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Question Bank

Trigonometry

cos3 A + sin 3 A cos3 A sin 3A


1. Prove that + =2
cos A + sinA cos A sinA
cos3 A + sin 3 A cos3 A sin 3A
Solution. L.H.S. = +
cos A + sinA cos A sinA
(cos A + sinA) (cos 2A + sin 2A cosA sinA) (cos A sinA) cos 2A + sin 2 A + cosA sinA
= +
(cos A + sinA) (cos A sinA)

= a 3 + b3 = (a + b) (a 2 + b 2 ab) and a3 b3 = (a b) (a 2 + b 2 + ab)


= (cos 2 A + sin 2 A cosAsinA) + (cos 2 A + sin 2 A + cosA sinA)
= (1 cosA sinA) + (1 + cosA sinA) cos 2 A + sin 2 A = 1
= 1 cosA sinA + 1 + cosA sinA = 2 = R.H.S. Proved.
cosA sinA
2. Prove that + = cosA + sinA
1 tanA 1 cotA
Solution.
cosA sinA
L.H.S. = +
1 tanA 1 cotA
cosA sinA
= +
sinA cosA
1 1
cosA sinA
cosA cosA sinA sinA
= +
cos A sinA cos A sinA
cos 2 A sin 2 A
=
cos A sinA cos A sin A
cos 2 A sin 2 A
=
cosA sinA
(cosA + sinA) (cosA sinA)
=
(cosA sinA)

Math Class X 1 Question Bank


[a2 b2 = (a + b) (a b)]
= cosA + sinA = R.H.S. Proved.

sinA sinA
3. Prove that = =2+
cotA + cosecA cotA cosecA
Solution.
sinA
L.H.S. =
cotA + cosecA
sinA sinA sinA
= = =
cosA 1 cosA + 1 cosA + 1
+
sinA sinA sin A
1 cos 2 A
= sin 2 = 1 cos 2
cos A + 1
(1 + cosA)(1 cosA)
= = 1 cosA
(cosA + 1)
sinA
R.H.S. = 2 +
cotA cosecA
sinA sin 2 A
= 2+ = 2+
cosA 1 cosA 1

sinA sinA
1 cos 2 A
= 2+ sin 2 = 1 cos 2
cosA 1
(1 + cosA) (1 cosA)
=2+
cosA 1
(1 + cosA) (1 cosA)
= 2
cosA 1

= 2 (1 + cosA)
= 2 1 cos A = L.H.S. Proved.

Math Class X 2 Question Bank


4. If sinA + cosA = m and secA + cosecA = n, prove that n (m2 1) =
2 m.
Solution. We have,
m = sinA + cosA
m2 = (sinA + cosA)2
= sin2A + cos2A + 2sinA cosA
= 1 + 2 sin A cosA
2
m 1 = 1 + 2 sinA cosA 1
= 2 sinA cosA
2
n (m 1) = (secA + cosecA). 2sinA cosA
= 2 sinA cosA secA + 2 sinA cosA cosecA
= 2 sinA + 2cosA
[cosA secA = 1 and sinA cosec A = 1]
= 2(sinA + cosA) = 2m
2
Hence, n (m 1) = 2m. Proved.

1 1 1 1
5. Prove that =
(sec A + tanA) cosA cosA (secA tanA)

Solution.
1 1
L.H.S. =
secA + tanA cosA
1 1
=
1 sinA cosA
+
cos A cosA
cosA 1 cos 2 A 1 sinA
= =
1 + sinA cosA cos A ( 1 + sinA)
1 sin 2 A 1 sinA sinA(1 + sinA)
= =
cos A(1 + sinA) cos A (1 + sinA)
= tanA.

