (  ( 

( (  (  


( 

4c   
6+
 c

    ( 
(   (   (  (  (    

cÔ

c

   (  

 ((  (   (  ( ( 



 ( ( 
 

!c

c

   (  

#c3  c



(     (  ( 

%c 

c



(     (  

'c  
c

 
(

(  
(  
( 
(  
( 



c
á amples

c
6  c
At first

#             =        


        
  

       (     



      * 


áventually

& 

      


  

   4  (  -  


      

=  


   



Finally
?

(       


      (    
   
 

First

?       6  

Firstly

m     ?


        
     

In the end

   (
  * 

      


( 
   
?
 
  
 

      ' 

In the first place/in the second place

  
      (   
   
( 
 

   
        
( 
         
  
       

Lastly

4 
(        
  (      
   ( 
    (  
 (   
   

Later

4       

De t

2'(
*    

Second

#  ( *  


   
  - 

Secondly

  

  
 (  
   

To begin with

m     (       *    


  
!c
c
In comparison

m   -   


    (    (
   

In the same way

&          (    
 
    

Similarly

F  
         " * "

(   
 
)    !  

#c c
But

 7: 


  :G   
    A    ,:G 


 

 espite

6       


 

áven so

m  

   
 

&  (  


    

However

m  
*  
 &
   (
  *    + 
 

In spite of this

1  
   
    (  
 


Devertheless

  
   2 
( 
 

   
 

On the contrary

            (    


   

)
      
On the other hand

0    

 *     (    

  


Still

   


"

       


 
 

Yet

&       


 (        

%c 6c
Accordingly

"  
     -  # 
     
  

As a consequence

m     

    (    + 



*    

m 
.   #  +    -  
    
  
   



As a result

1   


# 
  



Because

    



     
(         

  



Because of this

m      


      (  *    
   *

×onsequently

0      
      
 + 
       
  m . 


For this reason

m     ?      



Hence

m    

         



       


In consequence

m    


    9*    +        
  

In order that

m  
   &
        
-

In order to

          '


   


Owing to this

m    
    (     



So

 *

&
 ( 
*       

So that

F  *     


            

Therefore

       &



m   
      
'    

Thus

     


    (         
  m (   
   

 

'c c
For e ample

1         + *? ' 


(1'  0   
   
 

For instance
2 

      

  (   (   


 7:  


Such as

m           


(   
*        
  

Thus

!
  

    m 3     


 (    
  
     *   
m 
   



*
*  
   
 
  m         
   
*
*  

0c5 
 
c
As a rule

#   

( 
   '(   )   
*
 

For the most part

m 2 3   (    ( *  

In general

m  
 (   
(    )  

Dormally

1   

 
     

On the whole

   

   
     


Usually

" 

      


   

/c3 
cc
c
As one might e pect

m  (   '(


          

After all
m  '  
   #

    

×learly


 
(             
    

It goes without saying

         


 

  


Daturally

2 

(
        
      * -

Obviously

 
(         -

Of course

m    


        

Surely

    
( 
  * 
  

  
   
 
         


;cÔ
c
Admittedly

#
(          

×ertainly

&

  
           

Fortunately

?  
     
 

Luckily

4*
("      

Oddly enough

  (        

Strangely enough

 ( 
  (
 
  

Undoubtedly

/  
(  
     

Unfortunately

 
   

0/   
(  
 
  *

.c3 6
c
Finally

4 

  +    

In brief

   (     -  C

In conclusion

  
 (
     
 
  

In short

  (      


    

Overall



(     


  *

So

"    


   (  
     
       
 


Then

m      (  (    


      

To conclude
m  
(
*   *      *    *   
 


To sum up

m (      


    
 


4c   
6+
 c
In other words

    (
       
 
        ( 
   

             

Damely

 
           ) 
( 
*  
 

    ( 


(" (5 1 
 

Or rather

m                  +     


  +      

That is to say

m Π 
   ,:#6)   &
  Π      
:: 

This means

.  
    (   
  (          

          =+*


To be more precise

m   0   #6%7 


   >   
 >  

  (  (   
    

To put it another way

   
     

m    (    

cÔ

c
Also

"      


      
Apart from this

&


           


  

    
  (               

As well as

1 ' & 
(  

       (


   
  


Besides

   (4 *  


     

   

Furthermore

    

 ' (      

 ?   


 )
    

In addition

 

   


    ( 

        



   

Moreover

m    


)1  (  

Dor

 
        2  
  *  

 
       (  
   

Dot only...but also

1   
     
  
   ! 

Too

&   
       

What is more

.  (     

  - 


!c

c
In that case

  '   


      

     

Then

"    * m   

   *  

#c3  c
As a matter of fact

m      

#    (   


 
 

In fact

m    7,: '


     
        


Indeed

m    


          

   
   

m     *     


   *   

*

 

%c 

c
Actually

m      


   (
  
( 

 
      

In fact

    
 * 
 
 
  (      



'c  
c
×hiefly

 +*
        
     
   
 

m '    ( 


     
   +


áspecially

m    (

 
    

    " 


(

     


In detail

m 
       '    
  %

In particular

  
(     
  
    

Mainly

m 

   

   ( 


   
  

Dotably

"  
(  
     ( 
      

m        (   


   

Particularly

1  
     
     ! 


 
(* (  (
(  (
 ;   

<(  

 ( 
 
  *


 
c4&c 
cc2c 
c!c

c
c

Writing paragraphs

×ohesion

c
cc  


ccc
 c
c
cc c
c ccc   cc

c ccc  c cc c
c cc
c 

c 
 c c
 ccccc
 c  c
 cc cc c c  cc
cc"c c  c
cc
c c c c c ccc c  c
c c  
c cc
 c ccc  cc cc  

c
ccc &c
c
c
 cccccc c  c, c
c1
1&c1
1&c
1 1&c1 1&c1 1cc  cc c ccccAccc
  ccccc
c c
c
 c c c
c cc
cc
c  
cc  &c

c
c

&c"
c c
 c
c* 
 c c*  &c./0 c
Œeference

 
c
 cc  c
c
c cc   cc  c  c
&c
ccc c  
c &ccc  cc 
cc c

c  
c
m        
$:   3  
  ( & ( 
   
     
' 

      *   


%:::) )
   
        
       
      
           
     
              '
    
 

 -' 
         *      


          

c
cc11c c1
1c  cc1* c
 1cc  cc  c
c c&cccccc c c
ccc

3

 &c
m   

   


      
m  
 '    (   
      
       "   
  

( 
        

          


  (      
 

 

7 c cc


c
c c c11&c1c
1&c1
1&c1
1&c1 1&c11&c
11&c1 1&c1 1cc
Substitution and ellipsis

3

c
cc    ccc
 cc  c c

c
cc


ccc
 cc
 c
cc 
c   
c c &cc cc


c c

c
m        
$:   3  
  ( & ( 
   
     
' 

      *   


%:::) )
   
        
        
    
           
       
            '
     


-' 
         *      


  
        

* &c11c  c1
c   c 
 1c c
 c c

c1
c   c 
 1c
c11c7 c c c c
cc c11&c11&c11&c11&c11c


c
c

cc9 c
"      

   
     #      m 
   *       *      

1Ô c 1c  c1Ô c ccc  1c c1 c 


 1c  c
1 c 
 ccc  1c

3

 &c
m $, #  
     @

 '

      
  
  
   

×onjunction

"
cc  
c  

cc cccc
 cc
ccc c cc c
m 
      
         
  A  
       
 
        m     ( (
 

            


        

c c1 1cc c


c  c
c 
ccc
 c c
 c c c7 c cc c1 c 1&c1 c c+cc

1&c1
1&c1c   1&c1
c
cc
1&cc
Le ical cohesion


c
c c cc 

c c
cccccc 
 c
  c
 cAc c  ccc c
 cc
cc c c

 c c
!    
 *     
  
m  
)   
   

     .      


       
 (   

               
               
m ' 


  


   *      '   
  
  
   
    
6  

   (    
 
       
     

?       4   9   9%9   "2
(4 5  
3 "
 &
=  A   #  *(  

)   


 (   "#  
 *      (.

 Œ
( * (     (    
  @
 >      
   >

 c
cc &c
c
cc c c c cc  cc cc
 c
 c ccc 
 c+
 cÔcc c  cc11c

ccc
c
         
  @  

   (    


 
 

        m + (  + 
       (
       
             
    
         
            m 


 
       
  
    
  
    


 m         (  +     *   
  

  m      


   (
   


7 c cc c1  



1&c1 1c c1 c 1&c
1 
1&c1  6$ 
 c  

1cc 
6 &c 
6  c
c
Anaphoric nouns

Ô cc cccc


ccc
 c
c c  c

c c5
c 
c c  
cc:c cc
cc
1 
  

   (          


 +    
   
  +*
    m 
    
  
23
 
(     
   * 
      (       *
      *   
 
       

c  c1
c  1c
ccc
cc
cc cc

cc
ccccc
Π   
 *(        -    (  

 -   
          *    

m     (
       
    
    
      
   

Ô
&cc  c1 
c
 
1c
cc
cc
m 
 
3*  *  
          ;      (
 (      

  

 £   <m  ( (


  

 (   


 
   - # '  m  ;  
 <

Ô
c1 
c
1c
cc
 
c
cc
c&cc
c


 c c 
c c c cc  
c
3 
               #  
*    
      

c  c1
c 1c
cc
ccc

c  c


c c
c

c cc
c
cc
ccc c  c
c

c c cc  cc7 cc
 cc
c
c c
c1 &c 
&c  &c  &c  
&c  
&c
&c
 &c
&c


 &c

&c

&c

&c


&c
  
&c
&c &c   
&c &c

&c
 &c
 &c

  &c  
&c &c   &c  &c "
&c   &c
&c

 
&c
&c
&c 
1c

c
c

Œeporting - paraphrase, summary & synthesis

7ccc c
  c  cc  
c

c
c 
cccc

 cc c  c 
c
c
  c ccccc cc c
 cc 
c c cc cc
c
 c c

c
c c
c cc &c
c
c c
c
c c cc3 c.;;&c c
%! c c 
cc cc c
  c
c cc c c
c
c
1c c 

cc
c  c c1&c
c
c1 c " c cc
c
 
c 
1cc
c c
  cccc
cc c cc
c cc &ccc c+
cAc c c
c ccc
 c c
 c cc c
c c cc ccc c c  c
 c
 cAc ccc  c  (c c c
 c c
cc
 c cc
c
c 

 c c  

 c
c  c c c c
c
c

c"cc  
c

c
c ccc c 
c c c
c
c
 ccc"&c ccc c
 cc c c
c cc
 cAc cc
cc   
cc cc c
c cc cAc
 c
 c  c
cc cc cccc &c
c
c
c cc ccc  c c
c
ccccc
 
c
  c c cc c cccc c c  (c
 c

c

cc

  c

3 c

3
c

Œeporting - paraphrase, summary & synthesis

Paraphrase

  
c
c

cc
 cc  c  c
c cc c
  
c
cccc c
cc cc cc  c c
c
c38
 c
c
c  
c

c 

c  c

,c  
&cccc cc c cc  cc c
c  
cc c c    &c&c cccc
 c (c &cc c c
c3c
 
c

:c c
c c

½  
 
 *      
 
   ( ) *  ' 
 
 
  

  

  
#
        
   

