Sei sulla pagina 1di 10

UnderstandingVectorGroupofTransformer(part1)|EEP

UnderstandingVectorGroupofTransformer(part1)|EEP Introduction Threephasetransformerconsistsofthreesetsof primarywindings

Introduction

Threephasetransformerconsistsofthreesetsofprimarywindings,oneforeachphase,andthreesetsofsecondary

windingswoundonthesameironcore.

Separatesingle­phasetransformerscanbeusedandexternallyinterconnectedtoyieldthesameresultsasa3­phaseunit.

Theprimarywindingsareconnectedinoneofseveralways.Thetwomostcommonconfigurationsarethedelta,inwhich thepolarityendofonewindingisconnectedtothenon­polarityendofthenext,andthestar,inwhichallthreenon­

polarities(orpolarity)endsareconnectedtogether.Thesecondarywindingsareconnectedsimilarly.Thismeansthata3­

phasetransformercanhaveitsprimaryandsecondarywindingsconnectedthesame(delta­deltaorstar­star),ordifferently

(delta­starorstar­delta).

It’simportanttorememberthatthesecondaryvoltagewaveformsareinphasewiththeprimarywaveformswhenthe primaryandsecondarywindingsareconnectedthesameway.Thisconditioniscalled“nophaseshift.” Butwhentheprimaryandsecondarywindingsareconnecteddifferently,thesecondaryvoltagewaveformswilldifferfrom

thecorrespondingprimaryvoltagewaveformsby30electricaldegrees.Thisiscalleda30degreephaseshift.Whentwo

transformersareconnectedinparallel,theirphaseshiftsmustbeidentical;ifnot,ashortcircuitwilloccurwhenthe

transformersareenergized.”

BasicIdeaofWinding

Anacvoltageappliedtoacoilwillinduceavoltageinasecondcoilwherethetwoarelinkedbyamagneticpath.Thephase relationshipofthetwovoltagesdependsuponwhichwaysroundthecoilsareconnected.Thevoltageswilleitherbein­

phaseordisplacedby180degree.

When3coilsareusedina3phasetransformerwindinganumberofoptionsexist.Thecoilvoltagescanbeinphaseor

displacedasabovewiththecoilsconnectedinstarordeltaand,inthecaseofastarwinding,havethestarpoint(neutral)

broughtouttoanexternalterminalornot.

SixWaystowireStarWinding:

broughtouttoanexternalterminalornot. SixWaystowireStarWinding: SixWaystowireStarWinding SixWaystowireDeltaWinding:

SixWaystowireStarWinding

SixWaystowireDeltaWinding:

SixWaystowireDeltaWinding Polarity

SixWaystowireDeltaWinding

Polarity

AnACvoltageappliedtoacoilwillinduceavoltageinasecondcoilwherethetwoarelinkedbyamagneticpath. The phaserelationshipofthetwovoltagesdependsuponwhichwayroundthecoilsareconnected. Thevoltageswilleitherbe

in­phaseordisplacedby180deg.

When3coilsareusedina3phasetransformerwindinganumberofoptionsexist.Thecoilvoltagescanbeinphaseor

displacedasabovewiththecoilsconnectedinstarordeltaand,inthecaseofastarwinding,havethestarpoint(neutral)

broughtouttoanexternalterminalornot.

Additiveandsubstractivepolarityoftransformer

Additiveandsubstractivepolarityoftransformer

WhenPairofCoilofTransformerhavesamedirectionthanvoltageinducedinbothcoilareinsamedirectionfromoneend

tootherend.WhentwocoilhaveoppositewindingdirectionthanVoltageinducedinbothcoilareinoppositedirection.

Windingconnectiondesignations

FirstSymbol:forHighVoltage:Alwayscapitalletters. D=Delta,S=Star,Z=Interconnectedstar,N=Neutral SecondSymbol:forLowvoltage:AlwaysSmallletters. d=Delta,s=Star,z=Interconnectedstar,n=Neutral.

ThirdSymbol:Phasedisplacementexpressedastheclockhournumber(1,6,11)

Example–Dyn11

Transformerhasadeltaconnectedprimarywinding(D)astarconnectedsecondary(y)withthestarpointbroughtout(n)

andaphaseshiftof30degleading(11).

Thepointofconfusionisoccurringinnotationinastep­uptransformer.AstheIEC60076­1standardhasstated,the

notationisHV­LVinsequence.Forexample,astep­uptransformerwithadelta­connectedprimary,andstar­connected

secondary,isnotwrittenas‘dY11’,but‘Yd11’.The11indicatestheLVwindingleadstheHVby30degrees.

TransformersbuilttoANSIstandardsusuallydonothavethevectorgroupshownontheirnameplateandinsteadavector

diagramisgiventoshowtherelationshipbetweentheprimaryandotherwindings.

VectorGroupofTransformer

Thethreephasetransformerwindingscanbeconnectedseveralways.Basedonthewindings’connection,thevector

groupofthetransformerisdetermined.

ThetransformervectorgroupisindicatedontheNamePlateoftransformerbythemanufacturer.Thevectorgroup

indicatesthephasedifferencebetweentheprimaryandsecondarysides,introducedduetothatparticularconfigurationof

transformerwindingsconnection.

TheDeterminationofvectorgroupoftransformersisveryimportantbeforeconnectingtwoormoretransformersinparallel.

Iftwotransformersofdifferentvectorgroupsareconnectedinparallelthenphasedifferenceexistbetweenthesecondary

ofthetransformersandlargecirculatingcurrentflowsbetweenthetwotransformerswhichisverydetrimental.