Math Class X 3 Question Bank


1 1
R.H.S. =
cosA secA tanA
1 1
=
cosA 1 sinA

cosA cosA
1 cosA
=
cosA 1 sinA
1 sinA cos 2 A
=
cos A (1 sinA)
1 sinA 1 + sin 2 A sinA(1 sinA)
= =
cos A(1 sinA) cos A(1 sinA)
= tanA.
Hence, LHS = RHS. Proved.
6. If x sin3 + y cos3 = sin cos and x sin y cos = 0, then prove
that x2 + y2 = 1
Solution. We have x sin3 + y cos3 = sin cos ... (i)
x sin y cos = 0 ... (ii)
sin y
= (iii)
cos x
sin 2 cos 2
From (i) x. + y. =1
cos sin
sin cos
x. sin + y. cos = 1
cos sin
y x
x. sin + y. . cos = 1 [From (iii)]
x y
y sin + x cos = 1
x cos + y sin = 1 ... (iv)
Squaring (ii) and (iv) and adding, we get,
(x sin y cos)2 + (x cos + y sin)2 = 0 + 12
x sin2 y2 cos2 2xy sin cos + x2 cos2 + yi2 sin2 + 2xy
sin cos = 1

Math Class X 4 Question Bank


x2 + ( sin2 + cos2 ) + y2 (cos2 + sin2 ) = 1
x2 + y2 = 1. Proved.
cos cos
7. Is + = 2an identity? If not solve for ,
cosec + 1 cosec 1
where 0 < < 90.
Solution.
cos cos
Here, LHS +
cosec + 1 cosec 1
cos cos
= +
1 1
+1 1
sin sin
cos sin cos sin
= +
1 + sin 1 sin
cos sin ( 1 sin + 1 + sin)
=
1 sin 2
2sin cos
= = 2 tan
cos 2
Thus, the given equality becomes 2 tan = 2
If the equality holds true for all values of , then the equality is an
identity.
Let us take = 30
2
So, 2 tan = 2 tan30 =
3
2 tan 2 for = 30
Therefore the equality is not an identity. It is an equation.
Now, 2 tan = 2 tan = 1 tan = tan 45 = 45.
8. If tan + sec = 3, where is acute, then prove that 5 sin = 4.
Solution. We have tan + sec = 3
sin 1
+ =3
cos cos
1 + sin
=3
cos

Math Class X 5 Question Bank


(1 + sin)2 = 9 cos2 [Squaring both sides]
1 + sin + 2 sin = 9 9 sin2
2

10 sin2 + 2 sin 8 = 0
10 sin2 + 10 sin 8 sin 8 = 0
10 sin(sin + 1) 8 (sin+ 1) = 0
(sin + 1) (10 sin 8) = 0
8 4
sin= 1 or sin = =
10 5
4
sin = [Rejecting sin= 1, since is acute]
5
5 sin = 4. Proved.
9. Without using trigonometric tables, prove that : tan 10 tan 20 tan
1
30 tan 70 tan 80 =
3
Solution.
L.H.S. = tan 10 tan 20 tan 30 tan 70 tan 80
= (tan 10 tan 80 ), (tan 20 tan 70) tan 30
= tan (90 80) tan 80. tan (90 70) tan 70 tan 30
= cot 80 tan 80. cot70 tan 70 tan 30
[ tan (90 ) = cot ]
1 1
= . tan80. tan 70 tan 30
tan 80 tan 70
1
= 1.1. tan 30 = = R.H.S. Proved.
3
10. Prove that
sinA cosA
+ = sec (90 A ) cosec (90 A)
sin(90 A) cos(90 A)
Solution.
sinA cosA
L.H.S. = +
sin(90 A) (cos(90 A)
sinA cosA
= +
cosA sinA