 
   (  
 
 *  
  * 

c
c c ccc

c 8 c c  ccc


!c - c c
ccc
c
 c
c 
cc
  c
 c$cc
  c 6  cc c
 c c c$c
c c&c 
c c

c c
c 
c   
c 6 c cc 6  c$cc
c c 

c  c c c c
#c  cc  cccc
c 
cc  
c  

ccc 6
 c$c
c 6&c 
 
&c c:c c  c
3
 
c c  c
 
c
c  cc  

c
c c
 c c
c  cc cccc ccc &c
"
cc  &c&c  c cc&c 
c
 cc
%c 8
cc
c
 c
c cc 
c cc

c c
cc
c

c
'c c c c
c - c cc  
c
cc c
c - c ccc
cc c
c - c ccc
c cc
c 8   cc c c  (c c

c8 c c  ccc3c8 


c3 
c c c c

!c
cc
  c
 &c
ccc
  c 6  c c
c
  
c &c c cC c 

c  c c c
 c

 c
c! 
&*   /  
      
 '   

   

  
! 
&*   *  /  
      +       
 
   

 
  
cm  *   ,(:::
  

    



m  

   ,(:::

   -  
 
c1             
1   
 *      
cΠ  
    
       
    
  '  

 
"  *     

         


   
c  
*                

  
             

 


Dc 
c
cccc
cAc ccc cc c cc
  cccc

# 6c
cc  
c  

c
ccc c c c
c c

 c c

 c
c1   (     (   
     (  
   

  
   (   (   
     (  
   

  
c"

( 
 

    
  
              
 
   (   
4* ( 
               
   (  
 (  

    
  
c             *
           
(

    

2 
            *
         
 
(
    

c#    (4 *       (     (    
> >  > >  
4 *      (     ( (     (    
> >  > >  
c + 
      *    4    
     " 4 (
   

   (  (   *    4    
     " 4 (
   


Dc 
c
cccc
cAc ccc cc  cc
cc

#6c cc cccc

 c c


c  ccc c
c m                 
m                 
c  
   
       * (    

    * 
      

 
   
       * (    

    
    


c  c ccc
c m 2     :99
m 2      *
 :99
c m  '
    

m '
    


c  c  cc "


c
c   + 

   +    
c !


(    


?  

    (    

c  c 
c cc 
c
c . 
   *  '     
#  *  
 '     
c             + 
 
 
  
 
* 
        + 
 
 
  
 * 
c   c cc
c 3  '          *
        7$
7(          
   77     
    
  (      
 (
 
   (     

 '

 >>  
6      *
        7$ 7    
 (          
   77     
    
  m          

 ( 
   (     

 '

 >>
  
c      
= ,$( 
          
 ( â

  
    9:(      31
F      &
         (  
  9%
     
= ,$( 
          
  ( â

  
    9:(      3
1F      &
         (  
  9%

c  
cc
c m 
         
   m      
  
 ::             m 
  
 %,)
 
m    

 )
m 
         
   (     

 ::             (    

  %,)
 
(  

 )
c m  2 
3   

      4


    
 ("  m    "7%#  

   
     # ')4   4

   m 

 
    
 
      
m  2 
3   

      4


   
  ("  ( "7%(    

   
     (        ')4   4

 (


     
 
      

Dc 
c
cccc
cAc ccc cc c cc
  cccc

c
c

Œeporting - paraphrase, summary & synthesis

Summary

Ôc c
c c c 
cc ccc
cc
c 
c
cc
c c
c
c
c cc cc
c c
 cc 
c cccc
c cc c
c  c
 
c3

c
ccc
c c
cc cc cc  c cc
c3c8
 c

c
c  
c

c 

c  c
Ôcc cc cc c ccc c    &c
&c cccc
c (c &cc c
c
c3
 
c

:c c
c c

½  
m    (    

    
   
(   
 

        

½
m  
 
    
 

    

c  c1
c
cc 
c cc
c c c c c1c
c
c &cc c
c 
&c c ccc c cccc
c

c
c cc c

c
c 
c

c
c c ccc

c 8 c c  ccc c


!c 
c cc  cccc
c Ôc cc  (c  c
c
c

cc=c
c , c
c c  c
c

c c =c
c Ô cc

cc  c c 
=c
c 7 c cc

ccc c


cc c cc

 c c
c 
=c
#c 3cc  c
 
c 
c cc c  c
%c 
cc
c
 c$c c
c
  c
c c ccc
c
cc
c  


cc
c c

c
 
c
c  c c
c c &c
  c
 
&c
&c &c
 
&c  cc
c 
c   
c 6 c cc 6  c$cc
c c 

c  c c c c
'c  cc  cccc
c 
cc  
c  

ccc 6
 c$c
c 6&c 
 
&c c:c c  c
3
 
c c  c
 
c cc  

c
c c

 c c
c  cc cccc  c c c
c ccc &c "
cc  &c&c
  c cc&c 
c cc
c 3

ccc8c ccc
c
&c
ccc  &c  cc
c
 c
0c 8
cc
c
 c
c cc 
c cc

c c
cc
c

c)c"
c c  cc
c(  (&c( (&c( (&c(
(&cccc
c
cc
 c
/c c c c
c - c c c  c
c c
c - c cc  
c
cc c
c - c ccc
c cc
c 8   cc c c  (c c

%6c 


cc
c c

c
 
c c c

c c &c
  c
 
&c &c &c

 
&c  cc3

ccc8c ccc
c
&c
ccc  &c  cc
c c

 c
c! 
  
 
  
 
  (  
(    
  
  
    
c? 
  
  + +  
   '    


   
 (  (   
 
 
r      
cm 
    
    
     
     

       (    

 

   
À   
 
c   
  
  -   ) 
   &
 '     

           
 
ÿ       
cm (          ( 

*      
     
 + 
 *      

m À     
c            (              
    
 
' (  
       

  
 * 
½           
c      
      (  4   ! (  
   
 
)  
(     (  
   
  
(           
  
À   
  
 ccG 
c c

 
cc  c
c3  c

c
c

Œeporting - paraphrase, summary & synthesis

Synthesis

Ôc
c
c c 
 
&c c c c 
&cc cc
c
ccc
cc
  c 
c
ccc c
c
c
c c
c c

c c c
cccc
c
 c &c ccccc
 c c
cc cAc
ccc c  c c
 c
cc
cc
 
c
c cc c c
 
c
  c cc c cc
c c
cc
cc c
   &c&c ccc
c c  c
 c  &cc
c c
c3c
 
c

c
c c ccc

c 
cc c c
 c c c 
 c
!c 8 c c  ccc
#c 
cc  c
 c
ccc- c c
c c c$c
c
 c&c c&c 
c c c

c c
%c - c cc

cc  
c  

ccc
 6
 c$cc c c  c
'c 8 c cc c c c c
0c 7  
cc
 
cc cAcc
c c

 c
 c
c

 ccc c  c c c c c
/c  c cc
 
cccc
cc  c,
cc c


c
 
c c
;c   c c
c c c
.c c cc
c c

 cc c  c c  c
4c  
c cc
cc
cc
c c c c
c - c c c  c
c c
c - c cc  c
c c
c - c ccc
c cc
c 8   cc c c  (c c

 cc 
c8
 c

c
c

[enres in academic writing

Introduction

3c c cc
c c
 c
ccc  
cc c
"&cccc &c   c   &c $
&cc

&c 
c

&c  &c  c   &c ccc c c
 c  cc c c c
 c &c&c cc
 c  c c c cc
 cc c

&c c &cc c cc


c c cc  cc
c
+
c

       


    

 
 
 c

Acc  c
c
cc
c c

c  
c 
c &c c c
c
c c
c c ?c
!c  
cc
  
 c 
c c
c c  c
c
c &c
  c c   
cc
c  c c  
?c
#c  
c c 
c
ccc  cc 
c c
c c

  
 c&c 
c  c c
c
c
c
  c c  
?c
%c  
cc   c c
   cc ccc 
c

?c
'c  
c
c
ccc  c c
c  c

3c
c  cc  cc+
ccccc cc
ccccc

c

îc  
c
îc 5
c c c
îc  
cc
îc 3  c c   
c
c
c
îc  
c c
c
îc  
c   c c
   c
îc c
îc  
cc

c c cc


cc c8
 c
cc
c

* &cc
c c cc
 c
 cc cccc
c  c c c c  cc c cc
c cc
 c  cc  c
 cc

c  c


!c 8  c
#c  c3
c
%c 8 c   c
'c c 
c
0c
c  c   c
/c :
  c 
c
;c 8
c

c
.c  
c
4c 8 c c
c 8 c c
!c 8 c

c
#c ,

c
c
%c 8 c  c

c
c

[enres in academic writing: ássays

Introduction

Ô c cc
c c c
cc cc
c c &c c c
 c
cc  &cc c 
c c

c
&c
c c c
c
c

cc
&c c c
c c
cc   
c

c c
 cc
c cc
&c c cc c  
c c

ccc cccc
c  cc 
ccc
c c
+
c3cÔ 
c,

c)  
ccB
 &c ccc
c
c cc

c c  cc c c
c ccc c
 
c c c
cc
 ccc"&c ccc c
 c
c c c
c cc c c  
cccc 
c
c
 c  (c
 &c  c c  
c
c &cc cc
c
cc c c
 c c  c cc  cccc c
 

cc c cc  
c

Ô 
cc:
 c c..4&c c &c1c c  
cc  c
c

cc
c&c 
cc
 c
 
c  c c
c cc

c&c c  
cccc cc
 cc c 1c

Organisation

A c cc cc


c
c

'c   c  c


 c

  c
4'c c  c cc
c

5'các  c  c

c
1. Preliminaries

 cc cc


c cc c c c 
 &c ccc c

c c c
c cc
c
 
cc c c  c
c   c
c c c   cc

c c cc
cc
 c
ccc
c c c c ?cc
ccc 
 c
c c  ?cc  c
c
c ccc
c c  c c
 c
 
c

c
. Main te t


c c c
 c

c
$cc c cc

c c

c cc&c
c c c

c
cc
c
cc  &c
c
 
c c  

c,
 c c
 
c c 
c
c
cc  c c c 
c
c
c c
  c 
cc cc   c cc c  c
cc
" c 
c c c  cc c
cccc c
 c c
c c
c c
 
c c c
c

c
cccc c c c
c c

c Ôc
 
c
c Ôc
cc
c Ôc
c
I. The introduction.

c
 
c
ccc c

c cc
c cc c  c cc"cc

c c  cc c c cc  cc   (c

ccc cc 
ccc c

cc cc
c
c c


cc c
ccccc &cc
c cc c
c c  ccc 

c


cc
c
c 6 c

 
cccc
c
c
ccc c

c  cc 

 c  cc+
c

cc
 cc c
 c cc
c  ccc

c
II. The main body.

c
cc
ccc c  c  cc
 c c
 c c  c c c


ccc
c c
 ccc c
cc
c
 c c  ccc
 c c
c
 
c c c c  c c
c

c  cccc
 c c  ccc c cc c
 c cc   c cc ccc
c c
III. The conclusion.