PhaseDisplacementbetweenHVandLVWindings

Thevectorforthehighvoltagewindingistakenasthereferencevector.Displacementofthevectorsofotherwindingsfrom

thereferencevector,withanticlockwiserotation,isrepresentedbytheuseofclockhourfigure.

IS:2026(Part1V)­1977gives26setsofconnectionsstar­star,star­delta,andstarzigzag,delta­delta,deltastar,delta­

zigzag,zigzagstar,zigzag­delta.Displacementofthelowvoltagewindingvectorvariesfromzeroto­330°instepsof­30°,

dependingonthemethodofconnections.

Hardlyanypowersystemadoptssuchalargevarietyofconnections.Someofthecommonlyusedconnectionswithphase

displacementof0,­300,­180″and­330°(clock­hoursetting0,1,6and11).

Symbolforthehighvoltagewindingcomesfirst,followedbythesymbolsofwindingsindiminishingsequenceofvoltage.

Forexamplea220/66/11kVTransformerconnectedstar,staranddeltaandvectorsof66and11kVwindingshavingphase

displacementof0°and­330°withthereference(220kV)vectorwillberepresentedAsYy0–Yd11.

Thedigits(0,1,11etc)relatetothephasedisplacementbetweentheHVandLVwindingsusingaclockfacenotation.The

phasorrepresentingtheHVwindingistakenasreferenceandsetat12o’clock.Phaserotationisalwaysanti­clockwise.

(Internationaladopted).

Usethehourindicatorastheindicatingphasedisplacementangle.Becausethereare12hoursonaclock,andacircle

consistsoutof360°,eachhourrepresents30°.Thus1=30°,2=60°,3=90°,6=180°and12=0°or360°.

Theminutehandisseton12o’clockandreplacesthelinetoneutralvoltage(sometimesimaginary)oftheHVwinding.This

positionisalwaysthereferencepoint.

Example

Digit0=0°thattheLVphasorisinphasewiththeHVphasor

Digit1=30°lagging(LVlagsHVwith30°)becauserotationisanti­clockwise.

Digit11=330°laggingor30°leading(LVleadsHVwith30°)

Digit5=150°lagging(LVlagsHVwith150°)

Digit6=180°lagging(LVlagsHVwith180°)

Whentransformersareoperatedinparallelitisimportantthatanyphaseshiftisthesamethrougheach.Parallelingtypically

occurswhentransformersarelocatedatonesiteandconnectedtoacommonbusbar(banked)orlocatedatdifferentsites

withthesecondaryterminalsconnectedviadistributionortransmissioncircuitsconsistingofcablesandoverheadlines.

PhaseShift(Deg)

Connection

0

Yy0

Dd0

Dz0

30lag

Yd1

Dy1

Yz1

60lag

 

Dd2

Dz2

120lag

 

Dd4

Dz4

150lag

Yd5

Dy5

Yz5

180lag

Yy6

Dd6

Dz6

150lead

Yd7

Dy7

Yz7

120lead

 

Dd8

Dz8

60lead

 

Dd10

Dz10

30lead

Yd11

Dy11

Yz11

Thephase­bushingsonathreephasetransformeraremarkedeither ABC,UVWor123(HV­sidecapital,LV­sidesmall letters).Twowinding,threephasetransformerscanbedividedintofourmaincategories

Group

O’clock

TC

GroupI

0o’clock,0°

delta/delta,star/star

GroupII

6o’clock,180°

delta/delta,star/star

GroupIII

1o’clock,­30°

star/delta,delta/star

GroupIV

11o’clock,+30°

star/delta,delta/star

MinusindicatesLVlaggingHV,plusindicatesLV

leadingHV

ClockNotation0(PhaseShift0)

MinusindicatesLVlaggingHV,plusindicatesLV leadingHV ClockNotation0(PhaseShift0) ClockNotation0(PhaseShift0)

ClockNotation0(PhaseShift0)

ClockNotation1(PhaseShift­30)

ClockNotation1(PhaseShift­30) ClockNotation1(PhaseShift­30) ClockNotation2(PhaseShift­60)

ClockNotation1(PhaseShift­30)

ClockNotation2(PhaseShift­60)

ClockNotation2(PhaseShift­60) ClockNotation2(PhaseShift­60)

ClockNotation2(PhaseShift­60)

ClockNotation4(PhaseDisplacement­120)

ClockNotation4(PhaseDisplacement­120) ClockNotation5(PhaseDisplacement­150) ClockNotation5(PhaseDisplacement­150)

ClockNotation4(PhaseDisplacement­120)

ClockNotation5(PhaseDisplacement­150)

ClockNotation5(PhaseDisplacement­150) ClockNotation5(PhaseDisplacement­150)

ClockNotation5(PhaseDisplacement­150)

ClockNotation6(PhaseShift+180)

ClockNotation6(PhaseShift+180) ClockNotation7(PhaseShift+150) ClockNotation7(PhaseShift+150) ClockNotation11(PhaseShift+30)

ClockNotation6(PhaseShift+180)

ClockNotation7(PhaseShift+150)

ClockNotation6(PhaseShift+180) ClockNotation7(PhaseShift+150) ClockNotation7(PhaseShift+150) ClockNotation11(PhaseShift+30)

ClockNotation7(PhaseShift+150)

ClockNotation11(PhaseShift+30)

ClockNotation11(PhaseShift+30) Tobecontinued…

ClockNotation11(PhaseShift+30)

Tobecontinued…