Math Class X 6 Question Bank


= [ sin (90 A) = cosA and cos (90 A) = sinA]
sin 2 A + cos 2 A 1
= = sin 2 A + cos 2 A = 1
sin A cos A sinA cosA
= cosecA secA
R.H.S = sec ( 90 A ) cosec (90 A)
= cosecA secA
[ sec (90 A) = cosec A and cosec (90 A) = secA]
= L.H.S.
Hence, L.H.S. = R.H.S. Proved.
2 2 2
sin 20 + sin 70 sin (90 ) sin cos(90 ) cos
11. Prove that 2 2
+ + =2
cos 20 + cos 70 tan cot
Solution.
2 2 2
sin 20 + sin 70 sin (90 ) sin cos(90 ) cos
L.H.S.= 2 2
+ +
cos 20 + cos 70 tan cot
2
sin (90 70 ) sin 70 cos sin sin cos
2
= + +
cos 2 (90 70) cos 2 70 tan cot
cos 2 70 + sin 2 70 cos sin sin cos
= + +
sin 2 70 + cos 2 70 sin cos
cos sin
= [ sin (90 ) = cos, cos (90 ) = sin]
1
= + cos 2 + sin 2
1
= 1 + 1 = 2 = R.H.S. Proved.
12. Using the tables, find the values of
(i) sin 60 23 (ii) cos 21 56 (iii) tan 75 2 (iv) cot 40 36
Solution. From trigonometric tables, we have
(i) sin 60 18 = 0.8689
Mean difference for 5 =7 (To be added)
sin 60 23 = 0.8696
(ii) cos 25154 = 0.9278
Mean difference for 2 = 2 (To be subtracted)

Math Class X 7 Question Bank


21 56 = 0.9276
(iii) tan 75 = 3.7321
Mean difference for 2 = 93 (To be added)
75 2 = 3.7414
(iv) cot 40 36 = cot (90 49 24) = tan 49 24
Now, tan 49 24 = 1.1667

13. Find when


(i) sin = 0.0990 (ii) cos = 0.5536 (iii) tan = 5.2010
Solution.
(i) From the table, find the angle whose sine is just smaller
than 0.0990
sin = 0.0990
sin 5 36 = 0.0976
Difference = 0.0014
Mean difference 14 corresponds to 5
Required angle = (5 36 + 5= 5 41.
(ii) From the table, find the angle whose cosine is just greater
than 0.5536
cos = 0.5536
sin 5 36 = 0.5548
Difference = 0.0012
Mean difference 12 corresponds to 5
Required angle = (56 18 + 5) = 56 23.
(iii) From the table, find the angle whose tangent is just smaller than
5.2010
tan = 5.2010
tan 79 6 = 5.1923
Since mean differences are not given corresponding to 79,
therefore required angle = 796.

Math Class X 8 Question Bank


14. A boy standing on a vertical cliff in a jungle observes two rest
houses in line with him on opposite sides deep in the jungle below.
If their angles of depression are 19 and 26 and the distance
between them is 222 m, find the height of the cliff.
Solution. Let A be the top of the cliff and C and D be the two rest
houses.
Let AB = h m and BC = x m
Then, BD = (222 x) m
h
In ABC, tan 19 =
x
h
0.3443 =
x
h = x 0.3443 ..(i)
h
In ABD, tan 26 =
222 x
h
0.4877 =
222 x
h = (222 x) 0.4877 ..(ii)
From (i) and (ii), we have
(222 x) 0.4877 = x 0.3443
x (0.3443 + 0.4877) = 222 0.4877
222 0.4877
x =
0.832
222 0.4877
From (i), we have, h = 0.3443
0.832
log h = log 222 + log 0.4877 + log 0.3443 log 0.832

= 2.3463 + 1.6881 + 1.5369 1.9201
= 2.3463 + (1 1 + 1) + (0.6881 + 0.5369 0.9201)
= 2.3463 1 + 0.3049 = 2.3463 0.6951 = 1.6512
h = antilog 1.6512 = 44.79
Hence, height of the cliff = 44.80 m.