c
c
cc
 (c
 c 
c

c cc  cc
c
c
cc
 
c c c
 cc 
c c
cc
cc
c c 
cc c


 ccc
c, c
 c 
c cc c  cc c c c=c

cc c
 ccc   c cc c
c

c c c
c c

c cc  ccc c cc 
c

c
á" 2!á0c

Èc

cD 87 ) 7Dc

cc 5 c3  c cc


7  
 
c3  c

öc

c-ÔDc 7 Ac

cc Ôc  c3c cc



cc

c!c

c#c
c

c3c

öc

cc c  c3c cc



cc

c!c

c#c
c

c3c

öc

cc c  c3c cc



cc

c!c

c#c
c

c3c

öc

c7D:)37Dc

cc 8 c
c
c
 
?cc cc
 c c
c 
?c

 c c

Èc

á2$c !ác

c
x. ánd Matter

Ôccccc &c ccc c


cc  c 
cc
c
c
 
c cc 
c cc cc
cc 
 c
3,

c c
cc  c c  c
 
ccc  c
c
Ways of organising essays.

 c c  


c
 c  
cc
c  c c cc


c
cc
c
c c
1. The descriptive essay

c 

cc"c c  c
c 

c c+ccc

c 

c c c

c 

c c 

c
. The argument essay

c c  c
c

c c   
c c

c cc cc c


x. ×ompare and contrast essays

c c c c

c c c c

c c c c c c


1. The descriptive essay

c 

cc"c c  c

    c +


ccc cc  cc 
&c cc c
c " c 

cc
cDcc c


cc cc cc
 ccc"c cc
c c   c 
cc
cc
cB
c
cc
 cc
  
 
 
m  

 c

 
c

" c  ccc"c

öc



cc  cÔc
öc



cc  c c

öc

c

öc


c

3cÔ 
c,

c
c$c 

c"&c 
c2c

c
c 

c c+ccc

 

c c+ccc
c
c
c c c

3 c ccc c cccc c  c


B
c cc
 cc
[    
m 
      


c

öc


c
 
c

öc

cÔc c

öc

c c c

öc

c

öc


 c
 
c
öc


c

3cÔ 
c,

c
c$c8  
c2c 
c
c 

c c c


c
c
c
c c cc cc
ccc c cc
 cc c 
c5  ccc
c c c c

 ccc+
c cc
     
  
  
     
 

 


cc c

-
c+
6-
c c

öc

3 c7c

 cc

öc

3 c c

 cc

öc

3 c  c

öc


c

3 cc c

3cÔ 
c,

c
c$c 

c c2c c
c 

c c 

c

3 ccc c c  c


c
 c
c cc

c c
       
Ô   
Ô     
×        
½  
½  
       
½      
 
     
       
       

,cc c cc
c c 
c &c  &c
c c
&cc
 c ccc  c c c3

 c c c c
 &c c
 cc
c cc c
 
c  c c 
 c
c
c cc  
c
c cc c

c+
c
c1 
cc ccÔc c c  cc 

c
 1c

c

 
cc ccÔc

öc

 ccHc c

öc

cc

öc

 c!c
c c

öc

c!c

öc
 c#c
c c

öc

c#c

öc

 c%c
c c

öc

c%c

öc

c

öc


c

c

 
cc ccÔc

öc

 cHc c

öc



c

öc

c

öc


c

3cÔ 
c,

c
c$c 
c  c c   
c6c
 c cc
. The argument essay

 c cc
c cc 
c c  &c c
c cc
ccc
c cc ccc c
c
c c
c c  c
c

cc c
c
c
c 
c
c
[      
Ô      
       
        
   
×      
m     

 cc"cc c
   

c
c
c c c c  c c
c +
c  c
cc ccc
cc
cc c  &c
c
c

c cc
c 
cc
&c
cc  cc cc
&c
cc
 c
 c

Ôc
c
c c c  c
cc cc

 cc  ccc   c

cc
c
c 
 c  c
c  cc
 c  c
cc c c c cc
cc
c c

öc

8 c 
cc  c

öc

8 c
c  ccc  c

öc

Ô c

ccc
&cc
 c cc 
cc
&cc
c 
ccc
c ccc
3cÔ 
c,

c
c$cÔ 
c c

?c$c 
c
 cc 
?c$c5 

?c$c
c c 
c



c
c
 ?c$c5

c c
c c   
c c


cc cc   
c c
c 
c cc 
cc

c

&c c 
cc
cc   cc  c  c
 cc c
c  cc c
c
c
c
c 
c
c
[      
  
 
     
×     

7 c   cc
c
c
ccc  
c c c
cc c


c

c
cc

c c  c

c ccc c


c&c
c
&c cc

 cc
c
c
c c &c

cc c cc



c

 
c cc  cc c
cc c

öc

8 c 
cc  c

 
 c
ccc
c"
cc c c

öc

8 c c c  c

c  cc  c cc


&c


c
c c c

öc


c$c cc   c c 
cc
c 
c
c c c
c 
c   c

c c+ 
c c c
c+
c

3cÔ 
c,

c
c$cÔ 
c c

?c$c 
c
 cc 
?c$c5 

?c$c
c c 
c



c
c
 ?c$c5

c c
c cc cc c

c
c cc cc
 c
c

cc c  cc
c
c
 cc c
c c44IcAc c
cc c
c
=cÔ c c c
 c cc
  c
cc  cc&c
cc cc
 &c c c 
cc   c c
   c, cc
cc
+
c c
m    
   
    

Ôc 
c  c  c
c

 
cc  c

öc

Ô cc$c c

öc

Ô cc$c c

öc

Ô c!c$c c

öc

Ô c!c$c c

öc

Ô c#c$c c

öc
Ô c#c$c c

öc

c

öc


c

cJ 
Fc c

3cÔ 
c,

c
c$cÔ 
c c

?c$c 
c
 cc 
?c$c5 

?c$c
c c 
c



c
c
 ?c$c5

c c
x. ×ompare and contrast essays.

c c c c



c c 
   
c+
c c cc
cc c
 c &c
  &c c c  c c cc&c
c 
cc c  ccc c
cc 
cc

 cc c c+
c cccc c
×  
  
  
    
  
     
  
      

Ôc
 c  c  ccc

 
cc
 ccÔc c c

öc

 cÔc2c c
c cc
c
 c

öc

 cÔc2c c
c ccc
 c

öc
 cÔc2c c
c cc
c
 c

öc

c

öc


c

3cÔ 
c,

c
c$c
c c 
c



c
c
 ?c$c 

?c$c5 

?c$c5

c c
c c c c

 +
c c cc
cc c  c &c
  &c
 c c  c c cc&c c 
cc
c  ccc c
cc 
cc



cc c, c
c c
×   
         
   
  
    

Ôc
 c  c  ccc

 
cc



ccÔc c c

öc

 cÔc2c c


c cc
c


c

öc

 cÔc2c c


c ccc


c

öc

 cÔc2c c

c cc
c


c

öc

c

öc


c

3cÔ 
c,

c
c$c
c c 
c



c
c
 ?c$c 

?c$c5 

?c$c5

c c
c c c c c c

 c c c c +


ccc

 c  c
c
cc

ccc c c

 c c
 c
×    c

 c cc
c cc  cc+
c

c

 
cc
 c c



ccÔc c c

öc

 
 cc

öc

 
 c!c

öc

 
 c#c

öc

c

öc



c
öc

3


cc

öc

3


c!c

öc

3


c#c

öc

c

öc


c

c

 
cc
 c c



ccÔc c c

öc

Ô cc$c



c

öc

Ô cc$c
 c

öc

Ô c!c$c



c

öc

Ô c!c$c
 c

öc

Ô c#c$c



c

öc
Ô c#c$c
 c

öc

c

öc


c

3cÔ 
c,

c
c$c
c c 
c



c
c
 ?c$c 

?c$c5 

?c$c5

c c

c
á ercise

 c  c c ccc+


c
c)  
cc+
c
 cc+
c

c
cc 
c

[enres in academic writing: Œeports

- c&c 
 c
c c
c&c
c c c
c
c cc
c c   c

 c

A c   cc cc


c
c


c c
c 


 c Ô c
c

 
cc
%1  '
-cc



68cc
 

cc

c

Π
&  
# 


c
1. Preliminaries

 cc cc


c cc c   &c ccc c
c c c

c cc
c
 
cc c c  c c   c

cc

c c cc
cc c
ccc
c c c
c ?cc
ccc 
 c c c  ?cc  c
c
c c
cc
c c  c c c
 
cÔc   cc c
 c
c c  c c cc c c  cc
c
 c  c
 
&c c cc

c  ccc   &c

c c
 
c cc c&c cc c
  c
c cc
c3c,

c c  c cc c
c

c c  c cc
c
c
. The main te t

c
cc
cc c  cc
 &c  c c  c
 c
c c c


ccc   c  c c
 
c

c  cc c  cc  c c

cc   c
c c  
 
c  c c c
c
c
ccc
c
 
c
cc   c c
c

c c c
cc  c
 c cc&c
cc

c c cc c cc
c c c
c c
c c
c
c  ccc
c
 c c  ccc   c cc c c cc   c c
c ccc
c c

c  


c
c -c
c 

68c
Gc  

c
Gc 
c

c c
 
c
c
 
c
cc c c

c cc
c c c 
ccc
  cc 
c c
  cc c   c cc  cc   (c 
cc
c
c c


cc c
ccccc   &cc
c cc cc 
ccc c

cc   cAcc
c 
c c c
c cc
c cc c
c c  ccc 

c


cc
c
c 6 c

 
cccc
c
c
ccc c

c  cc 

 c  cc+
c

cc
 cc c
 c cc
c  ccc

c
3c,

c 
c
II. Methodology.

c c
c
c
cccc
 
c
cc
  c c
cc c
c
ccc 
c c
 ccc c
cc 
 c   &c
ccc
 c
c
cccc
c3c,

c8 c
-c
III. Findings/Œesults.

c

c c c
cc  c c ccc 
c
ccc
cc cc &c c c
 cc c &c
 c cc ccc 
ccc
 
&cc
c

ccc  c c c cc
c3c,

c8 c
8c
IV.  iscussion.

c
c  ccc

c
ccc cc c c
 ccc
c
c c 
c c
c c

 
c
 c
c c  c
c c
c
c c cc c c

c   
c cc c3c,

c8 c
 

c
V. The conclusion.

c
c
cc
 (c
 c 
c
c cc  cc
c
c
cc
 
c c c
 cc 
c c
cc c c

c
c c cc c c
c

cc c
 ccc   c cc   c
c

c c
 c c c

c cc  ccc   c cc

c3c,

c
c

c
!Œ&412#Œ&"