Math Class X 9 Question Bank


13. An aeroplane is flying horizontally 4000 m above the ground and is
going away from an observer on the level ground. At a certain
instant the observer finds that the angle of elevation of the plane is
45. After 15 seconds, its elevation from the same point changes to
30. Find the speed of the aeroplane in km/h.
Solution. Let A be the position
of the observer, B be the point
whose angle of elevation from
A is 45. Let after 15 seconds
the position of the plane be C,
whose angle of elevation from A be 30.
BD
In ABD, tan 45 =
AD
BD
1 =
AD
BD = AD ..(i)
CE 4000
In ACE, tan 30 = = [ AE = AD + DE]
AE AD + DE
1 4000
= [From (i)]
3 BD + DE
1 4000
=
3 4000 + DE
4000 3 = 4000 + DE
DE = 4000 3 1( )
DE = 4000 0.732 = 2928
Distance covered by the aeroplane in 15 seconds = 2928 m
2928 2928 18
Speed of the aeroplane = m/s = km/h
15 15 5
= 702.72 km/h.

Math Class X 10 Question Bank


14. At the foot of a mountain, the elevation of its summit is 45. After
ascending 1000 m towards the mountain up a slope of 30
inclination, the elevation is found to be 60. Find the height of the
mountain.
Solution. Let AB be the mountain of height h m and C be its foot.
CD = 1000 m, ACB = 45, DCB = 30 and ADF = 60.
h
In ACB, tan 45 =
CB
h
1 =
CB
h = CB ..(i)
DE
In CDE, sin 30 =
1000
1 DE
=
2 1000
DE = 500 ..(ii)
CE
In CDE, cos 30 =
1000
3 CE
=
2 1000
CE = 500 3 ..(iii)
Now, BE = BC EC = h 500 3 [From (i) and (iii)]
AF
In ADF, tan 60 =
DF
h BE h 500
3= = = [ DF = BF and BF = DE]
h 500 3 h 500 3
h 500 = h 3 1500
(
h 3 1 ) = 1000
1000
h= = 1369.86
0.73

Math Class X 11 Question Bank


Hence, height of the mountain is 1369.86 m.
15. A man is standing on the deck of a ship which is 8 m above water
level. He observes the angle of elevation of the top of a hill as 60
and the angle of depression of the base of the hill as 30. Calculate
the distance of the hill from the ship and the height of the hill.
Solution. In the figure. A is the deck of the ship and CD is the hill.
Let BC = x m and DE = h m.
8
In ABC, tan 30 =
x
1 8
= x = 8 3 m.
3 x
DE h
In ADE, tan 60 = =
AE x
h
3 = [AE = BC = x]
x
h = 3x = 3 8 3 = 24 cm.
Distance of the hill from the ship = 8 3 m, and height of the hill
= (h + 8) m = (24 + 8) m = 32 m.
16. A ladder rests against a house on one side of a street. The angle of
elevation of the top of the ladder is 60. The ladder is turned over to
rest against a house on the other side of the street and the elevation
now becomes 42 50'. If the ladder is 40 m long, find the breadth of
the street.
Solution. In the figure, AB and CD are two houses. O is a point on
the street, at which one end of the ladder rests.
Let OB = x m and OD = y m.
x
In AOB, cos 60 =
40
1 x
= x = 20 m.
2 40

Math Class X 12 Question Bank


y
In COD, cos 4250' =
40
y
0.7333 = [From tables]
40
y = 0.7333 40 = 29.332
Hence, breadth of the street = (x + y) m
= (20 + 29.33) m = 49.33 m.
17. A vertical tower stands on horizontal plane and is surmounted by a
vertical flagstaff of height h m. At a point on the plane, the angle of
elevation of the bottom of the flagstaff is and that of the top of the
h tan
flagstaff is . Prove that the height of the tower is .
tan tan
Solution. Let AB be the tower, AC be the flagstaff of height h m
and D be the point of observation.
AB
In ABD, tan =
BD
AB = BD tan ..(i)
BC
In CBD, tan =
BD
AB + AC
tan =
BD
AB + AC = BD tan
BD tan + h = BD tan
h = BD (tan tan)
h
BD =
tan tan
Height of the tower = AB = BD tan [From (i)]
h tan
=
tan tan

Math Class X 13 Question Bank