ö

cD 87 ) 7Dc

  c 


 
cc5 c
7  
 
c3  c

öc

c- *7 7:75Ac

   c3c$c7 


c 
  c
- 
c
c

c3c

öc

cD D53683): 3c

   c3c 


: 
c8c


c
 c
c

c3c

öc

Gc 3)337Dc
   c3c$c7 
c 
8
cc

c

c   
c
:

 
c
c

c3c

öc

Gc7D:)37Dc

 8 cc
c 
c$c8  c ?c 
  c  c-
c
?c

 c c$c c
c

ö

&261#mm&Œ

c
x. ánd Matter

Ôccccc   &c ccc c


cc  c 
cc
c
c
 
c cc 
c cc cc
cc   c
3c,

c c
cc  c c  c
 
ccc  c
c c

c c
cc
cc  cc

c
cc 
c

[enres in academic writing: Œesearch proposals

Ôc   c&cc cc cc


c c  c   c c
c " c
cc

cc c ccc c "c c c
 c c

  
c c  ccc   c
ccccc
cc c
cc c c ccc cc cc 
 

cA c
  c
c ccc cc c  c c  c c
c  c
 cccc
c
c  c
cc
c

îc Preliminary title.c, c
cc
=c, c c
cc  c
+
=c
îc What e actly do you hope to show?c, c
cc  cc c
 =c 
c c  c  c
îc Why the research is important=cÔc  c ccc c  c

c
  &c c  c
ccccc
îc What do you already know about this topic?c c   cc

cc

cc  ccc"c  c
c
cc
 c
c
 cc
c
cc
  c 
 c c

 c
c
c  cc  c 
ccc  cc c
 cc c
  ccc

cc

 
c c  c
 c c  c
cc
îc How will the research be conducted?cÔc

ccc  c
 c cÔc
c
c c5 c c cc +
c
îc What resources will be needed?c, c  c

 
c c c
 cc c  c
c  cc 
&c+
&c
 c
 c=c
îc How will the finding be useful=ccÔc

cccc  c


c
ccc 6 c 
 cc c
îc A preliminary reading list. 
c
c c
 ccc  
cc
 c   cc
c c +
c

c
 c c
c
c c  c   cccc
c

Titlec


c

cc  c   c
öc
Purposec

 
c
c
c cc cc
cc
Kc
Justificationc

 c c  cc"
c c  c

 
cc
c
c
  c
Kc
Literature reviewc
8  c c 
c  c

5
c cc 
c  c

  c c 
c  c


c c c

 
ccc
cc
cc c
Kc
Methodc

 
c c  c  c c

 
c c
c c

 
ccc
ccc
c
cc
c 
 c

 
cc  c

 
ccc
ccc c  c
cc

 c  c
Kc
 isseminationc

 
ccc

c
ccc

  c
cc

 
ccc  c

c
cc


 c
Kc
Œeading listc

:
ccc c 
cc
c
cc
ö
 

cc 
c

Œhetorical functions in academic writing: Taking a stance


Introduction

c
 c 
&ccccc cc
c

 cÔcc c

c
c &ccccc cc cccc cc cc c

c c
cccc"

c c  cc

cAc cccc  cc c 
cc
c c
c c
c
cc c
c

8 cc
cc

! ;0 (77$A" (%::9<                
      
  


   *

c  
c

&c
c
cc cc c
c cc c   c c


ccc c c c 

c
c
c  cc c 
c
c 
c
c
c c c1
1c c c1 

1c c c1
1cc cc cc
 c  (c  c&c3
c2cD &ccc
cc c
 cc
c cc

Ôc c&c
c
cccc
c
c c
 
c c  cc &c
ccc c c c c 

c c
c  
ccc
 
c cc
 c 
c
c 
 c
  c
c  ccc cc  c c
+
cc7c &ccccc c  cc
 
&cc
c ccccc
 
cc
c c  ccc+
&cc
c
A7)8c  ccc+
c

ccc &cc c1  1&c1 1c c1 1ccc


 c


c cc 
c
c cc1  1&cc c
1 1& 1c c1 1cc ccc c c1 1c
c c
c   cc1 
1&c1 

1c c
c1" 1c c&c c1 1&c1 1c
 c1 1c c c 
c

á pressing your voice

Ac cc c 

c
c  cc c 
 c
cc

îc 3
cc
c$c cc$cc c
c  cc c 

c
îc 
c 

c cc  

cc c

c
îc 
 
cc cc c
c
Showing confidence
 
 
          (       )     
  

c

m 
               
      

Ac cc 
c cccccc c1 1&c1 1&c1 
1&c
1 1c

Ac cc
c cccc cc c1 
1&c1 

1&c
11&c1 1c

3c 
c cc 
c
Being e plicit about relationships

Ac cc c 

c cc  

c
ccc

cc
cc
 c c  cc &cc 

c c
c

1 '     *      


(

    *   


    &    
A  
(  
     
  = 

   

    
         
 
 
  
"

(1 '   
   

      

(      

   

  

cc
c ccc
c c
 
&c c
c c

      
(      
(             
 
 (    
      
  *      (   
        1 "


3c,

c  c
 
c
Indicating the strength of your claim.

Ac cc c 

c
c  ccc 
cc
c cc
c
 cc c c

Π      


    

 c

Π      


    
3c

c c

* c c c c c c  c cc cccc c




c

c   c c c(  ( c


!c 

c c c
( ( c
#c 8  
c c c
( ( ( c
#c   
c "
c c  ( (  ( (  (  c
%c   
c  c c  
(    
c
'c Ô cc +c c  ( c
0c - c c c 

( ( ( 


c
/c - c  c c 
( 
c
;c - c "
c c  ( c
.c - cc c  ( 
c
4c 3
 
c c c  (

c

á ample

8 cc
c c  cc
cc
 c c

c c
 ccc  (c 

c

! 

 
        
 
            

 
 ! 

 
  

 ( 

(  *   "  




             (+  (* 


 (   

 

#     

  

  

 
  # 
(    
 
      H
'
  ( 

 
 
  (

'
(
  ( )   (   
         
  
 

 
      
 
    1    

 
  
     
      
        (    (    (


'
      ;

+ <( 

  (  (  (   


 
         (    

  c ccc 
c  c
cc
&c c c   c
 
 c
c"c
c c
c   c
c cD c*c:cC&cD 
c
5 &cA c* &c2c-
cc:  c
$ )*c!44/ c%'L'!c c
 c c

! 

 
        
 
            

 
 ! 

 
  

 ( 

(  *   


"  

             (+  (* 


 (
   
 

#      

  

  

 
  # 
(    
 
      H
'
  ( 

 
 
  (

'
(
  ( )   (   
         
  
 

 
      
 
    1    

 
  
     
      
        (    (    (


'
      ;

+ <( 

  (  (  (   


 
         (    

á ercise

c
c 
cc

 
cc

c
cc 
c

Œhetorical functions in academic writing:  efining

c  
c

&c
c
cc cc
c c c

á amples
4     
  
+ * 
(   (      (  

   

 *  
   
 m   
       '%:::I?(
      
    %%::I? 
  
  (  5
   
%::I?   
m    m#

 (

c
c &cc c1  1c
c
c
c

m     




m    m#

 (7$

c
c &c1 
 1c
c
c
c
6   
#  

     
            
    m 

 * (            


       ( 
     
     
)
     
      

c
c &c


cc1
 1&c1  1c c1
1c c
c

1 
 

 
A     
 A 

* +
" 
 
 

A         A 
  




+  

    $  ,   - -  &c c4%$4'c

c


c
cc 

c
c
c &ccc c1  1c c
1
1c c
c

Language

©
©


©*  
©   
©  F   
# F  ©

c
cc 
c

Œhetorical functions in academic writing: Darrating and reporting

á amples

8 cc
cc
á ample 1

m 
  ½   

m          * $  4 " (            

*
*(           (
    
!    ( 
   
    
              
     #
       
      
 
    

)
*#         ( 
      
)
*
     +     #
    
           

*
*(  

     )      
  *   
 

#  !    (m  &      $$   


  
 

  *  . 
   +
   
(      
 


 
         
 & H
=   

 
     
#              *  #  '    (   
       
    ) 
         
  

   (         m 
         
 *      (  
           m    
 *        
  
   
       
   
       

#
' 3 

 *      


   
) 
       
'm  
           ' ?   (


   

  6 
 *(     


  
      
   
 m  
 (  ' 
    ?  (  
   
  
    
  
 m        
   
   
   *(     
 * *
   
Π
    
)
    
          
 

 

m 
   ) !    
         
:: 
 =    *
       
 *

m   


  
    &

        
   +
 H     
 

     
    
"  
  
           m      
  
   
 
      
   ' 
   
 
m 
     
    '# 
   (    '
   (     
      
 

. 
   +
  H       
 (       
    7:(  )  
  


   
  
       
    6
     
 7%
4?                 

 *(    
 *
  

6     & (

( 
   *       (   
*  
          m       (   
     
 ( 
              
 m       
 
 "  4 (     
! 
        
     '     
 ! &'   7::(

   m
   

m         +   


     

 *(
  
       
)     )  +m   

 
 
  )   -  . *6"

 7%,
  
  (  
               
  m 1  
.
m
     
 -   
  ( 
)     
 

     Π     (


    
 +




 
      %: :     

 
)     
)   m   '  
) 
   
 
        )   /  

     )   ;     
 
      
    
-  
<  =        '

1      

 
    
) )
*(   
 
 (   (     (  )  +      
 
           -   
     

 
   
   +"
) )       (      (
   
  
   

#   


 ( 
     
 
 
(
) )
(  
  6 
     )   6#m(#6#m(Œ6#m(  
 )(  
 
   
 *  (        J  )
K  
  


 

   

( 
) )     
  

+ (           
 m  
     
   
    
    
  m  
   
   +         
 *   

   


 


    m          *      

   +(    J*K +         

  c 

   &cc:c c2cD  c* 
&c,
&c../ c

á ample 

m 7$7    


      
     

        
 
    
+         -
   4 *        
     
( 
 
             H *(
    

 
   
    
   
   
  
    *  

      (  


  
       -     
  

"  )    


    ) *  
  )     

)
   ?  m  )     
        
  
  * ?    
     m     *
    
 ?  ) *      
 
    
    m ?   
 
       + *  


 &
 ) *  m 
  )    
    
* )      
) * - m -  
?       
  ?  (
 ' 

      /    m   
  

 
    ( (     (     * @<—    × %<—   
   <2 )   ?    )       

  
) * -     m  

  '       ) * 
 


á ample x
 
  

!
  
   *

 
 
  1
# 

 3 Π            
  
  
     

   
       
    (   3  (   (
  4  
   m '   
 
 !
 m (  
      
     
      
  

(  *    
    
4  
(    

 ( 
 
       *   
     

m *    


( 0
     1   
   



(             
 m 
 
    


  * 4   3*     
    
*
  
    

              ÿ   1   

(
  

*   Π m  

        



 ( 1   
    
    

 

  
   
    =     
  (
  99,m 
     6"  1     
 !  * (       ( 
   (    
(   

m    *



 

 

     0
(  
   ?(    
   (

      "  ' 

    

( 
    

        

  (       






      
   Π 

 &

   
  
  


 
  A      ( 
 
     !  
  ( 
  
 '
   
  

(  

  '



    
(    
    

 &


(     
    


 

  

    
        (
                
 3 
(  '  

 
 ( 
   


' ( 
 *   '   1   
= 



 
    m 
              6
1 (           
 m      
 

     (    

       



   
  
   
 

  
#    
   (    
  
    
 
    

   
     )
 
   
    
   
 H     (
        
'  
*

 
 
 Π( 
    
        
 ( 

      
     

á ample ^

  
7%
            
 
 %(:   
 -     m                )

    
.    '( 


;' 
<  
   ' 
  +   
 
  * 
=   +   m   )   
) +   
  @

îc (cc c6c
îc º cc c 6c
îc c c c cc 6c
îc ! cc,%47c cc &c48%57'c58%7+&c8-%c7&c8c c 6c

&  +           


 

       


*  m  
+      *   
       
  
                +    

    

       


=(   
         
*   *   
m        
 
    
     *    
  H   m +   %:
+ (     +   

#
      

      (%,   
  m  (

 
  
       
     
H        
 
m         +             

   
  
  

     

Language

 cc
c c

 
 c  c
c c &cccc c

c c c
&c
c
c ccc 

c cc  c
c
c
c c
c cc  c &cc 
c c c
&c cc cc
c

c c
c
Time

 7,%(

6  %:  (

F (

m    (

Sequence

before

     -   


(       
  (L

?   © (L

!   (L

! 
(L

©  
(L

 L

L   L

L    L

after

.  
#         (    -   

#
c

      (
#      (
   -   

       (
      (

?  

 © (L

© 
(L

#L

  (L

.  L

"+ 
(L

" " 
 
  (L

L

   L

L   L

while

. 
       (      
.  
     (
. 

6    (

6   (L

m     (L

L   L

L     L

c
cc 
c

Œhetorical functions in academic writing: Writing descriptions

á amples

8 cc
c

c

#      -        


( 
     
**
 
*    

           


- 
 
*  *m 
 (   
(  
  *m       -  
     

 

m 
 
         

        
  ) 
      ( 
  
   (   

"  
*    
  ( 
 *  
 
 ;     
    <       *     


  (     
.      ( 
  
    
           
 
 

m 4
 M

   
 * - *                
 '     
       m   
   #=     

    
(           
 
m = 

  
 (  
   m             
  ;  
   <(     m      

  
4
 M
c

#%)
   ' )


  m 

    


  ' 
      
  
  # 
 
 
   
      .    
  
      
 
 ( 
       m      &  

     



         
 m 

        


  

     


  

Language



&c
&c  &c &c 

&c
9&c &c
c
Position

-   




 
  ;

<
 


 
    
 
  
 
   
 
 
  
# 
 
   
  
   
 
  
 




  


  





  
 
+  

Structure



 
'
©       F  D

 *



 
  

  

    F D
 



 



 
 
 F
-    

  

 
 

×olour

 *
 

 


©  


 





×omposition






 


 # 

 
©    

*
  






Size and weight



©  9  



  
©  9    
 
 

95   


  
 
9
m     © 
 

  95 


  
 
©    
c 9
 

  95 

©   :5 

Shape

+ 
  
 

 

)

 

©    
 

'







 


+ 




©   
*  

)

' 
 

c



 

 

 

©    




 

 



 
  
  
  
 '

  ) 
* ) 
/) 
©   ) 


) 
 )  'c
  ) 
©) 
 ) 
 ) 
 ) 
F) 

Function

  
        
m     
  
  *
-

       


m   
 
   *(

Properties


 

  

©  




 


'






    


  

    

 


   

  

 












 

 



    


  

    

) 


 +

  

c
cc 
c

Œhetorical Functions in Academic Writing: ×lassifying /


categorising

,cc 
&cc c   cc c  c c &c
cc c
c
c
c
! ( (
(?  (3 ("  
c
c+
c c cc cc
 c cc c,c c
c
"c c  c3c
c
c
cc

cc
c
cc

! ( (
(
!2$c ?  (3 ("  

,cc c 

&ccccc c c c 

 
c
c c
cc c 
c
c

á amples

8 cc
cc

4          (   # 


 
     
   (
 $: $ (    m  

    

   
 
   
      : 6 *
 
( 
  
 

              
 

  
  &c c#cc

îc , c
ccc 

=c:  c
îc *c c c c =c!c
îc , c ccc =cÔ
c c 
c
îc *ccc cc


=c c cc

 c c

:c cc c

Π5"

"    *     @  (      

32& /" *   )  


           

  

          (


   * 
    (  )  


 .   
 
  *  
    
  *

 
   *             
 *)      

"&61&2m#ŒF * 

 
       ((   
 
   *m    
  
 * 

      +=


          

m         Π*         


1&m#1 Œ! *m       ½
  ' 
   


       *  
       
      (
c

m  

      
   -   )
  
&
  

 

  

(      


  
 1
( ' 
( 


       


A 


  1 


 

 
A  
  
 A 

* +
" 
 
 
A        
A 
  


1


 
(   
 

 m 
   
  2 


  '   # 


 (       (
'   

  

      



+  

    $  ,   - -  &c c4%$4'c
c

m     

       +    


  ( 
    (  - 
    
m  @  (  -   )
  A    (
 
  
A (  )   A (
    

 A  


 (  
 

 
A (     
   +  



(   

   -    


      A
  (    ( 
   



(   

*    
 
  
    



  ccDc-c* &c c%c

á ercise

c
c 
c 
cc

Language

c ccc ccc c c  cc


cc

c c 

 
c c
c  c

 @   


m  
*  m     


  
 
  
m       
 
c

  
   

m     
4       * 
@   
    
 
c



* 
#     
 
  
 
c

   
4   
        
  
   

c
cc 
c

Œhetorical functions in academic writing: [iving e amples

c  
c

c
c
c cc c 
 
cc
cccc
  cc 
 
c
c c

á amples

:c cc c c c


c
cc
cc

m +    


     

     : 
 m   

  
' 
  
  (1  4 (9$   

 %:

5
 ,(:::  

m             


     

    

   (     '  
      

 4   ? ' 


( 
 -    
  /5   (#
 (    
>
 *> 


1         


   
    
   
  ? ' 
(  
        &
  > 
> 
  *                
 "  (   (  
 

c
/    
   
   +      
 
     

     (          
 3 # ' 

   *              79:

.  
       
N 
   
  

 

 (

   7 7:;Π 7$$@<m      


     

m       1     +   


   (    
   *     (      m  '
 
    + 
 1     


#*'   #


    

  

 

 

   


          
=                
   
 

m '
       '     
       
   *m 
  
      
           (

 
         
(  (            



'(    

-  )    




Language
 
m 
 '
  



 

? ' 
(

?   (

 
#*'  '
   


 

m   

 ' 
(
m 

  ' 
  @ 
m 

      @


c

      

         


 

c
cc 
c

Œhetorical functions in academic writing: Writing critically

Introduction

c
c
  ccc cc
c

cAcccc cc
&c

&c 
c c c* &c
c
ccc c c
c
 c
 
ccc ccD c..4&c c4 &c

ccc
ccc &c
cc  c c
  
&c
c  c c

  &c cc c



c

&ccccc cc
c


 cÔcc c

cc &ccccc cc cccc
 cc cc c
c c
cccc"

c
c  cc
cAc cccc  cc c 
cc
c
 c
c c
c cc c
c3cccc
c c  (c

cc
c c c c c c
c c&c 
c
c
  c c
   cc
c cc c  c c  c
 c c c c c cc c  c
c

Bloom's Ta onomy

c.'0&c "
c  ccc)
 
cc
 c c c
 

 
cccc
 c 
 c
c
c
 c
  c

c 
c  c


c
cc

cc

c
&c  cc

c  c c 

cc &c ccc&c c
  
c
 c c c  c&ccc
cc
c
c 

c c
  
c-c
 
cc

ccc
c

c c
c
c
c

c
c
c 
c c
cc c 
c cccc c
 cc

c  c
&cc
cc cc  c ccc
c c c  c  &c.'0&c c!4$!4/ c

×             m 


  
   
ávaluationc c
&c  cc  c
c 
c
- c" c  &c c 
6 c c
cc cc &c &c =c 
c

 c c 
c c 


&c

+&c   c
c
c  c
c c &c
&c , c
c c

c "c

ccc 


 &c c=c c
 c c   &c 
&c  c
c

cc
 &c"

&c *ccc

c" c  &c
&c 6
 c=c
c
 
&c   c
 

cc
 c c   cc
+ 
cc c c  c
c ccc

c
 c c



 c
c
 c
8
c
"

c
Synthesisc c 
&c , c cc   c
c c c  
&c
&c c ccc 
c
c c c&c
c  &c  &c =c   c
  
cc  
c
&c
&c   c
cc  
c c  
&c &c , cc c  c
  c 

&c  
&c
c=c   c
 
c  &c  &c  c

 
c c  &c  &c  cc  c  c

c c
 c cc   
&c 
&c cc  c=c
c

c c 
&c


 c
 c
c cc 
&c&c
 c c  
c 
c  c
c
  
c
c
5 
c  c
 c
Analysisc c  &c  c , c cc c c c

c c &c &c   cc=c  c
  c
 
c  &c
 &c    c

c cc  &c *c


cMMMMMMMc 
 c



c 
c c 
 
&c  cc=c   c
 ?c 
c 


 &c
  c

 c c 




&c  ccc


c
cc


&c
 &c 
cc  c
  c
 &c
&c =c    c
 
 
c  &c&c c
c  
cc  c *ccc   c
 &c  6 c=c  c
 

c c 
  c
  
 
 c 
 c


c
9 c
8
c
c
 
cc  c
 


c  c
c c c  c

 c
Applicationc c 
&c *cccc c
)c c c
c c  &c &c =c   c
c
 
c  &c  
c
Ô 
c c c   &c , c c c  c
 c
cc 
 &c c
cc=c
 c
   c
cc 
 &c
 c

 
c 

&c  &c  cc  c
c   c
Ô 
c c 
&c  &c
 
ccc 
c

 cc c &c  &c c


 
=c c

 
c &c&cc c
Ô 
c c
c c

c
cc
 cc  c
 c
 
c  c
c
3c  cc

c +
c
&c &c

+c c c

c c
 c c
×omprehensionc c &c *ccc  
c
   c  &c&c  
cc cc 
c
  
cc 


&c =c 


c
 c c
 cc 
&c 
&c  
c
  

&c &c 
&c , c ccc  c

&c 
c &c =c

c
  
&c
 &c
 &c
 c

 
&c

c  &c  cc
c  c


c c 
&c 
&c c  (c 
cc 
c
 
c
c
 c 
&c 
=c   c
3 c c  c
c   c  c
c c 
c
Cc c
c
c c
 
 c c   c
 c ccc

c c
 c

c
c
 
c
cc c

c c
c
  c

 
c
c
c
  
cc  c

c
c
 
c  ?c

  
cc  ?c
  
c$c c
c
c
Knowledgec c
&c , c
c=c c
8 c  c c 
&c


&c  c

 
c &c &c
&c *c
c=c c
3ccc &c &c c

c c 
&c+&c , c
c=c  c

cc  
c  &c 
&c
 c
 &c &c 
c  &c&c ,c
cMMMMMMMc
 c c &cc c  =c 
 c
 c   c
* ccc  c
 

c c2c

?c
cc c
c  c$c

&c c
c+&c
 

 
c c
 
&c

&c
?c
cc

  c c
 
c$c


c2c
 
 
&c

c c
  c

,

c

 c  c

c cc
cc   &c
c c
 
c

c
c
c
  cc  c c  c3
c

c
c
 ccc, $C &c!44! c


c  c 
c
cc c c 
&c 
c
c
c
&c cc c  
c
c c  cc  c

c
 c

c 

c c 
 ccc cc c c cc


c cc cc c c

 c  
c +
ccc
  c  &c
c
c c c ccc  cc
c
c c c  
cc

,c

c

 &cccc

îc Ô c c 


c
c c  c
îc   c
c c  c
îc  c c c
c c  c
îc 3c  c
c c  c
îc 3
c  c
c c  c
îc - c
 c
cc c c 
c
îc 5
c

c 

c c 
 c
îc  
c
c cc

c
îc 
 c c
c
c c  c
îc ,
c
c c cc
c
DB: Some subjects accept stronger criticism than others - find out about your own subject.
á ample

8 cc
c c cc

á ercise

c
c 
c 
cc

Further details

Ôcc c

c

&ccccc cc
c

 ?cc
ccc cc cccc cc cc c
c
c
cccc"

c c  cc
cAc c
ccc  cc c 
cc
c c
c cc cc c

c3cccc
c c  (c 
cc
c c c c
 c c
c c&c 
c
c   c c
   cc

c cc c  c c  c c c c c c cc c
  c
c c
c ccc
îc Œeading critically

c
c
  cc  c

 c

 c  
c +
ccc  cc
 c
cccAccc


c c  c

&c cc c
 c
c c c 
cc
c
c

3c8 
c

 c
îc Œeporting

7ccc c
  c  cc  
c

c
c 
cccc

 cc c  c 
c
c
  c ccccc cc c
 cc 
c c cc cc
c
 c c

c
c c
c c

3c8  
c

îc Arguing and discussing

Acccc cc ccc cc cc c


cAc
cc c c
c

3cÔ 
c c

c

îc ávaluating other points of view


Acccc  c c c 
cc
c
c c c
c
c

3c  
c c 
cc
c

îc ×omparing & ×ontrasting

,cc c 
c
c c  (c
 &cc
c c c
 cc
 c
 c c c&c

c   c c

   c

3c
c c 
c
îc Synthesising

Ac
ccc
c c  (c
 &c 
c c c cc

c

3c8  
c$c  &c c2c
c3
c
îc [eneralising

c c &cc


cc cc cc 
cc
ccc

cc+ 

c c 
 
c
cc c

3c5 

c
îc á pressing degree of certainty

Ac c c c


 c cc 
c c c
c

3c 
c cc 
c
îc Providing support

Accc 
c
cc  c c 
cc
c c
c

3c 

c  c
îc Supporting an argument: Illustrating and e emplifying ideas

Ac cc cc  c c


c

3c5

c c
îc [iving reasons and e planations
Ôcc
c  c
c  c c   
c c c
c c 
c
c
c

3c8 c c   


c

îc Working with different voices

Accc 
c c c
c c  (c 
cc
c,

c c
c

&cccc c c c

3c, 
c
c
 c
c
îc Taking a stance

Accc c c c c 


cc
cc c c

3c 
c c c

îc  rawing conclusions

Ôc
c c
c c

&cc
ccc c c c  c
c cc c
c

3c  
c
c

c
cc 
c

Œhetorical functions in academic writing: Arguing and discussing

Introduction

Ôc
c cc

 c

c
c 
c c

c

c  
c

&c 
c c

c
cc cc c  c
cc


cc 
c c

&cc c cc cc c  c

cc
c c
cc 

c c 
c  cc c c7c
c 
cc c

&cc cccc 
cc
c c
  c c   c cc c c 
c  c

c c

c
 

c c 
 ccc cc c c cc

c cc
 cc c  c c cAccc  c  &c
c

c c c ccc  cc
cc c c
c

Ôc  c
c  
c

&c c c

c cc  c$cc
c c c
c c 
cc
c
c  c c

cc
cc
c
  cc


ccyour claimc  

&c

 c$c c 
cc
&c cc
?cyour evidencec  c c  c$c
c &c  c c c c  c c 
cc
c$c cyour
reasonsc c c   c$ccc
c cc&ccc
c
c c 
c ccc
c c c 
c3c 
&c.'; c

 c cc
c cc 
c c  &c c
c cc
ccc
c cc c c c3c)  
cc
+
c 7  

cc  c c  c
 
 c

Presenting an argument

a. The balanced view

c
c cc cc
cc c  &c
c
c


c cc c

&c
cc  cc cc

&c
cc
 c  c

Ôc
c
c c  c c

c
cc cc

 cc  ccc   c

cc
c
c c 
 c  c
c  cc
 c  c
cc c c c cc
cc
c c

8 c 
cc  c

3 cc 

&cc
c cc  c

8 c
c  ccc  c

3 cc 

&cc
c cc  c

c
Ô c

ccc
&cc
 c cc 
cc
&cc
c 
ccc
c ccc

b. The persuasive view


cc cc   
c

c
c 
c cc 
cc

c

&c cc 
cc
cc   cc  c
 c cc c
c c ccc
cc

c
c&c
c
&c
cc

 cc
c
c
c c &c

cc c cc 


cc
c

 
c cc  cc c
cc c

8 c 
cc  c

 
 c
ccc
c"
cc c c 
c
c c c  c

8 c c c  c

c  cc  c cc


&c


c
&c  c c c


c$c cc   c c

c 
c

c c c


c 
c   c

c c+ 
c c c
c+
c

á ample

8 cc
c c c&c c!c
á ercise

c
c 
c 
cc

Language

Presenting own point of view

m      L

  


         L
 
   
 


m     
   
? 

(  

* L
m     

  
m      L



m    LL

? 

(L

m     LL

" 
(L

m    L

   (L

?  (L

.  (L

(L

#    L

#   L


Further details

îc ávaluating other points of view

Ac
c ccc c c  c c  (c 
cc
c

3c  
c c 
cc
c
îc Providing support

Accc 
c
cc  c c 
cc
c c
c

3c 

c  c
îc Illustrating and e emplifying ideas

Ac cc cc  c c


c

3c5

c c
îc [iving reasons and e planations

Ôcc
c  c
c  c c   
c c c
c c 
c
c
c

3c c2cc

îc Working with different voices

Ôcc 
c c c
c c  (c 
cc
c,

c cc


&cccc c c c

3c, 
c
c
 c
c

îc Synthesising

Ac
ccc
c c  (c
 &c 
c c c cc

c

3c8  
c$c  &c c2c
c

îc Taking a stance

Accc c c c c 


cc
cc c c
3c 
c c c
îc ×omparing & contrasting

Ac
c c c c
 c
 c c c&c

c
  c c
   c

3c
c c 
c
îc [eneralising

c c &c 


cc
c cc+ 

c c 
 
c cc
c

3c5 

c
îc á pressing degree of certainty

Ac c c c


 c cc 
c c c
c

3c 
c cc 
c

îc  rawing conclusions

Ôc
c c
c c  &cc
ccc c c c cc
c
c

3c  
c
c

c c 
cc 
c

Œhetorical functions in academic writing: Arguing and discussing

Introduction

Ôc
c cc

 c

c
c 
c c

c

c  
c

&c 
c c

c
cc cc c  c
cc


cc 
c c

&cc c cc cc c  c

cc
c c
cc 

c c 
c  cc c c7c
c 
cc c

&cc cccc 
cc
c c
  c c   c cc c c 
c  c

c c

c
 

c c 
 ccc cc c c cc

c cc
 cc c  c c cAccc  c  &c
c

c c c ccc  cc
cc c c
c

Ôc  c
c  
c

&c c c

c cc  c$cc
c c c
c c 
cc
c
c  c c

cc
cc
c
  cc


ccyour claimc  

&c

 c$c c 
cc
&c cc
?cyour evidencec  c c  c$c
c &c  c c c c  c c 
cc
c$c cyour
reasonsc c c   c$ccc
c cc&ccc
c
c c 
c ccc
c c c 
c3c 
&c.'; c

 c cc
c cc 
c c  &c c
c cc
ccc
c cc c c c3c)  
cc
+
c 7  

cc  c c  c
 
 c

Presenting an argument

a. The balanced view

c
c cc cc
cc c  &c
c
c


c cc c

&c
cc  cc cc

&c
cc
 c  c

Ôc
c
c c  c c

c
cc cc

 cc  ccc   c

cc
c
c c 
 c  c
c  cc
 c  c
cc c c c cc
cc
c c

8 c 
cc  c

3 cc 

&cc
c cc  c

c
8 c
c  ccc  c

3 cc 

&cc
c cc  c

Ô c

ccc
&cc
 c cc 
cc
&cc
c 
ccc
c ccc

b. The persuasive view


cc cc   
c

c
c 
c cc 
cc

c

&c cc 
cc
cc   cc  c
 c cc c
c c ccc
cc

c
c&c
c
&c
cc

 cc
c
c
c c &c

cc c cc 


cc
c

 
c cc  cc c
cc c

8 c 
cc  c

 
 c
ccc
c"
cc c c 
c
c c c  c

8 c c c  c

c  cc  c cc


&c


c
&c  c c c


c$c cc   c c

c 
c

c c c


c 
c   c
c c+ 
c c c
c+
c

á ample

8 cc
c c c&c c!c

á ercise

c
c 
c 
cc

Language

Presenting own point of view

m      L

  


         L
 
   
 


m     
   
? 

(  

* L
m     

  
m      L



m    LL

? 

(L

m     LL

" 
(L

m    L

   (L

?  (L


.  (L

(L

#    L

#   L

Further details

îc ávaluating other points of view

Ac
c ccc c c  c c  (c 
cc
c

3c  
c c 
cc
c
îc Providing support

Accc 
c
cc  c c 
cc
c c
c

3c 

c  c
îc Illustrating and e emplifying ideas

Ac cc cc  c c


c

3c5

c c
îc [iving reasons and e planations

Ôcc
c  c
c  c c   
c c c
c c 
c
c
c

3c c2cc

îc Working with different voices

Ôcc 
c c c
c c  (c 
cc
c,

c cc


&cccc c c c

3c, 
c
c
 c
c

îc Synthesising

Ac
ccc
c c  (c
 &c 
c c c cc

c
3c8  
c$c  &c c2c
c
îc Taking a stance

Accc c c c c 


cc
cc c c

3c 
c c c

îc ×omparing & contrasting

Ac
c c c c
 c
 c c c&c

c
  c c
   c

3c
c c 
c
îc [eneralising

c c &c 


cc
c cc+ 

c c 
 
c cc
c

3c5 

c
îc á pressing degree of certainty

Ac c c c


 c cc 
c c c
c

3c 
c cc 
c

îc  rawing conclusions

Ôc
c c
c c  &cc
ccc c c c cc
c
c

3c  
c
c

c c 
cc 
c

c
Œhetorical functions in academic writing: [eneralising

Introduction

7c
  c  cc

 c

c
c 
c c
c  c 

c
 c 
c
c 
c cc c
c
 c 
c

c c
cccc  c
c
cÔc c
  
 
 c

c
c  
c

c
ccgeneral-specificc  c 
c
 c
c c c  c  cc 

c c c

c
á ample

:c cc
c c

c 
 
cc c cc
 
 
c c  cc
c c c


  /"#    ) ) 
      

   
  " /  (
  ( 1
& ( # (  

     
  &

1 ' & 


     


       * 

      
 +  

  m + ( 
 (  
* @    



 
(   (    (   (   
('  
(  

* 

m     *   '   ( 


 
      

 
 
 
   
   ' *"  Π ( ( '  

        
   
   -         
  

 ' 

                
        
     
   * "      *   
  (  ( 
   
              
     m   *  
          

     
      
 
  (    =  ( 
  m   *   

  ) 
' 
( 
                  
       (
     (          

   
  

 m   *           
  *    m   *
    
                        
  

( (  
  

 c*&cÑ
 

         "cÔc2c &c./!c
c

Language

 cc ccc c  c 



c1 c  
c 1 c
c
cc 
ccc  c 

c cc 
 
c c
c
c
ccccc

 c
  cB 
c  +c 
c
--:c

  
   ;
< 


    ;
<  
 - ; <    
 
   
;
< 
 
  
 
;
<  
 
  
;
<   
  
  

  

*
   
   
  
 ; <   

     
  
 + ;
<  
 
  

 ; <      
  

  
;
<    
 

  ;
<    
 
  
*

 
  
 
c   
 

 
-:c    
       

3 ccc  

c+ 

 
c cc  c+ 

&cc

 
   

*

+

     

 


 
*
  
+ 
*


 
*

 
  

3 
c 
 
c cc
 c c+ 

c
cc
c
 c

 ; < - 


    (

  
 
 
 
;O  >+ > <

Supporting generalisations

c c
cccc  c
c
c

- c
 
c
îc Providing support

Accc 
c
cc  c c 
cc
c c
c

3c 

c  c
îc Supporting an argument: Illustrating and e emplifying ideas

Ac cc cc  c c


c

3c5

c c

c
cc 
c

Œhetorical functions in academic writing: á pressing degrees of


certainty

Introduction

c
c
  ccc c

c

 cccc cc c c
 
cc c &cccccc cc 
c  c
c

&c&c c  
c

c
c c 
&cc cc

á amples

:c cc
c c

 * (  

  
 * (       m   
  


   *   "   (     (     
c

4  (   (        >

  1  # >(   


  
    
6  
c

m           


 '         

'   (   
         
c

. 
 ( 
    *(
 
  
c

  
     (   
       
c

m  ( 
(  
    ( 
      


(     
   

  (        



   

 

3 ccc
c c c c
 * 

   


  

  
     

3 c c c  c 
c
 

  
 * 

 
    *

        


  

Language
cc G c   cc 
c
  ;
<
; <

 c 

; <
 ;
<

 ;
<
; <
  

  c      
; <
 
; <  
; <

 c  
; <
*

*


c  c  ; <  


; <
 ; <  ; <
  

  

  c
cc
  c  
©  
m     

c
cc 
c

Œhetorical functions in academic writing: Œeasons and


e planations

Introduction

,cc c

c

 &c
c
c
  cc 
cc 
c
cc
 cAccc
c  c c   
c c c
cc c

cc
cc
m         c

,c
c cc cc
c
c 
c,c cc cc
c c
 &c cc &c
c c
! 
  *  c

m         c


ccc

! 
  *  c
cc c

á ample

8 cc
cc c cc c cc  

c

 c c  c  c cc #c c cc  ccc
 cc#c c'c;c
cc#cc  'c$ cc ccc c c c &ccc  c c c c cc c
 'c;c
c  c&c cc  cc  cc c c 
 &c c c'cºccc
 c c
 &cc cc c  &c cccc#cc c  c#'c(  &cc  ccc  &c c
 ccc
cc c c 'c9 c c
 cc'c

îc : cc  c c c
cc
c c c
c c cc  c
îc c c  c c c  c c cc c cc  c
îc c cc c c
c c c
c c cc  c
îc : cc
c c c c2c
c c c cc  c

- c c

º &c &cc #c c c c< c0  cc  'cccccc c  c

 c  c c c  c cc c 'c! c c c cc c cc= &c
c c  c c  c  c c c c c2c  'c

* c5 &c  


 " 8 c-D &c.0;c
c

ºc cc c c


c cc c
cccc! c
cc0  c!&c! cc c
 cc
cc  c"  c> c 'cc

 c cc c ccc


  c
   ccc ccc

&c> cc  cc c  c  cc2 c c    c


! c  'c1  #c$ &c ccc &ccc c! c c  c  /ccc
c cc
  c c! c c  c0
'c!c cccc$ 'c> c  c 
&c c
  c c c  c c2 c   cc c! c
 
 cc c c cc 'c

1  cc&cc  c c c


c  cc c! c    c  c&c! c c
 c   c  cc c

cc ccc c

c c,+,c c+-/cc  ccc


   c %2 c c 'c0&c2 c 
cc
 c c c c
  cc c
! c c cc cc c  c
  cc c c  cc#c  c c
c9 c  c   cºc0cc c  c c

c
 'cc c  c
&c
  cccc c %cc  cc
 'c!  ccc! c &c  cc
cc  cc c cc  c  c  cc
  c  &c c c  c c2 c
9 'c!cc*c$ 'c> c cc  .&ccc  cc2c )c c
&cccc )cc
c ccccc! c2 &ccc cc 
c c #c c
c   'c1 c c

 cc  &c ccc  c$ 'c> cccc c
 )c cc ccc
 'c

8 c5&c    


$c- 
 &c.0;c

c
cc
c c  cc DÔc
c
+c

$2!cc9cc  c 
 'c1  &c ccc  c c&c  cc c  c  cc)&c
  cc
'c$
 c c  &c  &c cc c  c   'c c  c  c  c c c

  c 9 c c  %  c

'c;c&c&c #cc cccc ccc
c
 cc 
c c cc ccc  cc cc cc 
'c

cc    cc$2!cc c


 c c#c
cc c c&cc c  #c
  'cc  c c ccc  ccccc 
 &c c#cc c
cc &c
cc c cc  cc cc  'c

c  c    cc c c c  c  c c  c


 cc c'c$
 c
c c
  c  &c c  cc cc  c c  'c!ccc&c  cc
c c
cc  &cc  c$2!c  c c cc cccc  c 'c

,

c- c2c c3 c &c( 
    "  
$* &c.0;c
c
á ercise

c
c 
c 
cc

Language


c  

c cc c
c c c
1. Simply

ámphasising cause.

c
c c  c c cc  c

c c# c 'c
 c c c c  c

ámphasising effect.

!c
c

c c# c &c c c  c c cc  'c
0c

  &c


0&c

c c# c 'c &c c c  c c cc  'c
(&c
9 &cc
cc &c
1 c c &c
!cc9&c
!cc  &c

cc  ccc



c c# c &c cc9ccc
 c c  c  c

. With some grammatical changes.

ámphasising cause.

cc c
c c  c c c  c c cc  cc

c# c 'c
ccc c

c c c c  c


c c  c c c  c

c c# c 'c
;c cc cc  c

c cc
c  cc
c c9cc
cc cc
!c cc c c  c c c c c

c# c 'c
cc

 c c


 c c

ámphasising effect.

; c c

c# c &c c c  c c cc  'c

c
 cc c  c c c  c c cc  'c
;c
 cc

c# c c
c
9cc c c  c c c  c c 'c

 cc
c c

c

c# c c c c cc c c  c c 'c
c ccc
 c c c
  c c

  cc
 c c
*.c

 c

c#c &c * .c c cc c c  c c 'c
 c
*  .c
  c c c
   c c

c

c#c c c c  c c cc 'c

á ercise

c
c 
c 
c!c

Œhetorical functions in academic writing: Working with different


voices

Introduction

c  
c

&c
c
cc cc c
c cc c   c c


ccc c c c 

c
c
c  cc c 
c
c 
c
c
c c c1
1c c c1 

1c c c1
1cA c 

c c
c cc c  (c  c&c3
c2cD &ccc
c
c c cc
c cc

Ôc c&c
c
cccc
c
c c
 
c c  cc &c
ccc c c c c 

c c
c  
ccc
 
c cc
 c 
c
c 
 c
  c
c  ccc cc  c c
+
c7c &ccccc c  cc
 
&ccc
ccccc
 
cc
c c  ccc+
&cc
c
A7)8c  ccc+
c

c
c  cccc cc 
cc
 c
c
c cc c
 ccc c c c

Œecognising different voices

8 c cc c cc



cc
 c 
cc
c
c
c
c

 cc

      


        
)  

   

  
 * "  ;79$<  ( ' 
(   )
      
         
    + 
'  
 
   
 

  ;7$:<  
(    (   
 
*  

 4 ;79(799< * 
      
( 
   )    
 
 
(    
       
      
 


- 
c*
& 
$  $ 
%  
 

 
   $ *  c
2c8&c./' c

c
cc
c
cc
c

îc c c 
c c
c 
c
c$
 cc
cc

c

 c
îc 
$
c 
c
c cccc 
c
îc   
c c
 cc
c
c c c c
îc  cc c
c  &c
 c c c ccc  c
îc c


 c c
c  c 
c c  c

cc

c

cccc cc 
cc
c c c  c

c
cc
c
cc
c
îc c c 
c c
c 
c
c$
 cc
cc

c

 c$c c  c- 
c*
&cc  cccc
îc 
$
c 
c
c cccc 
c$c c  c
c

cc*cc3  c
îc   
c c
 cc
c
c c c c$c
 c  cc

cc*cc3  c
îc  cc c
c  &c
 c c c ccc  c
$c c  cc  cc c2c cG 
c
îc c


 c c
c  c 
c c  c

cc

c$c
 c  cc cc7 c:
c

3cc c c 


cc
 c
cc
 c
ccc  c
c c


c

   
 

c  c
 c  cc c c%c cc c  c( &c c  cc c
 c  c #c

 % c
c c c ccc c (c#c0c


  c c  c c  cccc  c (c#c0c

#c  c  cc  &c cccccc c  c?c c c

c c 

cc
  c cc  c cc
  c ; c"c

3cc
 ccc  c$c- 
c*
c$c
c  
c
c
c c
 c 
c 
c
c$
 cc cc
c


 cc 
ccc cc c c c c*cc3  &c
c2c cG 
c c7 c:
c

c c!&cc  (c


c cc c
ccc
 c c
c cc c, c

 c  (c
c
c  cc
c
cc%c c   c  &c3  &c,

c c-C
c

 c!c

m             ( (  
  .   

     
   


 m 
    
;6 (79<( 
    ;" (7%<(      
;.

 (7$:<(     


 

 
;15  (77<(  
     
           
     
    

Ô c5&c  



 
   
"c 
c  &c.; c

c c c


cc
c
ccc  c
c c#cÔc
cc 
c
c c c
&ccc c
c
c5(c


c c c 
c+
c cc c

 c#c

     .     +        
    
  
 
  m        (  

          
 
(  

   (  3    * m     

 (
            
     
  
   

        
m  + *     (    (
    
          
   

Ô c5&c  



 
   
"c 
c  &c.; c

c ccc c &cc


ccc c
 c cc
 c
cc
cc
c c

* &c
c c%cc c cc
c
ccC  c
cc
ccc
c  c c
c c+ 
cÔ
&c c cc c
c
c
c cc
cc c,
&cc  &c

c cc
 c
c
 c c
c
cc &c cc
ccC  c$c

c c+ 
c$c 

c  c c
c
c

 c%c

m  
   
    
* 
5;7%@$<'
 @

m
    *          
       
  (       
 (   
 (   ( 
 

 (     ( 
  
         
     
  (         
 


         "      
   
  (  
  
 

 

 c*c,
&c 
 

   " Dc,
&c.;. c

Finding your own voice

3c 
c c c
á ercise

c
c 
cc

 
cc

c
cc 
c

Œhetorical functions in academic writing:  rawing conclusions

Ô c
c c  c cc c c
c c  c &c

c
c cc cc c
c 
ccc
 c  c c

cc ccc c


 cc
c 
 c
  cc c c
c
c
ccc
c
cc c

c3c,

c c

 &ccccc cc
 
c
c c
 c

c

Analysis

8 cc
c ccc
c  cc
cc  c

c  c 
c c 
c cc

 cccc
c, $,
$,c c 
c

c
c c

c
 
cÔ c c
 ccc  &cc%c2c'c
cc
 c
c c
 cc  c

Ñ ! "½ #  "   ½  !


     ×  

$%

&Ñ   '    

× 
  


6   : (           

     
 
      
  

  
 
 % (  
 

        m         
       )        

    
,
&#!  
 m   
 
    
   )  
 &#!   
  )     & )#   &
 
     ?   
 ( (     
    

  

-   



á amples

8 cc
c
c

  
 (  (   

   
     )
 
 (
    

( 
   ' 
"     (

 
   /2   #
   -  )   
      
            
     (       

'    
) )         
" (

        (  

  
 
    
 
    

  
)    (      
 
 
 

#
  (      +         
     
   =        (   
 '
 


(   (            (      .
 

         
    (    
 
'
  


Language
  (
   (
 (
m (
m  
( ''''c
m  
  
 (
 
(
#
  (
 

(


 

  
  

 




m  (
 

m (  
    
  (  
 
3  (

m 
    
?     
   
    

   
    

 


      

  
 (   
 
?

    

Œecommendations


ccc   
c

3c8  
c

c
cc 
c

Writing a list of references

Ôcccc c
cc  
c

&ccc c
cc 
c c
c cc c  cc 
c c c c 
ccc c
  c c  
c 
ccc
ccc c
cc

c"cc c

c
c ccc c 
c c c
cc

 ccc"&c ccc c


 cc c c
c cc
 c c  
cccc 
c
c c  Fc
 &c  c
 c  
c
c c c
 c c  c cc  cccc
c c 

cc c cc  
c 
c
cc c
cc 
c
 cc cc ccccc
cc

c c  cc
c
c
c
c 
c cc c c  cc
c
cc cc

 
ccc c c cc
c c c

  &c cccc c 


 ccc c
ccc 
cc
 cc$c c

 c c c  c
c

 c c c cc

c c
cc  c$cc
c c
  c c 

c
 
c
îc c c c c
c cc*  c c  c
cc



c 
ccc*  c c c c
 

c c

cc cccc c$ccÔ 
 c
 c
Ô

cc$c
ccc cccÔ 
 c

 cÔ

&c.;#&c..%&c...&c!44&c!44 c
îc 
c c cc5
 
c!44# c c- c:  cÔ

c
..; c c  c c
îc - c

cc c 
 c &cc ccG  c
c c 3c0!.c
c c cc  
 c
cc-
 c
D  c
 c.. c c  c
 
c

Ôcc 
c ccc
c c2c3
c!44; c
1. á ample

Œeferences

# (6;79<! 
 À      ×   )7
 (!(
 (0B.

(;7<Ô   4  @4  


 *(2;7$<4    0.

B0Œ ;&<(—      ;%7)


<Œ
(1   @2  
? * (BŒ  (Œ;7<Ô      4  @
)"  
3  (#D(!
= (1()

((  (0(
(Œ&B6

(F;7$<4  
 @" 
   r  r (,)9
[      ; <Œ  @    77$)
:
5 

(;&<;7$<r    


½     @  / 
!
4 *(&B (Œ;7:<
    ½  ),%

(0.BŒ (0;&<;7$<—       Œ


(1   @2  
r       ;7$<4  @4  
" (?;7$<    @  / !
" (B. (#;7$<?  
     
 @m     
5 

;&<(r    


½  ;%)$%<  @  
/ !

DOTáS

)c 
cŒeferences.c

 c  ccc
c c c 
c
c"  c c
c
c
)c
 c c 

c
c 

 c c
cc&c 

 &c
  cc

)c   
 c  cÔ  
c c
cc  ccc
c



 c c
cc
c

Ôc$  ccc


c

ccc
c

)c c
cc c
c
c

cc  cc c c


cc
&c
cc  c
cc
cc
c c

c
. Books

a. One author:

" (?;7$<   @  / !

b. Two authors:

? * (BŒ  (Œ;7<Ô      4  @


)"  

c. More than two authors:

 (!(
 (0B.

(;7<Ô   4  @4  

d. ádited collections:

5 

(;&<;7$<r    


½    @  / !

(0.BŒ (0;&<;7$<—      Œ


(1   @2  

e. Book, corporate author:

   
m        ;7$<           4  @ 
  


f. Book, no author, or editor:

r       ;7$<4  @4  


m m    ; <;7$<2 F *@2 F *m
g. Book, third edition:

? * (BŒ  (Œ;7<Ô      ;<4  @


)"  

h. Book, revised edition:

  (0;7$$<½    


    ;<2 F *@!
 !

i. Don-ánglish book:

! (0B 
(;7<r        
m            
P
! @!/  ? 

j. ánglish translation of a book:

4 (#Œ;797<m    ;4"


  (m <2 F *@#  *;  
 *
 
79<

k. Books or articles, two or more by the same author in the same year:

4 (0;7 <r     @  / !


4 (0;7<r     4  @?  

c
x. Periodical articles

a. One author:

# (6;79<! 
 À      ×   )7

b. Two authors:

4 *(&B (Œ;7:<


    ½  ),%

c. More than two authors:

3  (#D(!
= (1()

((  (0(
(Œ&B6

(F;7$<4    @
" 
   r  r (,)9

d. Œeview of a book:

  (m!;7%<#  
*     

Œ    *½     
   P×     !(%:)%:7

e. Œeview of a book, no title:

1
(#;77,<
Œ    *×    PÔ r "(,):
f. Magazine article:

3  (;7(6<6     


 C  m ($:)$9

g. Dewspaper article:

0 (Œ;77(6<    


 m [ 

h. Dewspaper/Magazine article, no author:

#  *Q  


 
H;79(  %<m [ (,
cc cc c c ccc
c c
 
c1Ô
cÔ 1c.;0 c
i. Dewspaper article, letter to the editor:

  (!;79(  %<m 


      
4   Pm [ ,

j. Journal article, in press:

0 (#1; <.       


  m½r#   

c
^. Selections from edited collections

c
a. One author:

 *(2;7$<4    0.

B0Œ ;&<(—      ;%7)<Œ


(
1   @2  

b. Two authors:

" (B. (#;7$<?  


     
 @m     5 


;&<(r    
½  ;%)$%<  @  / !

c
a. ×  ŒOMs etc

a. Dewspaper or magazine on × -ŒOM:

3  (;7(6<6     


 C  m 
6)Π1P($:)$9

b. Abstract on × -ŒOM:
1(#"B *(5;77%<m ) ) )    @
*   
   C
6)Œ 1Pÿ  
×  $$)$%9#  @"
!
?
@!4m@:)9

c. Article from × -ŒOM áncyclopedia:

;779< ÿ  "%%&  


6)Π1PΠ(.#@1      

d.  ictionary on × -ŒOM:

      


 ;% <
6)Π1P;77%< ' @ ' / !

c
6.  ocuments obtained from the Internet

Ôc  c


c
cc c
 
c ccc 
c c c

c c c c cc c
 
c c 
 c c,,,c

 
c
cc  c ccccc  c
cc c c c


c
 
c
c
c ccc
c
  cc
cc cc

 c
cc ccc,c c c
c&c &c cc
 c  c c
c  c

c"cc
c
cc c c c  
c$cc cc
 
c
cc c c cc
c c ccccccc  c cc
 c c
ccc c c c
&c
c c c
c
c
3c  
c3 c
a. An article:

0   (0.(1
*(0#" =(##;77<#    
     @" (  (
  @"  *     
     Ô   $$:)$9
Œ  @     - 
-    


b. A newspaper article:

"
*(";779(0  <!

 
  m  ' m (Π
@   

c. WWW  ocument:

4(©B (2;779(1 %:<À


        Π
@ '
 
 


d. WWW  ocument - corporate author:

. 
..  ;.<;77(1 <Ô
   
Π
@     '...
e. WWW  ocument - corporate author:

# !

#   ;779<         
Π
@     - 
  


f. WWW  ocument - no author:

Ô       


  (  
×  ;77(6<Œ 
@  ."4     


g. WWW  ocument - no author, no date:

     ; <Œ  @   *%:::):

h. An abstract:

Π 
(Œ;77<"  2 01  5

1 
@#   
# P  

 r"%,$R%$Œ  @     - 
  


i. ántry in online reference work, no author, editor or date:

; < ÿ 


    ; <Œ  @ )
   

c
7. Others

a. [overnment report:

2 
  1 

 ;7%<m   
  
m       
    ;6"!
  2 #61%)7<.    6@/"3   !   

b. Publication with no date given:

1
 (D;&<; <    (  ×     r r ×   m
#@
? 
  (m
#/ 

c. Unpublished dissertation or thesis:

6 (31;7<            / 
   
  (
13

/ (1 


d. Unpublished conference paper:

  (!;77(1  <  Ô !        #    
4 &
  # ! (2  

e. Film or videotape:
1 (0;! <( 3
*(6;6 <;7$7<     
?
P&
 
(20@! 




c
c

Features of academic writing

Introduction

c
c 
c

Ô 
c

c
c
c
c
 &c
c  c
c cc c 
c c
 c
c c c

ccc
c
cc  &c
c

 
c c  

cc"
c
cc
 c  c c 
cÔc
c c
c
c
c
cc  c
c ccc    c c
c

c  cc  
c

c c cc
cÔ 
c

c

cc cc &c &c"
&c 

&c&c c
 
ccc  c 
c c  c
×omple ity

,
c  c
c  
c  c c c c  c,
c
  c c c &c
c
c
 c  cc c
c c c  c
c
  ccc  c$ c  c c $ c  c
,
cc c  c cc  c c  c 
 c 
&c


c  c 
 c c c  c 
c

 
c
Formality

Ô 
c

c
c  
c cc c
c  c c
c c c
cc 
c+
c c c 
c

 
c
Precision

c  
c

&c c c
 c c
c 
c
 

c
Objectivity

,
c  c
c
c c"
c  c c   cc  c c
 c c c  ccc
 c cc   c 
c  c cc
c
  
ccccc
 
c cc cc
c cc
 cc cc &c  c cc c c  &cc  
c


ccccc c "
 &c  c c c c   c

7"

c
á plicitness

Ô 
c

c
c 

c cc  

c
ccc   &c
c

cc  


ccc
 c
c
cc c
c ccc   cc
c
c cccc c  c c
c cc c
 

ccccc
 c
 
c c

 

c
Accuracy

Ô 
c

cc  c  c-c"c c c
c
 c 

c  
c:


c


c cc
1 
1c c1 
1?c c
ccc

Ô c
Hedging

c c
cc  
c

cc&c
c
c cc c

c
c c cc c 
 c"&c cc ccc
cc c

c 
 c"c  ccc
c
c
 c c

Ôc
+c c
c 
c
cc  
c

c
ccc

c
c cJFc

*
c
Œesponsibility
c  
c

cc cc  
c &c c cc cc 
c

c c"

 
c &c c
cc cAc c c  
c
 c  
c c  
cc c cccc

8 


c

c
c

×heck list

* c c cc+
cc c c c c c

c  cc c c


cc
c c c=c
!c  cc c  cc+
c c c=c
#c  c
c c cc
c  c c
c

c =c
%c ccc  c c  =c
'c c 
c
cc c  ccc+
=c
0c cc 
c
 c =c
/c c c
c 
cc  cc c c  =c
;c c c c c


cc c
 c ccc c
 =c
.c c c
c c =c
4c * cc c cc cc c=c
c ccccc c
c c
c  =c
!c c
c
c 
c c
&c
c c c c
 
=c
#c cc &c  
c c 
c   =c
%c c
c c c
c
=c

c
c
c
c